According to the definition linguistics represents the scientific study of language. As an important separation we identify the study of language structure (grammar) and the study of meaning (semantics and pragmatics). Linguistics is also defined as the scientific approach to the study of language, but language can be approached from a variety of directions, and a number of other intellectual disciplines are appropriate to it and influence its study. Discourse analysis is concerned with the structure of texts and conversations, and pragmatics with how meaning is conveyed based on a combination of linguistic skill, non-linguistic knowledge, and the context of the speech act.
Nancy Sommers studies the writing development and literacy skills of college and high school students. With the title of prime investigator of the Harvard Study of Undergraduate Writing, in order to understand the multipart role writing plays in undergraduate education she followed the college writing experiences of 400 Harvard students.
Deborah Tannen, has lectured worldwidely in her field, written and edited many academic publications on linguistics, discourse analysis, and interpersonal communication. Her major theoretical contribution, which is also presented in Talking Voices, is a poetics of conversation. According to her contribution; everyday conversation is composed of linguistic features such as repetition, dialogue, and metaphors that are traditionally regarded as literary.
Deborah Tanner in 'Agonism in the Academy' explains the role and effects of agonism in three areas of public discourse: journalism, politics, and law.
Her main idea is to identify agonistic elements in academic discourse and to observe their effects on our knowledge and how scholars are engaged in.
Nancy Sommers in 'Between the Drafts' is talking about her personal life additionally about the personality demonstrated by the people around her. Through childhood and the authority that came with it, she is showing to us her passion for drafting, and how her work as a teacher helps her to grow. By mentioning the childhood she is giving to us opinion that she lives in the past,' under the influence of a voice other than my own'
She had been spending the whole time revising simply hiding behind the guide books. Instead being exposed, she is misplaced in translations.
Reading the text we are learning about the writer's life, her lack of confidence and how she exposes her actions between the drafts and how things change by time passing on.
Walter Ong, in 'Fighting for Life' observes the role of agonism in academic discourse which he defined as 'programmed contentiousness'; 'ceremonial combat' as well as use of performed verbal opposition.
For an example, agonism in both examples agrees with the statement that critical dialogue is equal with critique, with the meaning of attack not 'critical thinking'.
'Both students and scholars fight about others' work, rather than trying to understand it.'. (Deborah Tanner;'Agonism in the Academy').
'Students often sabotage their own best interests when they revise, searching for errors and assuming' (Nancy Sommers; 'Between the Drafts')
The explanation of academic discourse is composed by the conflict to someone else's work. As a result, in both examples we can identify that both students and scholars prefer to listen to another's work in order to be able to attack and argue rather than 'using creative energy' to take benefits from it and develop their knowledge.
'Refocusing our attention in that way is the greatest gain in store if we can move beyond critique in its narrow sense. We would learn more from each other, be heard more clearly by others, attract more varied talents to the scholarly life, and restore a measure of humanity to ourselves, our endeavour, and the academic world we inhabit.' (Deborah Tanner;'Agonism in the Academy')