Dimemsions of sustainability

Background:

Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a period of unprecedented economic growth. Total global output of goods and services increased enormously as a result of globalisation. Globalisation has created a near borderless world and facilitates movements of trade and flows of capital between countries. The growth of global economy has brought with it several benefits such as improvement in health and livings condition in different part of the world. However, rapid growth has serious implications for our physical environment. Expansion of city to meet the need of housing for increasing population, industrial production to increase to feed and clothe the population, reduction of productive land and forest for development is growing trends. The rapid consumption of natural resources poses a serious threat to the environment. There is potential to increase greenhouse gas emission and global warming. If the current trends are not changes, the average global temperature is expected to increase by 1.0oC to 3.5oC over the next century (WHO, 1996). Many low laying countries will be submerged; there will be severe storms, drought and flooding due to climatic changes. There will be increase in disease; many species of plants and animal will be extinct.

Recent awareness and in many cases fuss about environment and ecology arose only since the middle of the twentieth century. In fact, the current wave of environment awareness got a fillip only after the United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in 1972 at Stockholm (Sweden), and the matter gained further importance after the Earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

Since then different sector contribution has been studied giving a better picture of what they have done to climate. Among them, the building and construction industry is a major sector of world's economy. It not only consumes large quantities of resources and produces large quantities of waste; it also has a direct impact on people's health, living conditions and employment. Technical and system/processing improvements are needed throughout the sector in order to reduce the environmental impact and enhance the quality and competitiveness. The construction industry operates across national boundaries and therefore requires joint co-operation and partnership across alls stakeholder involved in thinking and action.

Since the industrial revolution, raw material demand has been increasing consistently. Today, the development of emerging countries like China and India, and the continuous increase of gross world product are adding to the situation. Producing more also means that we create more waste. Waste from discarded products and packaging creates disposal problems and consumes valuable resources. If everyone in the world lived like an average North American, we would need five planets to live on; and if everyone lived like an average European, we would need three planets.

As more people are conscious of the environment, the construction of new big projects has now come under intense scrutiny from various environmental parameters. Particularly, if you look at construction of golf course, the scrutiny is even louder. We heard debate and articles saying that often it poses a serious threat to our sensitive natural environment. Typically, if you look at data of consumptions of energy from designing stage to operational phase of any building projects from all over the world, it is not surprising. They take up huge land for housing, commercial, recreational activities, etc. They also causes many losses of pristine forest thereby reducing habitats of flora and fauna .Beside, the use of pesticide and fertilizer for the maintenance of course pollute the ecosystem.

Nonetheless, many architects, engineers, developers and planners believe that large construction projects does not necessary mean translate to unsustainable development. They strongly believe that if careful approach is followed from the concept stage to operational stage, the negative externalities can be minimized or avoided. Particularly, looking at golf course in a city the availability of big green in the city can be a lung for the urban community and providing habitat to many animals. To achieve these goals, diverse group of professional are now working together as team to find a solution and approach. They are also looking back at many of our old traditional building methods and vernacular style. Meanwhile, they are exploring new methods of construction, new material from waste and also looking back at nature. Indeed, many products and methods have come up that have made great changes in our life.

My dissertation on Big & Green Golf course: Toward Sustainable Construction in the 21st Century shall explores issues that Architect and building professionals are addressing in order to reduce the deleterious environmental effects.

Aims and Objectives

The aims of the study are:

  • to show that Golf Course construction can be sustainable creating tangible value for golfers, golf developers, government, communities and also for biodiversity protection
  • to develop recommendations that can be adopted by the golf developer, government for the development of sustainable in Singapore.
  • The objective is to address the following questions:

  • why is that the construction of golf course involves much protest from local and environmentalist?
  • what are the environmental impacts of developing Golf course in Singapore?
  • How can these impacts be addressed?
  • What is the current trend of sustainable construction in golf course?

The Rio conference led to the call for "sustainable development" with the definition of "paths of social and economic progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".

What has this interpretation got to do with Architecture & Built form? What is the trickle down structure from political intention to architectural action? With this context in mind "sustainability" has become a familiar word but one that still creates a level of confusion and uncertainty. To many professionals and clients of buildings, it is far from clear how a broad concern for our environment translates into action at the level of design strategies and the particularities of Form. Added to this there is not an understanding of the connectivity of the "dimensions of sustainability", to the world of ideas at differing scales.

With this in mind, the dissertation is done established to overcome this disparate thinking and to broaden our understanding of what being "sustainable" can become. What it actually becomes is not just an environmental strategy but a means of making buildings that are more user on renewable technology without examining the larger role and form of the architecture. The "solar movement" fell into this cul-de-sac in the 1970s and the 80s, marginalising itself with an abundance of projects that may have been great energy savers or producers but represented minimal progress in integrating new renewable technologies into new paradigms for I work and living. As a result of this compartmentalized form of thinking, the design professions are limited to a model of buildings that is based largely upon modernist principles of both an abundant and invisible energy source and one where architects still assume little strategic responsibility for the control of the environmental systems as an integral part of a building's dynamic ecological system. We still continue to design structures that are totally unresponsive to their context through climate and orientation, that ignore and fail to harness natural forces, and which consume vast amounts of energy to enhance an unsustainable mode of working.

But there is significant hope. In 1990's we have begun to see a number of ambitious architectural projects that break this mold in buildings that reveal some innovative concepts for harnessing light, natural ventilation, cooling and the generation of energy. This new generation of buildings point the way to forms that can elegantly use 50% less energy than current typologies and could eventually lead to the "zero energy" building supplying resources to the urban utility infrastructure.

However, the majority architects it seems still have limited interest in energy and the resource level of a building, let alone a more sophisticated understanding of environmental performance and assessment. Can we say that generally building design at the end of the century has reached a higher plain of technological, environmental and ecological integration? Probably not. The concerns that have spurred architecture on to the next "ism" have been elsewhere. The opportunities of environment have not yet been seen as a place for creativity and expression. We are still in a period of building that is equivalent to the 1960s gas guzzler in the motor industry, continuing to tweak the fender, where the larger environmental agendas are ignored, as are the possibilities of a "new architecture".

History of golf course

Golf was played widely in Scotland since the 16th century on informal layouts situated on the links and sometimes on other open spaces. Ward Thomas et al., in their definitive work, The World Atlas of Golf, credit a six-hole layout at North Inch, near Perth, Scotland, as first. Balls were also batted around and matches played on pastures, prairies, deserts, and other open areas where Scottish soldiers, sailors, and settlers found themselves as they extended the frontiers of the British Empire. With the game growing and on the move, course design began to take on greater and greater importance. And the complexities and built environment need for Golf course increases and grow over a period of time.

The governing bodies of golf and golf course designers have recognised the importance of designing, constructing and managing golf courses in an environmentally sustainable manner. Golf courses can provide significant benefits to the environment if constructed and managed using best management practices. They can also result in water pollution, pesticide spills and the destruction of native vegetation if managed poorly. This chapter outlines the key issues and provides an overview of best environmental management practices. Golf is growing as a recreational pastime and sport and in all over the world, golf course resorts are a key feature of tourist locations. In recent years an increasing number of publications have stressed the importance of good environmental management of golf courses.

But, now we have conscious effort from Golf Developer, Golf Course architects and all the stake holders who are beginning to recognise the importance of designing, constructing and managing golf courses in an environmentally sustainable manner. Golf courses can provide significant benefits to the environment if constructed and managed using best management practices. They can also result in water pollution, pesticide spills and the destruction of native vegetation if managed poorly. On otherhand if we have sound environmental management from Concept to operational phase it can provides much benefit for the environment. Golf is growing as a recreational pastime and sport and in all over the world, golf course resorts are a key feature of tourist locations. In recent years an increasing number of publications have stressed the importance of good environmental management of golf courses.

Research Problem;

Aims and Objectives;

The aims of the study are:

  • to show that Golf Course construction can be sustainable creating tangible value for golfers, golf developers, government, communities and also for biodiversity protection
  • to suggest and recommend sustainable approach that can be adopt by the stakeholder (golf developer, construction firm, government).
  • The objective is to address the following questions:

  • why is that the construction of golf course involves much protest from local and environmentalist?
  • what are the environmental impacts of developing Golf course in Singapore?
  • How can these impacts be addressed?
  • What is the current trend of sustainable construction in golf course?
  • Hypothesis;

    This Dissertation attempt to addresses the following hypotheses:

  • Construction strategies for sustainable golf course can be applied that can create value for sustainable communities
  • The approach for sustainability strategies will be successful if that can be applied to golf course of different regions

Research Method (including sources of data and information);

My research methodology can be divided into two distinct types;

  1. Primary research
  2. Secondary research
  1. Primary research:
  2. Case studies of Golf course in Singapore. It involves the collection of data through site visit, looking through design drawing, tender and specification. Talking to golf developer and management, architect, and everyone involved in golf course.

  3. Secondary research:

The study of Literacy reviews of International construction industry and particularly, Golf course will help in identifying the strategies and guiding principles for sustainability used by businesses. And to looks at whether these strategies can be adopted in the development of sustainability in the context of Singapore.

Brief Literature Review;

Significance of Dissertation

The dissertation would greatly contribute to the development of sustainable construction method for Golf course in Singapore if the strategies identified can be shown to be viable and tangible value for the government, Golf developers, environmentalists and residents of these communities. These values provide an opportunity to silence golf critic and also provides habitat for wild life and can ensure a 'win-win' situation for all stakeholders involved and the environment.

Structure of the Dissertation.

The dissertation comprises of 7 chapters, as follows:-

Chapter one introduces the research problem and the objectives of the study, defines the scope of the dissertation and highlights the research methods and hypothesis, as well as the significance of the dissertation.

<]>Chapter two establishes the definitions of the key words with regards to the research hypothesis

Chapter three provides a literature review of studies on sustainable construction method follow around the world and in Singapore.

Chapter four provides a literature review of sustainable trends follow in Golf course and how value is created for stakeholders through sustainability.

Chapter five presents a case study of the Golf Course in Singapore, where the strategies adopted by the Golf management and guiding principle for design principles can be identified.

Chapter six discusses the application of sustainable growth in the construction of golf course and the validation of hypothesis. Recommendations for changes to existing policies and practices to encourage the application of these strategies are also discussed.

Chapter seven summaries and concludes the dissertation.

Bibliography:

  1. Tall buildings and sustainability report by Will pank, Herbert Girardet and Greg Cox, 2002, corporation of London
  2. Tropical sustainable architecture-Social & Environmental dimensions, Joo-hwa Bay & Boon-Lay Ong, architectural press 2006
  3. Green roof construction and maintenance by Kelly luckett,2009. The McGraw Hill companies
  4. Sustainable design,-Ecology, Architecture and planning by Daniel E.Williams,FAIA, 2007 John WIleys & Sons,Inc
  5. Dimemsions of sustainability, Andrew scott, 1998 E & FN Spon
  6. Designing the City-towards a more sustainable Urban form,by Hildebrand frey 1999 E & FN Spon.

Dissertation:

The value of developing sustainable urban communities in the klang valley,Malaysia

By Sharon NG, Msc(project management) 2002BU MSC 0266

Study report:

Effects of foreign labour policies on carbon emissions in Singapore's construction ndustry by Liang Mui Keow, Msc(Envi. management) 2008 EnvM MSC 0099 sr

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