Energy Management

ENERGY MANAGEMENT: VITALITY FOR INDIAN ARMED FORCES

CHAPTER I

“...each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet...We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories...And to those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the world's resources without regard to effect. For the world has changed, and we must change with it.”

- President Barack Obama,

Inauguration speech (20 January 2009)

INTRODUCTION

1. World's energy consumption[i] is expected to increase significantly over the next 20 to 30 years. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of USA projects[ii] an increase of 54 percent from 2001 to 2025. The International Energy Agency predicts that, if governments continue with present policies, the world's energy demand will be almost 60 percent higher in 2030 than now. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate the world's energy mix and are expected to meet most of the increase in demand, but with significant impact on security, economy, and the environment. The share of world energy provided by nuclear power and renewable energy technologies is projected to remain limited. Much of the expected new energy demand will be in the developing nations, especially in Asia, including China and India, the world's two most populous nations, as world population increases and standards of living improve.

2. Historically, the military operated with the assumption that low cost energy would be readily available when and where it is needed. Now, however, reliable access to affordable, stable energy supplies is a significant challenge for the military and the nation. Given the military's reliance on energy, disruption of critical power and fuel supplies would harm the military's ability to accomplish its missions. Such a risk exposes a military vulnerability that must be addressed by a more secure energy position and outlook. The military's assumptions concerning future plans for power and fuel at home, overseas and on the battlefield must account for such challenges.

3. Surety, Survivability, Supply, Sufficiency, Sustainability[iii] – these are the core characteristics defining the energy security necessary for the full range of military missions. Energy security for the military means preventing loss of access to power and fuel sources (surety), ensuring resilience in energy systems (survivability), accessing alternative and renewable energy sources available on installations (supply), providing adequate power for critical missions (sufficiency), and promoting support for the military's mission, its community, and the environment (sustainability). As a critical resource, energy must be readily available to support military missions operating tactical and non-tactical vehicles and equipment, powering Soldier-carried equipment, and providing electricity and other utilities to fixed installations and Forward Operating Bases (FOBs).

4. The case for action to reduce energy consumption and diversify energy sources is more compelling than ever. Armed forces will always be dependent on energy, but they must dramatically reduce the risk to national security associated with their current energy posture. Energy prices fluctuate tremendously and the cost of crude oil rose to near $150 per barrel in 2008. Major oil reserves are in countries or regions with governments or regimes that are at times unfriendly to our interests. Our fragile energy infrastructure, and the country's crude oil refining capacity, may hinder our ability to reliably deliver energy during times of crisis.

5. Together, these circumstances have awakened our nation, requiring a call for action that India as a nation is answering. Parliament has passed laws and government has issued policies like Energy Conservation Act 2001 on this aspect. State governments are setting minimum “green” energy requirements for producers and consumers. Emerging technology and growing markets in renewable energy are diversifying our supply of energy.

6. This underlines the fact that there should be a strategy for the Indian armed forces also for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy wastage in all the spheres of the activities undertaken by them. There should be suitable energy audit procedures and programs for developing systems and procedures to meet the requirements of the Energy Conservation Act 2001. Within the context of not compromising their capabilities, all areas are to consider their roles in relation to the implementation of measures which improve energy efficiency and reduce energy wastage.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

7. To study and analyse the importance of energy management on the technical and domestic infrastructure of armed forces in view of the current and future energy scenario, implementation of the various innovative measures by the armed forces of different countries especially Department of defence of USA with special emphasis on the USAF energy policy to generate an ‘Energy Policy' for IAF which can be extrapolated in future for implementation in sister services also.

HYPOTHESIS

13. There is an imperative need to examine the certainties and uncertainties of the domestic and world energy situations, and to formulate an effective and viable path for the military installations' energy future. The military must immediately begin to consider the short and long term issues involved in developing enduring energy policies and solutions for its installations. To sustain its mission and ensure its capability to project and support the forces, the military must insulate itself from the economic and logistical energy related problems coming in the near to mid future. This requires a transition to modern, secure, and efficient energy systems, and to building technologies that are safe and environmental friendly. These supply and demand side challenges require thoughtful planning and execution, and integrated solutions.

14. Managing these resources is a multi-faceted activity that must address diverse issues through a cohesive program. Such a broad program must meet operational mandates, review and update technologies, stay apprised of fuel outlook, maintain a high level of security, assess environmental impact, examine consumption trends, work within mandated structures and financial constraints, and address facility condition and composition. Moreover, the overall energy management program must undergo continuous review, evaluation, and refinement to remain relevant, responsible, and responsive to ever-changing circumstances, requirements, desires, and constraints.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

15. This dissertation consists of a case study of energy management program implemented successfully by the United States Air Force. The study will analyse its inevitability, efficacy for the Indian armed forces and Indian Air Force in particular. The study will also briefly touch upon the energy management programs undertaken by the armed forces worldwide. The selection of United States armed forces for the study was done primarily due to the availability of complete data on the effect of energy crisis on their armed forces and the solutions developed by them for the same. The study results may help our armed forces in ascertaining the vitality of energy management and formulating strategy for self-implementation. At the end of the research on the USAF energy management policy, the present policy of GOI in this area will be studied to come out with a future policy on energy management in the Indian Air Force and other sister services.

SCOPE

15. Increasing energy demand, global climate change and constrained energy supplies are likely to impact how energy affects us in the future. Global demand for all energy sources is forecast[iv] to grow by 57% over the next 25 years. Armed Forces have to be prepared for the energy challenges that lie ahead. They are one of the biggest consumers of the non-renewable energy resources. The energy demands both on the technical and domestic front are on the rise. With the resources falling short of the demand throughout the world, a thought process needs to be evolved to fulfill the future energy demands of the Indian Armed Forces. It is felt that the armed forces should also align themselves with the National Energy Policy and form its own energy management policy based on short term, medium term and long term measures to implement, monitor and review the results of their energy management program. There is a need to identify a set of strategies and undertake measures that will help armed forces to act now to prepare for future energy-related risks.

16. The objective of this work is to synopsise national and world energy issues (including energy source options, resource stocks, and future prognosis) with a detailed focus on military installations and their need to respond to changing trends, and present the implications for actions derived from the world and national energy situation. This will allow the Indian Armed Forces to make informed choices on energy utilisation that will sustain their mission.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

17. The definitions are listed in the index.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

18. The primary data collection has been carried out from the various reports available on this subject on the World Wide Web. Prominent websites of Universities, organisations and armed forces have been referred on the subject matter to get the views. The emphasis was to analyse the Energy management program of the DOD, USA and USAF in particular, analysis of its success and to find out its implications for Indian armed Forces. The data on the success of USAF program was taken from USAF website and various independent observer websites. The data for Indian Energy scenario was primarily taken from GOI websites. The dynamic nature of the topic has resulted in limited availability of relevant data in the books on the subject as all available books cover only the energy management in industries and buildings.

METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS

19. During the data analysis it has been ensured that the template of other armed forces operations is not analysed against the Indian armed Forces operations due to the vast difference in their scope of operations. Therefore, no lateral data comparision has been resorted to. Only the inference of the data has been analysed.

CHAPTER II

“The security of people and nations rests on four pillars - food, energy, water and climate. They are all closely related, and all under increasing stress.”

- Tom Burke, The ENDS Report (May 2008)

ENERGY SECURITY

1. The Golden Age[v] of cheap energy has passed; recent upheavals in the prices of oil make this abundantly clear. It is now commonplace to hear discussions from politicians and economists of an energy crisis of unprecedented proportions as energy prices fluctuate and demand continues to rise. Energy is once again at center stage in national and global politics, and energy security, little heard a few years ago, is now a buzzword which is hard to avoid and one which recently topped the agenda for the G8 nations.

2. Current state of the global energy market. Extreme turbulence has marked the global energy market in recent years. Since 2005, energy prices on the world market have been rising sharply. Providing further evidence that a global energy crisis is in full swing, the price of oil hit a new record high of US$100 per barrel in 2007. The dramatic nature of this increase is evident when one considers the price of crude oil was just US$50 a barrel a few years ago, a price that was widely considered to be a temporary spike. The dramatic increase in energy prices was triggered by speculations on the world market which drew on a combination of economic and geopolitical events/processes. However, the prices started a downward turn when the economic crisis gripped the world and are stablised at the moment as the economy is on the recovery path.

3. The last decade has witnessed a substantial increase in the world's demand for oil, rising by 7 million barrels per day since 2000 which translated into a ‘demand shock'; growth in petroleum consumption was more than double the annual average growth rates of the preceding decade. The chief motor of this upsurge has been the best global economic performance in a decade and more specifically the dramatic economic development and industrialisation in China and to a lesser extent in India. Self-sufficient in oil until 1993, China's GDP has tripled since then. As a result her demand for oil has more than doubled resulting in the import of three million barrels of oil per day (almost half of its total consumption). China is now the world's second-largest oil consumer. Though her share of the world oil market is just eight percent, her share of total growth in demand since 2000 has been 30 percent. Of the 7 million barrel per day increase since 2007, 2 million barrels each day have gone to China. Today, China accounts for 12% of the world's energy consumption, up from 9% only a decade ago. That is second only to the United States at 24%.

4. India's energy consumption is far less than China's, but the world's second most populous country is fast catching up now that it has embarked on a ‘growth turnpike' and rapid development. Its oil consumption has grown by over 6% annually during the past decade, twice the world average growth. This has meant a drastic increase in oil imports, which represented 68% of total consumption. India is also the third largest gas consumer in Asia and began importing the resource in 2004. Continued growth will see India rise from its current position as the world's sixth largest energy consumer to the fourth largest by 2010.

5. But demand was not the only reason for the current energy crisis. A rising clamour for energy was coupled with a ‘supply shock'. The main supply constrictor has been output disruptions at the source of energy resources such as in Venezuela, Nigeria, Iraq and the Gulf of Mexico. Unexpected natural disasters, geopolitical tensions and environmental imperatives have all added to the pressures on the global supply system resulting in spiking prices.

6. Supplies have also been strained by a ‘lack of investment' which has left the oil industry's infrastructure stretched thin. This has been particularly evident with the current shortage of tankers. With global oil demand surging and prices hitting record levels, the world's 1,500 oil tankers are all booked up. The shortage of tankers is a sign of how rising demand has not been matched with increases in infrastructure capacity. Russia and Iran for example, the two largest producers of natural gas have experienced difficulties in increasing production because of ageing infrastructure. Refining capacity is a major constraint on supply, because there is a significant mismatch between the product requirements of the world's consumers and refineries' capabilities. Although often presented solely as a U.S. problem, inadequate refining capacity is in fact a global phenomenon. The biggest growth in demand worldwide has been for what are known as ‘middle distillates' such as diesel, jet fuel, and heating oil. Diesel is a favorite fuel of European motorists, and is increasingly used to power economic growth in Asia. But the global refining system does not have enough deep conversion capacity to create middle distillates.

What is energy security?

7. Energy security is often defined from a single perspective, that of a developed, industrialised and wealthy state. For most of these countries, security means access to and abundant supplies of cheap energy; it is this which has become the essential bedrock of a functioning modern society and economy. This has two elements:-

(a) The first is energy availability which involves the confirmed location and accessibility of energy reserves especially fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal required by an early twenty-first century nation to satisfy its economic demands.

(b) Affordability is the second element in energy security. Fuel must be available at an acceptable and stable cost. Energy security is therefore most often defined in economic terms; the assurance of adequate, reliable supplies of energy at reasonable prices. The corollary of this conceptualisation is that energy security is defined as a problem faced by energy consuming states and threatened by energy producers.

Global energy trends

8. Recent global energy trends suggest that this narrow definition of energy security is incompatible with the realities of the future. Vulnerabilities in energy security run much deeper than high prices. Four developments in particular stand out in the use of energy as a tool in geopolitics as discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.

9. Terrorism and Political Violence. The importance of energy as the motor of economic growth and day to day working of society makes it a key target of political violence. There have also been several unsuccessful attempts by militant groups on the Arab Peninsula to interrupt the production of energy resources and a series of deadly bombings in Afghanistan have left investors worrying about supply security in the wider Middle East.

10. Terrorism is not confined to the Middle East, it is an omnipresent threat. Energy security is therefore not simply a matter of the vulnerability of producer countries; it also incorporates the vulnerability of transportation routes. Al Qaeda has issued explicit threats to carry out "economic jihad" against the ‘hinges' of the world economy; pipelines, tankers and other pressure points of the energy industry. Today, the concept of energy security needs to be expanded to include the protection of the entire energy supply chain and infrastructure--an awesome task. None of the world's complex, integrated supply chains were built with security, defined in this broad way, in mind. The threat of terrorist attack has therefore stimulated a debate within the oil companies on the degree to which they can provide their own security or if it is necessary to turn instead to governments and international organisations to assist them.

11. Energy as a political tool. Energy supplies are distributed unevenly in the international system. Consequently, since Churchill switched the fuel of the Royal Navy from welsh coal to Middle Eastern oil; there has always been, to a greater or lesser degree, an important foreign policy dimension to energy security. There has always been the danger that energy would be used as a tool of foreign policy and a means to gain political leverage. On October 16 1973, the Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) cut production of oil and placed an embargo on shipments of crude to the West, using oil for the first time as a coercive political instrument with a strategic aim. For many years this has not been a major concern in the energy industry. Increasingly however, the use of energy as a tool of foreign policy and means to gain political leverage has concerned the States and with good reason.

12. Energy Wars and return of the ‘Great Game'. Relentless global population growth coupled with rising development and living standards of the developing world has intensified competition for energy resources. Estimates posit demand for energy will grow by more than half again by 2035, with fossil fuels having to meet more than 80% of this increase. However, the prospect, real or apparent, of peak oil production followed by supplies running dry within a twenty to thirty year timeframe exacerbates an already tense future. Consequently, the availability and flow of energy will be a critical issue that could engender increasingly fractious international relations.

13. According to John Gray[vi], we are witnessing the return of the nineteenth century Great Game, as the major powers are drawn into regions competing for the Earth's depleting energy resources. Energy is already a cause of diplomatic friction over territory and sovereignty. China currently has a dispute with Japan over natural gas deposits in the East China seabed and with the claimants such as Vietnam to South China Sea territories. Beijing and Tokyo recently concluded their fourth round of talks about the East China Sea dispute, still without reaching a settlement. Both sides remain intransigent, insisting on a broad interpretation of sovereignty in the area. Similar conflicts remain unresolved in regions such as Africa and South America.

14. There is an increasing military aspect to these operations as the major powers position military forces and bases. The island nation of Sao Tome and Principe off the West African coast now hosts a U.S. naval base to protect its oil interests. Russia has expanded its military presence in Central Asia. Meanwhile China is busily establishing a "string of pearls" - forward deployments of surveillance stations, naval facilities and airstrips - to safeguard the petroleum-transport route from the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea and considering a ‘blue water' navy to protect the sea routes to the Middle East. This has fostered suspicion of Indian modernisation of its facilities on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The threat of increasing resource competition raising the stakes of conflict is not a distant consideration.

15. Political instability. Political instability can have a major effect on energy security. Certain countries have a disproportionate role in supplying oil and gas to the global market. This makes their internal developments of overall importance to energy security worldwide. For example, there has been recent instability in the oil rich but rebel infested and crime-ridden Nigerian Delta. Scattered attacks on oil facilities there have reduced exports from Nigeria (a major supplier to the United States) by a quarter and groups have siphoned off nearly $1 billion in crude from pipelines.

16. The problem of energy security is not confined to the issue of resource scarcity. In the more immediate term the real problem is the concentration of easy-to-reach supplies in politically-difficult areas. Problems also arise from the transportation of these supplies through areas that are equally difficult politically. The focus is not merely on the country with the resources and holes in the ground, but also the transit countries through which the gas flows, and the sea lanes through which the oil must be transported. Instability leading to interruption of supply in any transit country along these latter-day ‘silk routes' is as damaging as it would be at source. China has recently contributed technical assistance, 450 workers, and 80 percent of funding for the construction of the Gwadar port in Baluchistan, Pakistan. PRC officials have expressed an interest in using Gwadar as a transit terminal for Iranian and African crude oil imports. This would require a pipeline from Gwadar to funnel crude imports to China's northwest Xinjiang region bordering Pakistan. The success of such a project depends heavily on stability in Baluchistan and Pakistan at large. Not long back, three Chinese engineers were killed in a bomb attack at Gwadar. Their assassins are believed to be militant Baluchi nationalists who resent Islamabad's authority over the province.

CHAPTER III

“My hope is that we come to see consumption as slightly naff, something you only do when you have to”

- Chris Goodall,

Independent on Sunday and author (November 2007)

ENERGY MANAGEMENT

1. The basics of energy management can be easily understood by drawing lessons from the improved efficiency of a business due to energy management. In a study conducted in UK[vii] it was found out that for every £1 saved on energy costs, most UK businesses would have to make £10 worth of sales to make the same £1 of profit. So, for example, wasting just £1,000 a year on energy due to poor energy management would require £10,000 worth of sales to make the equivalent £1,000 of profit. The UK Government's support programs on energy efficiency and carbon management have proved that most companies can reduce their energy costs by at least 10% through the implementation of simple housekeeping measures and by as much as 30% through the implementation of cost-effective measures.

2. To carve out a definition from the above mentioned example it can be said that Energy management[viii] is a method which is based on well-known management tasks like planning, controlling, organising and monitoring. Energy management covers a considerable range of aspects which can improve energy-related actions and decision processes. At a company level, this involves assigning responsibilities, introducing structural changes by appointing an energy manager and energy teams, formulating a corporate energy policy, and demanding the commitment of the upper management. This definition can be easily extrapolated to a national level energy management strategy.

3. Many consider energy as an overhead rather than a resource that requires management but energy management[ix] is not only possible but also brings real benefits and now, with the help of innovative solutions and technology is easily achievable. The aim of energy management is to reduce the amount of energy consumed. Good energy management starts from an understanding how energy is used. The next stage is to identify inefficiencies and formulate actions to improve efficiency. These actions need associated targets and ongoing monitoring to measure their performance.

4. Actions taken to improve efficiency can vary. Some cost nothing, others are low cost and some require greater investment. Some use technology, other focus on people but good energy management will normally deliver savings through a combination of methods. Improving energy efficiency can bring many benefits like:-

(a) Lower energy costs

(b) Reduced carbon emissions

(c) Improved environment

(d) Better process control

(e) Ensuring legislative compliance on national and international level.

Elements of an Effective “Energy Management” Standard

5. The purpose of an energy management standard[x] is to provide guidance to integrate energy efficiency into management practices, including fine-tuning processes and improving the energy efficiency of systems. It is important to note that the energy management standards are equally applicable to commercial, medical, and government facilities. An energy management standard requires a facility to develop an energy management plan. In organisations without a plan in place, opportunities for improvement may be known but may not be promoted or implemented because of organisational barriers. These barriers may include a lack of communication, a poor understanding of how to create support for an energy efficiency project, limited finances, poor accountability for measures, or perceived risk in changing the status quo. An example of the energy management standard studied is the “plan-do-check-act” approach as illustrated in the 1 below from the Danish DS 2403:2001, Energy Management-Specification.

6. Typical features of an energy management standard include:-

(a) A strategic plan that requires measurement, management, and documentation for continuous improvement for energy efficiency.

(b) A cross-divisional management team led by an energy coordinator who reports directly to management and is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the strategic plan.

(c) Policies and procedures to address all aspects of energy purchase, use, and disposal.

(d) Projects to demonstrate continuous improvement in energy efficiency.

(e) Creation of an Energy Manual, a living document that evolves over time as additional energy saving projects and policies are undertaken and documented.

(f) Identification of key performance indicators, unique to the organisation, that are tracked to measure progress.

(g) Periodic reporting of progress to management based on these measurements.

7. A successful program in energy management begins with a strong commitment to continuous improvement of energy efficiency. The first step once the organisational structure (energy coordinator, management team) has been established is to conduct an assessment of the major energy uses in the facility to develop a baseline of energy use and set goals for improvement. The selection of key performance indicators and goals help to shape the development and implementation of an action plan. An important aspect for ensuring the successes of the action plan is involving personnel throughout the organisation. Personnel at all levels should be aware of energy use and goals for efficiency. Staff need to be trained in both skills and general approaches to energy efficiency in day-to-day practices. In addition, performance results should be regularly evaluated and communicated to all personnel, recognising high achievement. The use of energy monitoring and process control systems can play an important role in energy management and in reducing energy use.
Energy Management and Military

8. Why would energy management be important to the military? The immediate answer, of course, is similar to Willie Sutton's famous response to the question, "Why do you rob banks?" Energy is now where the money is, or more appropriately, where discretionary spending is going. Arguably, there are no other goods or services that have such a consistent and direct relationship to a military agency's discretionary spending as energy. As oil and gas markets go up, agencies spend more on energy-related commodities and less on other things. By rough estimates 80% of Indian Air Force's spending is on fuel.

9. Discretionary spending is not the only energy fiscal relationship. But before going into the details, let's review the term energy management from military point of view. For the military, the term loosely applies to any term that includes the word energy or fuel. Yes, the Military Energy Program Manager (The person responsible for energy Management in the concerned military organisation. This term will be discussed in detail in subsequent chapters) is concerned with meeting evolving orders and legislations on the energy management and environment, such as the following:-

(a) Reducing annual energy intensity.

(b) Using fixed percentage of renewable sources for electricity by 2013.

(c) Installing electric meters in all military buildings to the extent practicable. (These are not available in operational buildings of IAF)

(d) Improving the energy efficiency of new building designs.

(e) Reporting energy usage on an annual basis.

(f) Reduced energy consumption

(g) Increased energy efficiency across platforms and facilities

(h) Increased use of renewable and alternative energy

(i) Assured access to sufficient energy supplies

(j) Reduced adverse environmental effects

10. The Energy Program manager, however, also is responsible for all fuel logistic policy, all fuel procurement policy, alternative fuel considerations, and all utility acquisitions. The broad scope of the military's energy management philosophy facilitates holistic system benefits. Improvements in one programmatic area often generate identifiable benefits in other areas--for example, improvements in fuel procurement effectiveness can also result in financial savings. Whether in one central location or in stovepipes, energy management can be defined as the administration of all activities pertaining to the funding, procurement, expenditure, accounting, and sustainable usage of energy commodities. Good energy management will help organisations, both today and tomorrow.

11. The importance of Energy Management in the armed forces is primarily for the following factors:-

(a) Tactical Advantage. Energy dependence creates a logistical tail that slows operations and makes deployed forces more vulnerable to enemy attack.

(b) Financial Burdens. Energy is a huge expense. Hence, savings are desired.

(c) Parliamentary legislation. Mandate change. The parliamentary legislations related to the energy management at the national level are to be honoured at the forces level.

CHAPTER IV

“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete”

- Buckminster Fuller,

Philospher, futurist and global thinker (1895 - 1983)

ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN MAJOR ARMED FORCES

1. Financial Times[xi] had an excellent news piece in February 2009 on military fuel consumption around the world. It reported that fuel costs accounted for $17bn of the combined budget for the world's top 20 military spenders in 2008, a 90.8 per cent increase year on year. It says that the sharp increase in the price of oil added $6bn to the bill, quoting Jane's[xii] Industry Quarterly study in January. Therefore, Armed Forces need a more coordinated and comprehensive energy management program to meet the performance requirements and operational constraints that they face. Continuing with the current mode of operation will not adequately address these challenges and will lead to situations that cannot be easily remedied. The Armed Forces must have a clear understanding of where they are with energy stewardship, where they want to be in the future, and how they are going to get there.

2. Cost pressures on military budgets[xiii], caused in part by last year's rocketing oil prices, are pushing the UK and other leading powers to consider alternative fuels and propulsion technologies. The US, the world's biggest military spender, spent $12.6bn, or 2 per cent, of its total budget on fuel. In the UK, where rising oil costs added £120m-£130m to its fuel bill between 2006 and 2008, the government spent $1.06bn (£740m) last year.

3. “The burden placed on militaries by fuel demands is significant,” said Guy Anderson, editor of Jane's Industry Quarterly. Even putting budgetary burdens aside, the reliance on petroleum products exposed militaries to the vagaries of the international energy markets and security concerns relating to dependence on foreign suppliers, he added. In the UK, the Ministry of Defence last year set up an internal fuel forum to look at all aspects of fuel usage, including efficiency. Several initiatives are under way: expanding use of simulator-based training for armed forces; optimising fuel usage during live training (for example conducting fast-jet training without unnecessary under slung equipment); and improving fuel storage. Separately, the Royal Navy says it recycles ships that are no longer seaworthy, where possible, and is in the process of installing updated waste disposal methods on ships. The navy's two new £4bn aircraft carriers, which are due to come into service in the next few years, will have diesel generators while current carriers have “anti-foul coating systems” applied to their hulls to improve fuel efficiency.

4. Longer-term solutions are also on the horizon. The US defence department views hybrid electric drive as the most attainable military propulsion technology in the near term. HED vehicles offer fuel savings of 30-40 per cent over diesel systems, according to Mr Anderson. But to be widely ready for military use in the next 15 years, the primary challenge for HED developers will be “to continue to keep development costs down while at the same time maturing the technology”, says Jane's. Another alternative is biofuels, such as biodiesel, which is a product of feed stocks such as soya beans and palm oil. However, there are drawbacks to using biofuels in the military. Not least of these is that current biofuels are 25 per cent lower in energy density than military jet fuel. Researchers are also trying to increase the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles, a big growth area for the military and already being used extensively for intelligence and surveillance. According to Mr Anderson, the US is the only market even close to large enough to drive change.

5. During the research it came out that all the major military powers have accorded a very high weightage to energy management in their respective armed forces to remain relevant in the changing global situation with limited energy options. However, sufficient data on the subject worthy of study and analysis could be gathered only with respect to United States Armed Forces owing to their release on World Wide Web under declassified materials and subsequent comments on them by independent observers. An analysis of the same has been done in the subsequent chapters. A case study on the USAF will be helpful in understanding a possible way of successful energy management. However, a glimpse of the energy management initiatives pursued by world military powers is available as Appendix A.

CHAPTER V

“...we have a serious problem: America is addicted to oil...The best way to break this addiction is through technology”

- US President George W Bush,

State of the Union Address, January 2006

ANALYSIS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN USAF

1. The United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader among the Department of Defense (DoD) services in proposing new measures to cut energy consumption. In the year 2007, the USAF won the Presidential Award as well as eight other awards for leadership in Federal Energy Management. Their efforts and results obtained will be studied in the subsequent paragraphs.

2. Results achieved. The fantastic results achieved by the USAF can be summarised as following:-

(a) Decreasing facility energy intensity by nearly 18% since 2003.

(b) Reducing their ground vehicle fleet fossil fuel consumption by 15% since 1999.

(c) At the end of 2007, the USAF was the number one purchaser of renewable energy in the federal government and number three in the United States, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

(d) In 2007, the USAF purchased almost 1 million megawatt-hours of green power, accounting for 9.5% of all USAF electricity consumption.

(e) For five consecutive years (2003–2007), the USAF has been first on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) list of top 10 federal government green power purchasers.

(f) For five consecutive years (2003–2007), the USAF has reduced the amount of aviation fuel it has used.

3. These efforts have pushed the USAF to the top of the EPA's list of federal government purchasers of green power for three consecutive years and made it the 2006 winner of the U.S. EPA's Climate Protection Award. In addition, the USAF was recognised with the 2007 Presidential Award for Leadership in Federal Energy Management and perennially receives recognition from the EPA's Green Power Partnership as the Number One green power purchaser in the federal government.

4. This impressive achievement should be seen in the light of the fact that the USAF is the largest energy consumer in the federal government. In fact, the USAF uses more fuel than the Navy, Army, and Marines combined. Refer 2. Being such a major consumer means that a $10 increase in the price of a barrel of oil translates into an additional $619 million in cost annually for the USAF. Therefore their achievements on the energy management front are praiseworthy and worth emulating.

5. Efforts and Initiatives undertaken by USAF. The efforts put in by the USAF can be summarised as follows :-

(a) Reducing their fuel demand by purchasing fuel-efficient equipment when possible, flying efficiently and instilling awareness so that energy conservation becomes an integral part of an Airman's mindset.

(b) Purchasing only Energy Star® (equivalent to BEE energy efficiency rating in India) compliant computers since July 2007.

(c) Implementing cost efficiencies, such as reducing aircraft weight and optimising flight routes for missions where appropriate.

6. Future Plans. The future targets for the USAF are as follows:-

(a) By early 2011, the Air Force will test and certify the entire inventory of aircraft for operations with a 50/50 synthetic fuel blend.

(b) By 2016, the Air Force plans to cost effectively acquire 50% of contiguous United States (CONUS) aviation fuel via a synthetic fuel blend utilising domestic feed stocks and produced in the United States, with the intent that the synthetic fuel purchases be sourced from suppliers with manufacturing facilities that engage in carbon di oxide capture and effective reuse.

BACKGROUND

7. Their path to efficient Energy Management was in making wise energy choices and the result is a culture where energy has become a major consideration in everything they do and an overall energy strategy that integrates demand-side energy efficiency with a long-term commitment to supply side alternative energy sources. To accomplish this goal of energy efficiency, the USAF has worked in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the commercial aviation industry as well as major energy sector companies. Likewise, in their efforts to increase supply, they are engaging in public-private partnerships with the commercial sector to develop and operate renewable power sources on their facilities, such as the photovoltaic solar array that recently went in to operation at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada.

8. However, all these efforts were part of a wider energy strategy employed by the USAF. The efforts on the energy front in USAF started with the Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 23-3, on Energy Management issued on September 7, 1993 and consolidated in the form of Air Force Energy Program Policy issued on 16 Jun 2009 with almost ten directives issued in the time period on varied aspects of energy management in USAF. The list of the same is attached as Appendix B .The purpose of the Air Force Energy Program was to disseminate information for the Air Force energy management strategy, goals, objectives and metrics, including organisational relationships and existing responsibilities. The Air Force Energy Strategic Plan needs to be researched in detail to understand the integration of the program with national energy strategy, DoD's vision and come out with a strategy for the Indian Air Force in the chapters ahead.

UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ENERGY STRATEGIC PLAN

9. The USAF Energy Strategic Plan is structured to achieve the goals mandated by all public laws and Executive Orders governing the Air Force, including, but not limited to the Environment Protection Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-058) and Executive Order 13423, as well as the mandates of the President and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD).The overarching vision of the USAF Energy Initiative is “Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do”. The USAF uses energy awareness to keep all personnel focused on energy conservation and efficiency to reduce energy costs. It is felt by USAF that only by involving everyone in the Air Force at all levels that the Air Force energy goals will be met. The Air Force Energy Strategy is outlined in 3.

10. Strategy. The US Air Force's Energy Strategy addresses all aspects of operations. This strategy balances demand-side energy efficiency measures with a long-term commitment to supply-side alternative energy sources. Executing the strategy will increase energy security and reduce costs. The following are the three components of the strategy:-

(a) Reduce Demand. Increase energy efficiency through conservation and decreased usage, and increase individual awareness of the need to reduce energy consumption.

(c) Increase Supply. By researching, testing, and certifying new technologies, including renewable, alternative, and traditional energy sources, the Air Force can assist in creating new domestic supply sources.

(c) Culture Change. The Air Force must create a culture where all Airmen make energy a consideration in everything they do, every day.

11. Goals, Objectives, and Metrics. The Air Force Energy Strategy supports the Air Force priorities and provides links to the energy goals established by the EP Act of 2005, Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, December 19, 2007, EO 13423, and Air Force Aviation Fuel Conservation Memorandum issued on September 21, 2006. Under each strategic pillar are specific energy goals and objectives the Air Force will achieve. Subsequent paras will explain these goals, objectives, and metrics involved.

REDUCE DEMAND

12. Overarching Goal. The USAF is committed to reducing aviation, ground fuel, and installation energy demand. The goals and objectives developed to reduce demand cover each of these areas and provide the framework for each executing organisation to issue specific implementing guidance.

13. Implementation Goals. Reduce aviation fuel-use/hour operation by 10% (from a 2005 base line) by 2015. Implement pilot fuel efficiency measures in all standardisation/evaluation flights by 2010. Incorporate pilot fuel efficiency elements in the Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) training syllabus by 2011. Reduce motor vehicle fleet petroleum fuel use by 2 percent per annum. Reduce installation energy intensity by 3 percent per annum.

14. Overarching Objectives.

(a) Increase conservation

(b) Improve efficiency

(c) Enhance energy security.

15. Implementation Objectives.

(a) Fly efficiently

(b) Develop efficient aircraft technology

(c) Improve jet engine performance

(d) Develop fuel efficient equipment

(e) Improve current infrastructure

(f) Design new buildings that are 30 percent better than American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards.

(g) Procure energy efficient products and vehicles.

(h) Optimise utility procurement

(i) Evaluate lifecycle costs

(j) Refine the US Air Force‘s critical asset list

(k) Conduct energy audits

(l) Implement Air Force Metering Plan by 2012 and meet annual milestones.

16. Metrics.

(a) Barrels of aviation fuel consumed per flight hour

(b) Average amount of energy consumed per building square foot

(c) Average miles per gallon (MPG) of non-tactical ground vehicles.

INCREASE SUPPLY

17. Overarching Goal. The US Air Force is committed to increasing the amount of energy supplies available to become more energy independent. Energy independence reduces the amount of energy required from foreign sources and where possible, the Air Force will use renewable or green energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The goals and objectives to increase supply, target the three areas of aviation fuel, ground fuels, and installation energy.

18. Implementation Goals.

(a) Increase non-petroleum based fuel use by 10 percent per annum in the motor vehicle fleet.

(b) Increase facility renewable energy use at annual targets of 5 percent by FY10, 7.5 percent by FY13, and 25 percent by FY25. 50 percent of the increase must come from new renewable sources.

(c) By 2016, be prepared to cost competitively acquire 50 percent of the Air

Force‘s domestic aviation fuel requirement via an alternative fuel blend in which the alternative component is derived from domestic sources produced in a manner that is greener than fuels produced from conventional petroleum.

19. Overarching Objectives.

(a) Increase alternative fuels

(b) Increase renewable energy

(c) Utilise Public-Private Partnerships

(d) Enhance energy security.

20. Implementation Objectives.

(a) Develop renewable energy resources on base

(b) Procure commercially produced alternative/renewable energy

(c) Test and certify aircraft fleet/systems on 50/50 alternative fuel blend by 2011.

(d) Increase the number of flexible fuel systems

(e) Identify/develop privately financed/operated energy production on Air Bases

(f) Manage cost

21. Metrics.

(a) Percentage of alternative/renewable fuel used for aviation fuel requirements.

(b) Percentage of alternative/renewable fuels used for installation energy requirements

(c) Percentage of alternative/renewable fuel used for non-tactical ground vehicle requirements.

CULTURE CHANGE

22. Overarching Goal. Changing the US Air Force culture is critical to achieving the Air Force‘s Vision to “Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do”. As the culture changes and the Air Force increases its energy awareness, new ideas and methodologies for operating more efficiently will emerge as each Airman considers the energy impact in their day-to-day duties.

23. Implementation Goals.

(a) Provide energy leadership through Energy Management Steering Groups

(b) Train all personnel in energy awareness by 2010

(c) Implement an energy curriculum in the Air Force Academy and the Air University by 2010

(d) Communicate energy awareness at all installations during Energy Awareness Month each October.

24. Overarching Objectives.

(a) Leadership

(b) Training

(c) Education

(d) Communication.

25. Implementation Objectives.

(a) Provide energy leadership throughout the Air Force

(b) Provide energy awareness training to each uniformed and civilian member of the Air Force

(c) Develop energy curriculum for Air Force Academy, Air University, and other schools

(d) Communicate Air Force energy successes and lessons learned

(e) Identify/develop privately financed energy sources on under utilised land.

26. Metrics.

(a) Energy audit score measuring compliance with Air Force energy policies and strategies

(b) Percentage of personnel contacted with energy awareness media

(c) Percentage of Air Force personnel trained in the energy curriculum

(d) Survey score results measuring awareness of Air Force energy policy and strategies

(e) Total number of Air Force personnel certified as Energy Master Black Belts.

27. Air Force Energy Organisational Responsibilities. Headquarters US Air Force is responsible for policy oversight and advocacy of the Air Force's energy management program. The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Installations, Environment & Logistics (SAF/IE), was designated as the Air Force's Senior Energy Official on September 4, 2007. This designation imparts the appropriate management structure within the Air Force to execute the energy strategy and manage the complex energy decisions that span all Air Force organisations. As energy affects all organisations within the Air Force, the Headquarters Air Force established an “Energy Senior Focus Group (SFG)” to address the Air Force's most challenging energy issues.

28. Chaired by the Senior Energy Official with participation by appropriate Headquarters Air Force organisations, the cross-functional group provides the leadership structure to oversee and provide guidance for energy issues and challenges throughout the Air Force. The Energy SFG meets quarterly and is supported by sub-level working groups that are resolving specific energy issues. Mirroring the structure of the Energy SFG, the Secretary of the Air Force directed each Major Command (MAJCOM) and installation to form Energy Management Steering Groups (EMSGs) comprised of members of each discipline across the command and installation. EMSGs report to the MAJCOM or Installation Commander, thus establishing an appropriate energy management structure throughout the Air Force command structure.

29. As these groups mature, energy considerations are intertwined into the decision-making process of all Air Force organisations and this creates a key component of culture change. Energy performance statements and ratings have been developed for all MAJCOM and installation energy managers and resource efficiency managers. They are rated on implementing energy conservation measures to meet Federal goals and Executive Orders for their commands and installations. These performance statements provide the structure at the tactical level to execute the Air Force's energy strategy.

CHAPTER VI

“The choices China and India make in the next few years will lead the world either towards a future beset by growing ecological and political instability - or down a development path based on efficient technologies and better stewardship of resources”

- Worldwatch Institute 'State of the World 2006' report

ENERGY MANAGEMENT POLICY OF GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND ITS PRESENT STATE OF IMPLEMENTATION IN INDIAN AIR FORCE

1. Energy Management Policy of Government of India is the based on the ‘Energy Conservation Act 2001'.The commitment to the cause can be gauged from the fact that former President of our country Shri A.P.J.Abdul Kalam laid great emphasis on this aspect in his address[xiv] to the nation on 14 Aug 2005. He conveyed his concern in detail about scarce energy resources of the country, the rising demand and the need to conserve with judicious use and innovative approach.
Present Policy Of Indian Air Force On Energy Savings

2. Several detailed policy letters on the methods for conservation of energy by means of monitoring power consumption, control of consumption, measures to reduce wastage of electricity and adoption of non-conventional sources of energy etc have been issued from time to time by Air HQ and E-in-C's branch on the basis of the “Energy Conservation Act 2001”.

3. The few of the energy saving measures circulated through policy letters include the following:-

(a) The house keeping measures, detailed tips and standard operating procedures for the conservation of energy.

(b) Various design measures as given below:

(i) Replacing GIS Incandescent lamps with fluorescent tubes/CFL.

(ii) Replacing electrical chokes with electronic chokes.

(iii) Replacing conventional regulators with electronic regulators.

(iv) Using light colour paints for interior walls etc.

(c) Improving power factor by 0.98.

(d) Managing distribution losses due to lose connections/jumpers.

(e) Restricting consumption of electricity in public buildings by installing suitable meters.

(f) Load shedding.

(g) Implementing measures to control excess consumption of electricity by non-paying consumers.

(h) Increasing awareness among all personnel to conserve energy and curtail the negligent and unmindful wastage of energy.

(j) By budgeting of works for non-conventional sources of energy and using the following non-conventional sources of energy in all future projects:-

(i) Solar energy

(ii) Wind energy

(iii) Bio-Gas

(iv) Micro Hydro Electric energy.

(k) Replacing lamps and Ballasts with energy efficient lamps/electronic Ballasts.

(l) Avoiding artificial light during daytime.

(m) Change over from diesel to gas fuel for boilers and water heaters.

(n) Ensuring appropriate tariff rates/bifurcation of load.

(o) Revision of Recorded Maximum Demand.

(p) Automatic Switching on/off of the street lights.

(q) Selective street illumination.

(r) Replacement of old lines.

(s) Scrutiny and monitoring of Tariff Bills.

(t) Fixation of free electricity units.

The instructions for operations based conservation like fuel management were to be formulated by the respective organisations.

6. The initiative on the operational front was taken when the Air HQ asked the units at the field level to use the fuel in the aviation as well as in the mechanical transport sector economically and judiciously. This was first time in the known history of IAF that such policy guidance was issued in wake of the fluctuating oil prices.

7. Though the detailed guidelines exist for conservation of energy, no significant results have been achieved so far. The policies exist at macro level but not at micro level. No scheme of energy saving is available at unit/section level for implementation. All such policies exist at station level under the purview of AOC/CAdm O. However it cannot be over emphasised that for any effective implementation of a policy, personnel at grassroots level should be fully aware of the energy initiative to be taken. For example, everybody down the rank knows that runway should not be crossed and there are very few violations of this policy because it is being monitored strictly which not the case with the energy planning. It is high time that we respond to this energy crisis in an effective manner. To achieve this, there is a need to formulate an Energy Management Program (EMP) in the IAF that involves users as well as administration.

CHAPTER VII

“The western model of growth that India and China wish to emulate is intrinsically toxic. It uses huge resources - energy and materials - and generates enormous waste... it remains many steps behind the problems it creates. India and China have no choice but to reinvent the development trajectory”

- Sunita Narain, Director,

Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi (2006)

PROPOSED CHANGES IN INDIAN AIR FORCE TO INCORPORATE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

1. Based on the success of the USAF Energy Management Plan and the directives of the Energy Conservation Act 2001, changes are proposed in the Indian Air Force to incorporate Energy Management. The implementation plan for Energy Management or Energy Management Plan (EMP) must apply to all Air activities and installations and aim at evolving a whole new way of looking at how to judiciously and wisely increase energy efficiency while taking into account the needs of present and future users. The objectives of the program should be:-

(a) Primary program objective. The primary program objective should be to meet or exceed mandated reduction goals without degrading military readiness, safety, and mission effectiveness or quality of life.

(b) Increase Energy Efficiency in all Energy- Use Areas. This objective will be achieved by research and development programs for more efficient fuels through purchase of energy efficient equipment and maintenance programs and, most importantly, by implementing effective user-oriented energy conservation awareness programs.

(d) Alternative Energy. Consider the most life cycle, cost-effective energy conservation alternatives for facilities and operations. Reduce use of petroleum fuels and convert to alternative fuel sources such as bio-diesel and ethanol when economical. Alternative energy sources include solar, wind, geo-thermal, biomass, hydrogen and hydropower.
Responsibilities

2. The responsibility of planning and implementing the EMP in the IAF can be divided across the IAF structure as suggested subsequently.

3. At Air HQ. The responsibility of Air HQ should be to:-

(a) Provide overall program policy.

(b) Establish goals, policies and general guidelines.

(c) Coordinate with the Ministry of Defence (MOD) concerning the development and implementation of this program and the required legislative initiatives.

(d) Provide MOD with consolidated Air Force inputs on the EMP for annual reports to Parliament.

4. At Command HQ. The responsibility of Command HQ's should be to:-

(a) Provide assistance for program implementation.

(b) Develop plans to support or supplement Air Force goals and strategies.

(c) Evaluate energy usage of subordinate units.

(d) Validate energy conservation projects.

(e) Consolidate Station/ Wing report inputs for submission to Air HQ for the annual report to MOD and subsequently to the Parliament.

(e) Nominate their most successful stations/units for energy awards.

5. At Station / Wing. The responsibility of station/Wing should be to:-

(a) Develop their own plans to support Air Force and Command goals /strategies.

(b) Execute these plans.

(c) Measure and evaluate their base energy usage and evaluate overall success of base energy programs.

(d) Nominate the most successful unit for energy conservation awards.

(e) Provide inputs required by their Commands for annual reports.

6. At Unit. The responsibility of units should be to:-

(a) Develop an energy management plan including contingency planning.

(b) Monitor unit energy usage and all related costs.

(c) Establish an aggressive energy conservation program.

(d) Provide inputs and nominate their most successful people/sections for energy awards.

7. Energy Management Steering Group (EMSG). Each level i.e. Air HQ, Command HQ, Wing/Station and unit should be responsible for establishing an EMSG composed of representatives from all major energy managing activities including civil administration, engineering operations (inclusive of aircraft maintenance, MT, logistics and refueling section) for coordinating energy activities and conducting the Air Force EMP. EMSG's at all levels should be chaired by the senior most Commanders or Deputy Commander at that level. For e.g. in a wing the EMSG should be chaired by AOC or COO. EMSG should meet at least Bi-annually.

8. Energy Awareness Program. The energy awareness program goal should be to encourage all personnel to use energy efficiently, both at work and at home, without degrading operational readiness, and to recognise and reward excellence in energy conservation. The program should reflect a long-term commitment by the Air Force to expose individuals to the energy climate, educate them about the direct relationship between energy and national security, and maintain their interest in conserving energy by continuously publicising energy goals and achievements.

9. Energy Security. Each base EMSG is required to determine their respective installation's vulnerability to energy interruptions. They should ensure that the existing plans (War plan and other contingency plans like fire, accident etc) cover these vulnerabilities. Each base EMSG should annually review all plans to ensure a description of actions to be taken to minimise prospective impacts in response to a serious interruption of energy supply that may occur at the local, state or national level.

Program Implementation

10. Before a conservation program is implemented, notify the personnel of that base of the program and its procedures through SRO/URO explaining the reason, for which changes are being made, what differences the changes will make and why energy management projects are necessary.

11. Post notices near energy equipment to notify correct usage and inform users of energy conservation initiatives at that facility. Other program support methods might include setting up a hot line for questions or reporting detected leaks, distributing pamphlets to increase awareness, or setting up a bulletin board to track program progress and recognise exceptional efforts by individuals.

12. Monitor the program and keep close ties with the facility users to determine what is working and what is not. Monitor consumption rates to determine the effectiveness of the program. It is also very important to share program monitoring results with the personnel to increase program awareness. Monitoring & Targeting (M&T) provides the means to identify where energy is used, where it is wasted and where to have the most effect in implementing energy savings measures. The maxim "You can't manage what you don't measure" is especially true for energy management. The bills alone will not provide sufficient information for us to take full control over energy costs. We have to take our own meter readings at regular and frequent intervals. This will enable us to:-

(a) Identify exceptional consumption and attend to the causes quickly.

(b) Check utility invoices to assess the fuel actually used.

(c) Compare current costs and performance with previous years;

(d) Compare several sites, processes or buildings in the organisation with each other.

(e) Compare the performance against typical standards for similar operations and assess the seasonal pattern of consumption.

13. Procure Life Cycle Cost Effective,Energy Efficient Goods and Products. In order to ensure the purchase of energy efficient goods and products, each agency should select for procurement of those energy consuming goods or products which are the most life cycle cost effective. To the extent practicable, each agency shall require vendors of goods to provide data that can be used to assess the life cycle costs of each good or product, including building lighting systems, office equipment, and other energy using equipment.

14. Ensure Energy Efficiency of Present Buildings and Newly Constructed Buildings. Although guidelines exist that all new construction and major renovations should be designed and constructed to incorporate the energy efficiency measures, additionally, certification procedures may be established to validate compliance with these requirements. Emphasis may be given to include energy related building components throughout the planning, design and construction cycle.

15. Implement Energy Awareness, Training and Awards. All personnel must gain an awareness of energy conservation through formal training and personnel information programs. They should be invited to participate in the process of developing an energy conservation program and to submit definitive suggestions for conservation of energy. Programs may be started to train personnel as energy managers and to increase the number of trained energy managers within each section.

16. Evolve Sustainable Development. Responsible energy use is fundamental to sustainable development and a sustainable future. With the ultimate goal of sustainability, the following steps may be undertaken as an approach to reduce energy consumption:-

(a) Identify the availability, potential and feasibility of primary renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biogas, and geothermal to satisfy the justifiable energy needs of the development.

(b) Apply the best principles of site selection and architectural design to reduce energy demands and to minimise the need for energy-consuming utilities (air-conditioning, water heaters, high-level artificial lighting).

CHAPTER VIII

“The nation behaves well if it treats the natural resources as assets which it must turn over to the next generation increased, and not impaired in value.”

- Theodore Roosevelt

CONCLUSION

1. Net imports of energy will continue to grow to meet increasing demand. Filling energy needs as this expected energy scenario plays out will become increasingly difficult over the next several decades. The outcome of current domestic and world trends will require considerable investment and many changes in the way we conduct energy business, within the Nation as a whole and in Armed Forces installations, in particular. The cost-effectiveness and security of new, renewable energy and distributed electrical generation technologies have the potential to change the structure of national energy flow significantly, especially at the local or regional level. Technology will continue to advance ways that will affect all of these circumstances.

2. Therefore, there is an imperative need to examine these certainties and uncertainties of the domestic and world energy situations, and to formulate an effective and viable path for the military installation's energy future. The military must immediately begin to consider the short and long term issues involved in developing enduring energy policies and solutions for its military installations. To sustain its mission and ensure its capability to project and support the forces, the military must insulate itself from the economic and logistical energy related problems coming in the near to mid future. This requires a transition to modern, secure, and efficient energy systems, and to building technologies that are safe and environmental friendly. These supply and demand side challenges require thoughtful planning and execution, and integrated solutions.

3. While great strides in energy conservation in other organisations across the country have been made in past years, a renewed commitment to energy conservation and energy efficiency is needed in IAF and other sister organisations. Everyone must now commit to include energy efficiency practices into their everyday life and invent innovative methods to conserve energy. IAF must manage energy resources to ensure that energy reduction goals are met or exceeded. Money is a key factor in the implementation of energy conservation programs. Our challenge is to use the available funding wisely to support initiatives that both improve energy efficiency and reduce consumption. With this we save both energy and money while still preserving the nation's security and protecting the environment. This goal only requires change, not sacrifice.

4. The energy management process discussed in previous chapters is a thoughtful review of existing Armed Forces practices and their needs for energy management, and a recommendation for enhancement of the same. The dissertation builds on current efforts, recognises strengths, identifies and fills in gaps, and advises courses for improvement. A comprehensive, coordinated, proactive approach to sustaining the Armed Forces mission through a disciplined use of resources is necessary to meet the challenges that lie ahead. It is hoped that Armed Forces leadership may review this proposed policy and framework, appropriately modify it, and then adopt it as the Armed Forces Energy Management Program (AFEMP) for the 21st Century.

RECOMMENDATIONS

5. Energy management is not a one-off exercise; to be effective it needs to be an ongoing process. To achieve the target of saving energy and the environment it is recommended that the efforts of the Indian air Force should be as follows:

(a) Formation of Energy Management Group should take place at all levels to ensure the strict implementation of the Energy Management Plan.

(b) There should be close liaison with the counterparts in other organisations to ensure all the latest developments are known to us for speedy and judicious implementation.

(c) The target can be set as to reduce energy consumption by 30% per square foot in the next financial year.

(d) Implement all cost effective, energy efficient, energy conservation and renewable energy technologies.

(e) Increase use of solar and other renewable energy sources.

(f) Reduce use of petroleum-based fuels in facilities by switching to clean fuels or renewable energy.

(g) Minimise life-cycle cost of new facilities by using energy efficient, energy conservation or renewable energy technologies.

(h) Designate one of every five new buildings as a showcase facility highlighting advanced energy efficiency, energy conservation and renewable energy technologies and practices.

(j) Develop one major retrofit facility as a showcase for energy or energy efficiency with renewable energy technologies and indoor air quality improvements.

(k) Assign energy program duties & responsibilities to appropriate personnel. Reward employees for exceptional performance in implementing energy efficiency and energy conservation projects.

(l) Strictly purchase products that are in the upper 15% of energy efficiency of their product class.

(m) Circulate tips on Domestic Energy Conservation (Attached as Annexure) through policy letters/SRO/URO from time to time suggesting measures to effectively use the common electrical appliances that help in saving energy.

(n) Stress upon imbibing conservation of electricity as office culture.

(o) Take stock of present requirement, sources available, their most optimum usage and future expansion and identify sources to meet the same from time to time.

(Vishwanath Singh)

APPENDICES

Appendix A

(Refers to Para 5, Chapter IV)

ENERGY MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES PURSUED BY MAJOR MILITARY POWERS

France

1. There were several news reports in 2008 on the burden and impacts of soaring oil prices in militaries around the world. The Telegraph

2. [xv] reported that French Navy canceled three international sea missions due to soaring oil prices. The frigate De Grasse became the victim after the navy pulled it out of a major joint exercise with US aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt, which was due to take place in July08 off Naval Station Norfolk on America's East coast. Another French frigate, the Montcalm, pulled out of an international anti-drug exercise, due to take place in the summer of 2008. A third vessel, the Mistral, was ordered not to return to its home port of Le Havre after arriving in Toulon in southern France following a humanitarian trip to Burma.

3. The navy budget was drawn up on the assumption that a barrel of oil would cost $65. However, prices reached $140 in 2008. "The end of the year will be tricky," one admiral confessed. However, a spokesman for the navy said it had "sacrificed important but not essential missions". The spokesman said the navy is drawing up a cost-cutting plan to get ships to refuel at ports in countries with the lowest fuel prices, such as at NATO bases in Crete and Sicily. Fuel use in the French armed forces accounts for 1.5 per cent of national consumption in line with Britain and the US.

CHINA

4. Chinese military's medicine is energy savings. The People's Liberation Army (PLA) has ordered China's armed forces to cut costs and save energy in response to the government's call for a resource efficient and environment-friendly society.

"The armed forces should be leading the drive to build a resource efficient society," Liao Xilong, director of the PLA General Logistics Department, said at a meeting on the "modernization" of military logistics.A report from the General Logistics Department said the armed forces saved 1.4 billion yuan (US$179 million) by reducing water use by 40 million tons, coal use by 1.157 million tons of coal and oil fuel by 55,000 tons in 2006.

5. The newspaper quoted unnamed officials as saying further efforts would be made to promote the use of wind power, solar energy and geothermal energy in the armed forces.The logistics department would also tighten checks on military infrastructure projects to prevent the unnecessary demolition of barracks and the construction of extravagant new buildings.But Liao also warned army officials against aiming for quick results and instant gains in practicing thrift."Energy saving should not be achieved at the cost of the army's combat effectiveness and logistical support," Liao was quoted as saying by the newspaper.

6. China's defense expenditure in 2004 was 220 billion yuan, an annual growth of 15.31 percent, rising 12.5 percent to 247.49 billion yuan in 2005, and the budget for 2006 was 283.83 billion yuan (US$35.5 billion).China's spending per serviceman[xvi] averaged 107,607 yuan, amounting to 3.74 percent of that of the United States and 7.07 percent of that of Japan.(Xinhua News Agency February 6, 2007)) The General Logistics Department set up energy-saving goals for barracks construction to reduce energy consumption by 20% and to build 300 ecological military camps by 2010. It's also working to establish a series of rewards and punishments to encourage energy-saving activities and to promote renewable energy sources. Millions of dollars were saved by the Chinese military on energy costs in 2006 and they played their part in the nation's drive to save resources.

7. People's Daily says the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) has released a report revealing the military saved 55 thousand tons of oil, 40 million tons of water, 170 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, 7,500 tons of grain and 1.157 million tons of coal. These savings are worth 1.4 billion yuan (US$180.7 million).

Liao Xilong, director of the General Logistics Department,said the army should take the lead in saving energy and help China build an energy-saving society. People's Daily reports that the military cut their spending with the help of scientific and technological advances. A new type of snow plough helped to cut the navy's oil consumption at airports from 30,000 tons to around 10,000 tons per annum.

8. A sewage handling system built by the logistics department in the Beijing Military District has helped to better manage 800,000 tons of waste water and save 250,000 yuan (US$32,266). And the energy-saving kitchen range in Chengdu Military District has saved more than 6,600 tons of coal and over 1.16 million yuan (US$149,716). The General Logistics Department has also set up energy-saving goals for barracks construction where billions of yuan are invested each year. That's designedto reduce energy consumption by 20 percent and to build 300 ecological military camps by 2010.Wang Qian, deputy director of the General Logistics Department,says the military is drafting standards for consumption and barracks construction. It's also working to establish a series of rewards and punishments to encourage energy-saving activities.

CANADA

9. Canadian Military[xvii] goes green in bid to cut fuel costs. Faced with mounting fuel bills, the Canadian Forces is looking to alternative energy sources as well getting better performance from equipment that it purchases in the future.A new office at Defence headquarters, the directorate of fuels and lubricants, has been established to become the central clearing house on such issues. It will not only monitor military fuel consumption but set standards and procedures for the use of alternative energy such as biodiesel.The high cost of oil is a growing concern for western militaries and is pushing armed forces to embrace everything from solar and wind power to biofuels made from fish or coconuts.The U.S. military estimates that for every $10 US increase in the price of a barrel of oil, its fuel bill climbs $1.3 billion. Its budget for oil has risen from a little more than $5 billion US in 2003 to over $8 billion last year, even though it's consumption of petroleum has dropped somewhat.Similar s are not available for the Canadian Forces but officials acknowledge the increase in oil prices is draining resources.

10. "The market price is throwing budgets left, right and centre," said Lt.-Col. Bernard Poulin, the head of the fuels and lubricants branch. "People are taking it pretty personally when their budgets are cut by 10, 20 or 30 per cent to compensate for fuel increases. It really hit home last year."Unlike militaries in the U.S., Britain, the Netherlands and Germany, the Canadian Forces has not had a branch to deal specifically with fuel issues. Poulin says officers have been advocating for such an organization for years.He said while at this point the office is mainly focused on traditional forms of fuel, the Canadian Forces is interested in the research being conducted by its allies on alternative energy sources. This week it sent an official down to a Pentagon conference on the use of non-petroleum fuels.

11. At some of its bases the U.S. uses wind turbines to provide electricity and it is researching solar power as well as hybrid-electric engine technology. Two months ago, the U.S. air force conducted an experiment flying a bomber on fuel made partly from natural gas."We want to see what comes up, what's being worked on and how that can be applied in the CF," Poulin said of the research being conducted in the U.S.His first job, however, is to come up with a way to electronically track the consumption of fuel in the military as well as gather other related information, such as whether specific equipment is energy efficient.His office will also be available to consult on the fuel efficiency of new equipment to be purchased, although he acknowledged at this point that is a lower priority when it comes to determining the type of gear to be bought.Work is also planned on the use of biodiesel and ethanol fuels. Poulin noted that Canadian Forces Base Halifax is interested in operating some of its diesel trucks on a biofuel made from fish oil.

12. Some energy analysts believe the U.S. military holds the key to fuel-savings in the civilian sector. Scott Pugh, a Washington-based analyst with the Rocky Mountain Institute, noted that military organizations were behind the development of the Internet, jet engines and transistors."If the military can make some of these advances, primarily in advanced materials and advanced propulsion technologies, then once it's commercialized it can have tremendous spin-off value for the civilian sector," said Pugh, whose organization promotes energy efficiency. "That's the real hope."

SOUTH KOREA

13. South Korean military[xviii] has also jumped into the same train to reduce oil consumption to save energy. South Korean Defense Ministry has decided to join a nationwide campaign to save up to 11 percent from this year's quota of oil amid the skyrocketing crude oil prices, the Korea Herald reported on Monday. "The Defense Ministry and all military branches recently decided to take emergency measures to cut their oil use. We decided to tighten up regulations on oil consumption, from the current level two to level three as of April 1," the ministry told the Korea Herald.According to the newspaper, the decision was made at a meeting of officials of the Army, Navy, and Air Force in charge of energy conservation and military operations.

14. The ministry and the headquarters of each military branch have directed subordinate units to pursue energy-saving measures aimed at saving 11 percent of oil from the annual quota. Under the directive, the Army plans to save 180,000 barrels of oil, worth 27.2 billion won, by minimizing field operations and vehicle mobilizations. Standard temperatures in barracks and other military facilities will also be reduced to 18 degrees centigrade from the current 19 degrees centigrade. The Navy plans to regulate the maneuvers of old ships and to enforce the speed limits set for energy-saving, with the goal of reducing oil consumption by 120,000 drums out of a total of 1.15 million drums allotted to it. It also plans to limit the mobilization of vessels and vehicles in regular operations and exercises. The Air Force is set to reduce the flight hours of pilots from the current 160 hours a year to 135 hours a year, in a bid to save up to 254,000 drums of airplane fuel and 23,000 drums of gasoline this year.

UNITED KINGDOM

15. The initiative and importance accorded to Energy Management in British Armed forces[xix]can be inferred from the fact that BAE Systems announced a pound1 million three-year partnership with the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) to conduct research into energy management.The initiative recognises the need to better manage energy in the defence sector, which will cut emissions, reduce overall cost and secure supply. Research will focus on the development of intelligent energy management systems for use in the defence sector, initially on BAE Systems sites across the UK but with potential for wider use both in the defence industry and on military bases. In the longer term, the research partners aim to extend these systems to other sectors to enhance the competitiveness of British industry.

16. The partnership will also investigate new energy technologies that could enable unmanned aircraft systems to operate more efficiently, helping them to stay in the air for longer. Malcolm McVicar, Vice-Chancellor at UCLan, commented: "This is a fantastic project and we are grateful to BAE Systems for investing this essential funding. Against the backdrop of climate change there is a pressing need to undertake intelligent research that identifies how energy systems should be planned, designed and operated in a sustainable fashion. "We hope the findings from this initiative will lead to a revolution in energy and sustainable development and become a demonstration project of progressive science and applied practice - establishing new agendas for what is achievable."

17. Nigel Whitehead, Group Managing Director, and Programs& Support at BAE Systems, said: "Environmental issues are a growing concern for the military and the defence industry. Our partnership with UCLan will show how engineers can tackle these issues and is part of a wider energy management strategy at BAE Systems.
"Working with UCLan is also an opportunity for us to demonstrate our support for research activity in the North West of England, where we employ around 15,000 people. Working in partnership with universities is vital to address future skills gaps and to ensure the UK remains a world leader in engineering and technology."

Appendix B

(Refers to Para 8, Chapter V)

LIST OF POLICY LETTERS ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN USAF

1. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 23-3, ―Energy Management, September 7, 1993.

2. Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct of 2005) (Public Law 109-058), August 8, 2005.

3. Executive Order (EO) 13423, ―Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, January 24, 2007.

4. Air Force Aviation Fuel Conservation Memorandum, 21 September 2006.

5. Secretary of the Air Force Memorandum, ―Executive Order (EO)13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, September 18, 2007.

6. Department of Defense Instruction (DoD) 4170.11, ―Installation Energy Management, November 22, 2005.

7. DoDI 4170.10, ―Energy Management Policy, August 8, 1991.

8. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) December 19, 2007.

9. Secretary of the Air Force Memorandum, ―Clarification of Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities Following the Departure of the Undersecretary of the Air Force, September 4, 2007.

10. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense Memorandum, ―Implementing Executive Order 13423, December 21, 2007.

11. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense Memorandum, ―Energy Savings Performance Contracts and Utility Energy Service Contracts, January 24, 2008.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Energy Security of India in the 21st Century by Dr. G Bharathi Kamath (Ph.D. from Osmania University, Hyderabad) Asst. Professor-Economics ICFAI Business School Nirlon Complex, Goregaon (East), Mumbai

2. India's Strategy Toward Energy Development And Energy Security by R.V. Shahi Secretary to the Government of India , Ministry of Power (Paper presented to the Board of International Energy Agency at Sydney on 12th December, 2006 in the Seminar on “Energy Insights from Asia Pacific”.)

3. India: Addressing Energy Security And Climate Change Ministry of Environment & Forests, Ministry of Power, Bureau of Energy Efficiency Government of India, October, 2007

4. “What is Energy Management?” http://www.energ.co.uk/energy_management

5. Thinking green: why energy management should be important to military comptrollers: you can save big money for your organization

US Armed Forces Comptroller, Fall, 2007 by Daniel Gore

6. American National Standards Institute, 2005, MSE 2000:2005 A Management System for Energy,Washington, DC, USA http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/product.asp?sku=ANSI%2FMSE+2000%3A2005

7. Energy efficiency in companies: an analysis of determinants and supporting measures – Christiane Schmid, Dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 2003 (in German)

8. “Effective Energy Management Guide” http://www.oursouthwest.com/ Chapter 7,Sustainable Development, https://www.energynpsconsultation.decc.gov.uk

9. India energy Background, http://www.eia.doe.gov/

10. Army Energy Security. STAND-TO! Edition: Tuesday, October 6, 2009

11. US Department of Energy, http://www.energy.gov/

12. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, http://www.eere.energy.gov/

13. ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005, PUBLIC LAW 109–58—AUG. 8, 2005,USA

14. US EXECUTIVE ORDER 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” , March 29, 2007

15. DoD Energy Security Task Force Report submitted in May 2006 to the Secretary of Defense

16. Sustainable Aviation: Future Air Transportation and the Environment by Ilan Kroo, Aero/Astro 50th Anniversary, May 2008

[i] Energy Trends and Their Implications for U.S. Army Installations Donald F. Fournier and Eileen T. Westervelt

[ii] EIA report of 2004

[iii]Army Energy Security Implementation Strategy

[iv]Energy Trends and Their Implications forU.S. Army Installations Donald F. Fournier and Eileen T. Westervelt September 2005

[v]The research described in this report was sponsored by NATO Allied Command Transformation under Purchase Order 701531, 30 Oct 07and conducted by RUSI.

[vi] Gray, J., False Dawn, (London/2002).

[vii]http://www.oursouthwest.com/ Produced by the Government Office for the South West Version 2008

This is based on the original version produced in 2000 in partnership with The Carbon Trust and endorsed by CIMA and the Energy Institute

[viii] Energy efficiency in companies: an analysis of determinants and supporting measures – Christiane Schmid. Dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 2003 (in German)

[ix]ENER•G

[x] U.S. Department of Energy, (2004), Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems,http://www.eere.energy.gov/industry/energy_systems/analysis.html

[xi] Financial Times

[xii] Janes defence weekly

[xiii] From Financial Times,

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/961fff42-f178-11dd-8790-0000779fd2ac.html

[xiv] The Hindu dated 14 Aug 2005

[xv]http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/2105317/French-navy-cut-missions-due-to-high-fuel-costs.html.

[xvi]http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/199187.htm

[xvii]http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/news/story.html?id=c323ebe0-add3-41ab-b8e9-ccf57247a2b6

[xviii]http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/24/content_7846475.htm

[xix]GBP1 M University Partnership Addresses Energy Management in Defence (London, UK. July 8, 2009).

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