The renewable energy


The article above is reviewing the alternative renewable energy resources, such as wind energy, solar energy, biomass, geothermal and hydro technology that could provide a significant contribution to the sustainable development. By reading this article we will enhance our knowledge in the source of renewable energy, how it can be generated, how to develop it and how to implement it in daily life. The article is selected due to the important of alternative energy to substitute the energy sources dwindling availability of oil that will run out at some point.


The terms of hydro-electricity, solar and wind power is already well known in a common society, other terms such as the use of bio-energy, biomass and geothermal as an alternative source of energy are less common. This article provide more detail explanation on those issues.

Bio-energy comprise a wide spectrum of energy activities by the production of direct heat through the fuel wood combustion and other biomass residues, to the electricity generation, and the gaseous, liquid fuels and chemicals production. In developed countries, it usually involves the combustion of biomass residues for electricity and heat. While in developing countries, biomass that is commonly used as a fuel for cooking and heating are in form of wood and other agricultural residues.

The geothermal resource is the earth internal heat. Its usage is varied from the use as a power generation to space heating and/or air conditioning. One of the geothermal energy advantages is that it is viewed as a base-load power, so that it is not faced with the concerns of intermittent supply.

To conclude the review of the article, there are several conclusions on this article as follows:

  • The important contributions of renewable energy for a sustainable development so that it should play an increasing role in the mix of fuels;
  • The examining strategies importance and employing market mechanisms for the improvement and the competitiveness of renewable energies;
  • Countries should address barriers to renewable energy development by promote technical standards, and reduce regulatory impediments to renewable energy trade and investment.


As oil consumption continues to increase, the availability of oil supply remains limited. An oil shortage is a real possibility in Indonesia. As a result Indonesia needs to import both crude oil for refinery feedstock and oil products to meet the energy demand. Meanwhile, Indonesia has a great potential of biomass or renewable sources to be utilized as bio-fuels both Bio-diesel and Bio-ethanol (ethanol). Therefore, energy diversification by introducing the bio-fuel to substitute oil is needed to reduce the oil consumption especially in the transportation sector. As consequence, land areas are required to grow palm oil for supplying Bio-diesel's feedstock, and to grow cassava for supplying Bio-ethanol's feedstock.

Bio-fuel that consists of Bio-diesel and bio-ethanol (ethanol) is an option to be used as an oil substitute energy sources. Bio-fuel can be made from biological sources or biomass, such as oil palm, and soybeans to be used as bio-diesel raw material, as well as cassava (tapioca), yams, and corn as the raw material of ethanol. All of the raw materials are bio-fuel crops that are well known and can be grown well in Indonesia.

However, based on the availability and the land use efficiency, it is estimated that oil palm and cassava can be a source of bio-fuel raw materials with the most potential in Indonesia. Currently, the plants are more intended for other purposes except energy. So the development of these crops as the bio-fuel raw materials will be an important issue and is expected to require more land and further research.


The utilization of ethanol/bio-ethanol as a vehicles fuel is not only determined by the price of premium fuel, but also determined by the price of ethanol/bio-ethanol raw materials. Therefore the production of ethanol/bio-ethanol should consider the economical interests of the two sides; from the side of the ethanol/bio-ethanol producers and from the side of farmers in terms of raw materials provisions. Until now there is still no synergy yet that embodied in a comprehensive, strategic and integrated document plan that will solve the problems to this particular issue. But this problem can be solved by the support of the Government policies on agriculture and forestry that related to land use, incentives policy for the development of bio-ethanol, techno-economic production and bio-ethanol utilization, so there will be clarity of information for entrepreneurs who are attracted in the development of bio-ethanol business.


  1. IEA, Renewable Energy.
  2. BPPT (2006). The Prospect of Bio-fuels Development as a Fuel Substitute, Center for Technology Assessment and Application of Energy Conversion and Conservation, Jakarta.
  3. European Commission (27 September 2001), Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Supply; Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on the promotion of the electricity produced from renewable energy sources.

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