The role of transportation

Introduction:

The role of transportation is very precise or important in the development of the nation; highly industrializes or primitive. Enhanced mobility has many positive effects on economic development and social welfare, including more efficient movement of goods and improved access to jobs, health services, and education. The cities in developing countries having transitional economies inexorably differ from those in developed countries in economic, political and demographic characteristics. Differences in incomes or GDPs largely affect the vehicle ownership, amount road infrastructure. Political history, population growth, size and area of the city, available infrastructure, income and governmental policies are some of the factors that affect the transportation system in any city. This piece of course work deals with comparative study between a city from developing country and other two cities from developed world.

For many centuries, cities had their housing, economic and socio-cultural activities within the confined space. The principal transport mode was walking. But as the industrialization and civilization started taking place, cities extended boundaries and suburbs formed. Now this led to new railway-road lines to provide home-work journeys. In these cities, density remained high and walking continued to be the dominant mode for other journeys. Far Eastern cities or Asian cities show similar characteristics today: very high density and mobility provided mainly by walking or cycling. (Vivier, May 2001)

City in Developing Country:

Mumbai (Other Asian):

It is the sixth largest metropolitan region in the world and largest city in India. It is also most populated city in India. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment centre of India, generating 5% of India's GDP, and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 40% of maritime trade, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. (Pacione, 2006)

Cities in Developed Countries: London (Western European):

London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom. It is the UK's largest and most populous metropolitan area and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. London is a leading global city being the world's largest financial centre and has the largest city GDP in Europe.

New York (North American):

New York is the most populous city in the United States, and the centre of the New York metropolitan area, which is one of the most populous urban areas in the world. New York City is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The economy of New York City is the largest regional economy in the United States and after Tokyo, Japan it is also the second largest city economy in the world.(HARTGEN, 1983)

Comparative Study: Mumbai:

Transportation in Mumbai is a mammoth problem, mainly because of the topography of the island.

It is said that Mumbai transportation system is modelled after the London Transport system; it was similarly developed in conjunction with it. When London developed as complete system, Mumbai had it approximately five years later. The motorway set-up is around 1431 kilometres of main road which serves around 6.2 million people per day. Nonetheless, the most used method of transportation is rail. In Mumbai, there are various bus services; all of them are owned by various private companies. The only highways that exist in Mumbai are the East and West Highways that run north/south along the eastern and western coasts of the island. (Anjana Das, 2003)

At present one of the key problems in Mumbai is travelling distances. The average distance travelled per passenger of mass transportation is 6 kilometres, just about one-third the length of Mumbai. Due to the crowded public transport system, numbers of people are switching to two wheelers; this will be very problematic because it will increase the pollution problem.

Moreover, non-transportation uses of roads, such as squatting, slums and haphazard parking have worsened the situation. Also, another hitch in Mumbai Transport is that it is not run by one governing body. All of the different modes of transportation are owned by different groups, both private and governmental. If they were able to form a city transportation agency, then perhaps progress towards better modes of mass transit, such as a subway, would be possible.

London:

The transport in London was handled by London Passenger Transport Board in 1933-48; but in year 1949, it is changed to London Transport Executive till 1984. But in between 7 years from 1963-1970 it was done by London Transport Board. London Regional Transport came into picture in 1984 after London Transport Executive which again changed in 2000 to Transport for London which is operative till date. The change happened due to the vast activities, operations and maintenance of various routes and mode of transports. (Wastebook)

London's transport forms the hub of the road, rail and air networks in the United Kingdom. A Department of Transport survey carried out in 1995 provides some personal travel mileage data: our average mileage per year per person was 6,511, carried out by 200 miles walking, 37 miles cycling, 800 miles on public transport and 5,474 miles in cars and other private motor vehicles. (Wastebook)

New York:

The transportation system in New York City is a collaboration of complex systems of infrastructure. New York, being the largest city in the United States, has a transportation system which includes the longest subway systems in world measured by pathway mileage; and vehicular tunnel which is mechanically ventilated, and an aerial tramway. (HARTGEN, 1983)

Due to the extensive use, and a divergent history of events, the infrastructure system has problems related to its functionality, dependability, and funding.

According to 2003 figures, of all people who commute to work in New York City, 32% use the subway, 25% drive alone, 14% take the bus, 8% travel by commuter rail, 8% walk to work, 6% carpool, 1% use a taxi, 0.4% ride their bicycle to work, and 0.4% travel by ferry. (HARTGEN, 1983)

Conclusion:

In these modern days of life, transport for work and leisure is primary need which can be easily and flexibly fulfilled by private vehicles. It is believed that, the private car ownership enhances the life and can be a legitimate cause for pride but it needs updating regularly to the latest, more powerful, improved model. This leads to various problems like higher number of traffic accidents; bad effects on health of serious air pollution; occasional marine catastrophes associated with the massive global shipments of oil; unacceptable pressures on native peoples where fossil fuels are extracted; and reduced quality of life for those unable to afford a car, who remain dependent upon declining public transport services.

The development in technology in recent decades seems like the individual vehicles will be a major part of transportation in all countries. But, considering the likely oil prices, it is desirable that future efforts should be made towards reducing the need for road transport, reduce volumes and reduce the effects of traffic.

Journey Sharing (for example lift share, village car share) and Car pools/clubs are becoming popular as they are more convenient and cheaper lifestyle, save money and help in reducing the pollution and climate change. Various governments have taken initiative towards these issues to make a better sustainable green world.

Works Cited

  • Anjana Das, J. P. (2003). Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai. Energy conservation and management , 2603-2629.
  • HARTGEN, D. T. (1983). NEW YORK STATE'S PERSPECTIVE ON TRANSPORTATION ENERGY CONTINGENCY PLANNING. Energy , 8 (8-9), 603-608.
  • OECD. (2001). Sustainable development critical issues.
  • Pacione, M. (2006). City Profile Mumbai. Cities , 23 (3), 229-238.
  • (2008). Trends in transport sector 1970-2006. International transport forum OECD.
  • Vivier, J. (May 2001). Millenium cities database for sustainable mobility - Analyses and recommendations. UITP.

Bibliography

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