My ancestors were from England. They came to America in March of 1683 from Wolverhampton, England. They set sail for America landed in South Carolina and made their way to Georgia to claim land where they would then become rice farmers. Wolverhampton is known today for being the 13th most populous city in England. According to the Met Office in Penkridge, the climate is very mild going from 70 F in July to somewhere around 43.7 F in January. (Met Office) My Great-great-great-great Grandfather Benjamin Waring resided in a Castle in Wolverhampton that has since been destroyed and only a pile of bricks remain.
I have chosen to write about modern day England. The subsistence strategies most commonly used in the UK are pastoralism, agriculture, industrialism and IT. When it comes to pastoralism a few of the things England is known for is their cattle, sheep, poultry and fish. When raising sheep the tools they might use are fences, barns, pastures, possibly sheep dogs and llamas are also sometimes used for protection. The people that contribute to this process are the owners who may or may not also be the shepherds, the other workers there to support and help the shepherd and the ones who shear the sheep. "Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force." (World Guide) For there agriculture they produce oilseed, potatoes and vegetables. The tools that are needed when growing potatoes for example are machines to do the harrowing, plowing, and the seed tubing. For the harvest of the potatoes they would need the machines to dig up the potatoes, trucks to transport, storage house, and a machine to remove the leaves. The people that are involved is the farm owner, tractor drivers, truck drivers, possible assembly line people and the owner of the storage house along with other support staff and extra temporarily hired help. Industrialism has become a huge part of England's economy. They are the leaders in chemical and pharmaceuticals and in specific technical industries, particularly aerospace and the arms industry. England works hand-in-hand with the United State in their aerospace production. They are specifically involved in supplying components, pre assemblies and sub-systems to other manufacturers. The tools needed for such a large job are computures, hightech assemply machines, and many other machines that are beyond my comprehantion. A few of the people involved in this process would be designers, people purchasing the material either for or from the program, people with the ability to run the machines, people on the assibly lines and that is just naming a FEW.
In the UK their political organization in un-centralized, because of this their people are very personally invested and do not willingly yield their power over sovernty. The types of governments they practice are both constitutional monarchy and democracy. The authority is held by the countries monarch in name only; the decisions of the country are made by the Prime Minister and the parliament. The monarch is legitimized by birth and blood relation. The Prime Minister and the parliament are elected by the people and parliament members serve terms up to 5 years. The other divisions of authority belong to The House of Commons and The House of Lords. In 1999, the government decided to no longer allow the given right for the hereditary peers to hold seats in the House of Lords. (Simons) The most powerful allies that the UK holds are it evolvement in the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU). With their evolvement with the UN England secures their aliment with most of the worlds countries.
The economic system most commonly used in the United Kingdom is socialism. Meaning their businesses are most likely collectively owned and the government controls their economics, they have the "freedom from want". Here are the numbers and percents for the economic sectors "Number in labor force: 30.71 million (2007 est.), Sectors: agriculture: 1.4%, industry: 18.2%, services: 80.4% (2006 est.), Unemployment: 5.4% (2007 est.)." (World Guide) One example of redistribution in England is their heavy tax laws that they enforce to provide services for all areas of the society, no matter how rich or poor. The GDP for the UK reached $US 1.782 trillion in the year 2004. (Simons) The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 10% of GDP. (World Guide)
The religious beliefs followed in England are polytheism (many gods) and monotheism (one God). The break down of religions is approximately "Anglican and Roman Catholic 40 million, Muslim 1.5 million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 500,000, Hindu 500,000 and Jewish 350,000." (Simons) The religious practices of the Anglican and Roman Catholics would include going to church and praying the rosary. The religious behaviors of the Presbyterians and the Methodists also include going to church and praying. The Sikhs include daily recitation from memory of specific passages from the Guru Granth Sahib and worship in a gurdwara. The Hindus practice their religion through creating shrines in their homes and are constantly searching for a connection with God. Judaism practices through prayers three times daily, with a fourth prayer added on Shabbat and holidays and attending synagogues. I have named only two of each of the behaviors of the religions above. Each of the religions practice unending rituals, beliefs and traditions that are very extensive and even unique, showing it relationship with the social institution of culture. Religion is a HUGE part of the secondary institutions of culture. Religion is a persons belief and therefore creates social control and guides sacred and moral aspects if culture. One way religions relationship with politics is seen is through the monarchy. The monarch's legitimacy is "given" to them by God. Economics connection with religion can be seen through the giving and placing of money according to a persons belief of what is important or the countries support of the church. Because of the diversity in religions in England there was an attempt to pass a bill of equality in 2006 called the "Racial and Religious Hatred Bill". "This bill makes it an offence to stir up hatred on religious grounds and amends the law on encouraging racial hatred. Its main provisions are to: Extends the racial hatred offences in the Public Order Act 1986. It applies to words or behavior and the display, publication, broadcast or distribution of words or behavior that is likely to stir up religious or racial hatred. It also applies to believers in any or no religion, both ethnically diverse and mono-ethnic, or where the hatred is against a person or group that does not share the beliefs of the perpetrator" (BBC)
The most common form of marriage practiced in the UK is monogamy. The matches are chosen by the couple through what we call a love match. The post-marital residence is neolocal meaning the couple will live in their own home away from their parents. Their families are most often nuclear, where you have husband, wife and the kids are dependant. Their descents are referred to as double, meaning the membership can be traced through both the mother's and/or father's lines through bilateral kinship with both sides of the families. Marriage in the royal families is handled a little differently. According to the Royal Marriage Act of 1772, the members of the British royal family are not allowed to marry if under the age of 25 without the permission of the ruling monarch. (Statute Law Database) The ethnic groups in the UK are broken down into "English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6% and the minorities being Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%" in 2005. (Simons) The population in the UK as of 2005 was 60,441,457.
Other interesting facts: One of England's prides is that the Olympics have been held in London two times now, once in 1908 and again in 1948. London has again been chosen to hold the Olympics in 2012. (Blashfield) A majority of the events will be help in East London in what is known as the Stratford section. While the Olympic Stadium is being developed, housing is being built in the Stratford section for the athletes. Once the games have concluded, the housing will become homes for a new community of five thousand families. (Blashfield) England has nine national parks. What is so unique about that? Well, their national parks are generally privately owned, unlike ours that is owned by the state or government. The oldest national park in England is called Dartmoor. It officially became a national park in 1951. "Dartmoor is famed for its tors, large hills with huge granite stones on top." (Blashfield) Food is another interesting part of England's culture. "Fast food is a tradition in England. Long before McDonald's and Burger King became widespread, the English bought quick meals at fish-and-chips shops. Fish and chips are french fries with deep-fried fish, usually cod. Traditionally, the English upper class ate five meals a day: breakfast, tea or coffee at eleven, lunch, afternoon tea, and finally dinner late in the evenings. Middle- and working-class people were likely to have fewer meals. For many people, afternoon tea gradually turned into a full supper, and the late formal dinner became a thing of the past." (Blashfield) My guess is when the monarchy and the Lords and Ladies became less of a governmental position and more of just a title that all of a sudden more attention was put on the middle- and working-classes. Thus that would explain why the traditions of the wealth faded and the country started to adjust more for the "everyday" people. I was in fact surprised to find out the actual lack of power over government that the ruling monarch has. In my mind I was stuck on the fairytales of Kings and Queens ruling over the people deciding what should happen and controlling the kingdom when in actuality their authority is in name only. Queen Elizabeth was crowned in February of 1952 and is still reigning to this day, making that 58 years from 1952-2010. She is the Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other Commonwealth realms.
Current News Article: "Cities bid to start national grid for electric cars". (telegraph.co.uk) I chose this article because it was specifically talking about the auto industry in the UK. This process of choosing a city is being controlled by the government and it will affect the economy. This article talks about subsistence strategies, politics, government and economics all in one. On top of all that it is also trying to please the people by showing that they are going to start making cars "green".