I want to talk about learning. But not the lifeless, sterile, futile, quickly forgotten stuff that is crammed in to the mind of the poor helpless individual tied into his seat by ironclad bonds of conformity! I am talking about LEARNING - the insatiable curiosity that drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of his 'cruiser'. I am talking about the student who says, "I am discovering, drawing in from the outside, and making that which is drawn in a real part of me." I am talking about any learning in which the experience of the learner progresses along this line: "No, no, that's not what I want"; "Wait! This is closer to what I am interested in, what I need"; "Ah, here it is! Now I'm grasping and comprehending what I need and what I want to know!" Carl Rogers 1983: 18-19
One of the main problems in education as Rogers mentioned deep or full learning. Constructivism, behaviorism and other education theories actually search effective learning. In my opinion under the certain conditions, people can talk about effective learning. At this point; learning by living or more generally learning with context play vital role. According to Whiteleg and Parry context based learning means that the environment of students, teachers and institution in terms of social and cultural aspects. In terms of physics the MEB test book defines context based learning such that: context, person recognizing ability of events, phenomena and technology which is using; with physics. In this manner the learning changes into abstract to simple. Because of the fact that school information about physics and daily life experience relations barely reflected into the physics curriculum, students ask questions about physics why we are learning such things or do we apply this information into daily life. At the past students cannot find the answer of these questions and their interest and success in physics getting decrease. Context based learning are considers daily life events or technologies which students familiar with. Then find relations between context and physics. By this manner learning can get better. Context based learning generally applied with constructivist approach. What is more; context based learning support with short stories.
Name of the unit: MATTER and ITS PROPERTIES
Grade Level: 9th Grade High School
Duration: 4-5 Weeks (9 lecture hours)
Assume that one break a large boulder with a heavy hammer. When you hit the boulder with hammer, the boulder part into rocks. Then you break the rocks into stones, and stones into gravel. Break the gravel into sand and the sand into powder of fine crystal. Every crystal is composed of many billons of smaller particle, which is called atoms. Atoms are the building blocks of most matter. Everything around you hear, see, touch, taste or smell is made of atoms (Hewitt 1997). Matter can simple defined as everything having mass. This unit aims to teach some basic facts about the matter, which are mainly the phases of matter, properties of matter, distinguishing and common feature of matter and changing elements to elements by itself (shortly mentioning radioactivity).
Students learned definitions of atoms, elements and molecules. What is more; students learned the physical and chemical change of matter at 6th grade. At 7th Grade they learn there are matter which are smaller then atoms, electron, proton and neutron and they examine Dalton and Bohr atom models. At 8th Grade students compare the similar and different feature of metals, non metals and semimetals (Appearance, conductivity, softness).
At this year, this unit, students learn fusion and fission, the elements can change into the other elements, radioactivity. Phases of matter and common and distinguishing feature of matter will mention. By knowing matter and it's properties students become more familiar with integrating science to daily life. What is more; this unit helps to develop students critical and analytical thinking abilities by knowing matter and it's properties more deeply. The smart crow example in the text book is the one of the example of development of critical thinking.
Topics are list as stated in MEB physics programs. The classification of the matters and its properties are the first place and mentioning atoms and its feature are last place. The order of topics sequence arranged difficulty level and subjects are arranged from easy to hard.
1. Distinguishing and Common feature of matter
2. Classifications of matter
3. Volume of the solids and liquids
4. Density of the solids and liquids by mass-volume graphs
5. Distinguishing properties of matter
6. Matter Properties caused by change of structure of atoms( Physical and chemical changes)
7. Learning and giving example of; elements in the nature generally stable, there are some elements unstable and these elements changes into other elements
1) Students should know definition of atom
2) Students should know solid, liquid and gas form of matter phase
3) Students should define physical change
4) Students should define chemical change
5) Students should define distinguishing feature of matter in their own words
6) Students should comprehend common feature of matter
1) Classify the matter according to their phase
1. distinguish the phases of matter
2. exemplify phase of matter in daily life
2) learn distinguishing and Common feature of matter
1. define distinguishing feature of matter
2. identify common feature of matter
3. analysis which feature are distinguishing feature and which are not
4. state the meaning of mass
3) Measure the volume of solids and liquids
1. Measure the volume of geometric shaped solids
2. Measure the volume of liquids
4) Learn density concept
1. Find density by mass-volume graphs
2. Calculate density of solids and liquid
3. Analysis density of solids by mass-volume graph
5) Classify the change of matter into chemical or physical change
1. Define physical change
2. Comprehend chemical change involve also physical change
3. Give example of chemical change in daily life
6) Learn matter structure can change by itself
1. state definition of radioactivity in their own words
2. State natural radioactivity matters
3. Understand matter can change into another matter
Distinguishing and Common feature of matter(2 hour lesson)
Classifications of matter( 2 hour lesson)
Volume of the solids and liquids(2 hour lesson)
Density of the solids and liquids by mass-volume graphs(1 hour lesson)
Matter Properties caused by change of structure of atoms( Physical, chemical changes, fission and fusion)(2 hour lesson)
A. Methods and Techniques:
In this unit four teaching methods will used. These are questioning, traditional lecturing, problem based learning and cooperative learning respectively.
Questioning Method: At this state teacher ask questions related to daily life. The questions aim to provide learner participation to lesson and taking learner attraction to the lesson. What is more; this technique supports to motivate students.
Traditional Lecturing: In this method teacher mention the concepts and theory of the subjects according to physics program.
Problem based learning Method: Generally teacher behaves like a guide at this method. Teacher establishes the problem and asks students questions about the problems. Students make brain storming and deep thinking to give answer to the teacher questions.
Cooperative learning Method: this methods not only provide deep learning but also help to improve students social interaction. At this method teacher role is to guide students, and students role climb to first place in the lesson. Students have to study their works which are given as a part of group work. Students improve social relations with group friends, students punctuality will developed. What is more; students have to teach concepts, which are not understand by their group friends.
Physics text book
Computer and projector
Hand out and work sheet
C. Classroom activities:
Students should take note
Students should actively participate the lesson
Students should watch instructional videos
Students should make their duties at the cooperative works
Students should try to answer the teacher questions
D. Out of classroom activities:
Students should examine daily life example of the subject mentioned in the lessons
Students should study the next lecture
Students should study the last lecture
Students should do their homework if there is one.
E. Assessment strategies:
Observations of students at the problem based learning and discussion methods of the lesson.
Answers to orally asked questions
Group work performance
MEB 9TH Grade physics text book
MEB 9TH Grade physics program( curriculum)
Conception Physics Hewitt 1997
SSME443 lecture note
Fatih find a way to rescued from lung Cancer?
Fatih was a student at the Anatolian High School last year in Bursa. He won the physics education department at METU, at university entrance exam. Since he did not stay in Ankara, Fatih and his father found nice and suitable home to live in Ankara. Fatih's home is near his university, he loves his home; his home is at the floor level, the bottom of building. He loves not only physics but also sports. Every week he plays football and basketball regularly. Two years later, when Fatih playing football, he recognizes that his performance getting worse and he have sometimes problem with breathing. To find answers of questions related to his health, he went to doctor. Unfortunately he learn that he start to be a lung cancer. Fatih ask himself why am I going to be a lung cancer even if I am not smoking. He is very down about his situation. After two days later when he explaining health problem to his friends by saying why am I, not only I, but also my family not smoking. One of his friend said ‘Fatih did you search about reasons of lung cancer.' No only I know that smoking cause lung cancer, but I like your idea, I have to search. He searched the reasons of lung cancer and he found that smoking really the most important reason of lung cancer, but there are some other reasons to lung cancer.
Are the objects in my home can cause cancer
The reasons of lung cancer definitely related to physics, so learning physics helps us to understand our environmental phenomena. Fatih spent lot of time in my home so; I have to start to search reasons of lung cancer at my home. Fatih ask question himself “Are the objects in my home can cause cancer?” To give answer of this question, Fatih understand that; he needs to know general properties of objects in his home.
When Fatih look objects in the home, he saw books, cloths, aquarium, perfume, candle and fluorescent lamb.
Fatih knows every object in the environment compose of atoms. Same type of atoms forms elements. At least two atoms interactions create molecules and two or more type of atoms create chemical compound.
The number of type of atoms or molecules it contain and energy involve binding it together or the amount of objects is called mass.
Objects, having mass, cover place in the space and it is called volume.
More generally matter refers to the substance that all objects are made of. Simply everything in the environment having mass and volume is called matter.
Research and collect information about water cycle?
a) Is water matter?
b) Can the mass of water change with temperature and pressure?
c) Can the volume of water change with temperature and pressure? How?
d) How can we classify water in the water cycle according to their phase? Rain, snow and evaporation of water are examples of water stage.
Dictionary meaning of classification is that; the act of forming into a class or classes; a distribution into groups, as classes, orders, families, etc., according to some common relations or attributes. Fatih classify everything in his environment according to their some specific properties. Food, beverage to electronic device classifies according to their properties. Since all example of above are matter, we can classify nothing more than matter. In this unit matter are classify according to their phase. What is more; the phase of matter also classify according to making shift motion, compression and effecting to magnet.
DOES THE PHASE OF MATTER CAN CAUSE CANCER?
Fatih search the reason of lung cancer by starting in his home. Fatih learned that every matter in his home has some common properties and they classify according to their some specific properties. For example matter can classify according to it phase.
You already familiar with solid, liquids and gas phase of matter. (At the 6th grade students have to learn). Let examine concepts more deeply.
Solid state: The chemical bonding of matter strong enough to hold particle together. The matters at the solid state have particular shape and volume.
Liquid state: In liquids the chemical bonding weaker than solids. Matters have certain volume but no particular shape.
(c) doc bGas state: The chemical bonding of particle weakest, compare to solids and liquids. The particles are freely moves from one point to other. They have no specific shape and volume.
Plasma: If we give too much energy to the gas, then the electrons break from the atom. Protons and electrons move freely. We called this plasma. More simply plasma is ionized gas. Plasma covers all properties of gases. Plasma is a good electric and heat conductor. What is more; plasma affected by electric and magnetic field.
There is an easy way to summarize phases of matter.
Fatih learned that the structure of matter does not change with phase change, so phase change cannot cause cancer. He must try to find other properties of matter.
Fatih`s cousin Mikail
Fatih`s cousin Mikail last week went to super market and bought 1 liter milk. Two days ago Mikail went to grocery store and wanted 1 liter yogurt. The owner of grocery store start laughs and said to Mikail yogurt sell with kilogram not liter. Mikail mind is confused. Let us examine what we need to use for volume of liquid.
The SI unit of volume is m3. More over liter is also commonly use to find volume of liquids. From the general properties of liquids; we know that liquids have certain volume and no shape. Measuring the volume of a liquid is relatively straight forward. Since liquids take the shape of the container in which they are placed, a liquid whose volume is to be found can simply be poured into a graduated container, that is, a container on which some scale has been etched. Graduated cylinders of various sizes, ranging from 10 ml to 1 l are commonly available in science laboratories for measuring the volumes of liquids. http://science.jrank.org/pages/7262/Volume-volume-liquids-gases.html
1 m3 = 1000 dm3
1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 = 1 l (l=liter)
1 l = 10 dl= 100 cl= 1000 ml
1 cm3 = 1 ml =1 cc
Suppose that we have three different geometric shaped container. If we put same amoung of specific gas. What we can say about volume of gas in the three container?
a) Could you find the relationship between volume of water and the mass of water?
b) Repated you experiment with different liquids, like oil and civa.
c) Find the graph of the volume versus mass for the two different liquids
d) What are the slopes of the graphs; find in the part c; ?
(Hint: to find mass of liquids; firstly we measure the weight of liquids then divide this quiantity to the gravitational constant)
In the experiment we learn that the slope of graphs are constant. More genarelly we called the mass of unit volume is density. The mass of the object is constant under the different pressure and temperature but the volume of object can change with pressure and temperature; so the denstiy of matter can change with different temperature and pressure but it is canstant under the same pressure and temperature.
Density = mass/ volume d=m/v
A B C
Suppose that we three different geometric shaped objects with same masses but different volumes, the volume of object Vb>Va>Vc. Could you find the relationships between densities of these geometric shaped objects?
1 Step: (Understanding problem); at this step read the question again and understand what is wanted and what is ask?
For this question; they give relations of volumes of the three different objects and inform the relation of masses which is same; and they want to find relationships between densities of objects.
2 Step: (Develop strategy); at this step, the suitable strategy for problem is exemined
For this question; we use formules of density d=m/v
3 Step: ( carry out plan); at this step, we try to find answer by using strategy we developed
4 Step: (cheching the solution); at this step, the answer of question is chceked by different, alternative method or same method.
Group members name:
Volume (V) Formulas
V=A. B. h
Ø Defines what volume of the solids mean in your own words.
Ø Give some example of geometric shape solids in daily life.( at least 5 example)
Ø Explain the difference between geometric shaped solids and non geometric shaped solids in terms of measurement of volumes.
Ø Which factors can change volume of geometric shape solids?
Ø Calculate five models of the geometric shape solids and show your calculation
Ø Stated the reason of why some models volumes are same?
Ø How can we modify these five models in order create same volume of each model?
This activity made under the control of techer. Be carefull about the macthes combustable property.
Fire the nepkin then extinguish the nepkin.
Collect the smoke of the nepkin in a glass
Put the glass into glass container then close the container.
Observe the smoke of nepkin
Is there any difference between the first and the last volume of smoke?
If we make the same procedure with bigger container, are we get the similar results?
We learn that denstiy of matter is different under constant temperature and pressure. So by finding densities of two material, object; we can compare wheather they are same matter or not.
Are there any other concepts help us to find distinguishing feature of matter?
distinguishing feature of matter
The mass of unit volume
The temperature of matter at the phase change solid to liquid
The temparature of matter ath the pahse change liquid to gas
Extension Inleght Coeffecient
The length of 1 cm matter`s change in length when 1o C temperature change
The volume of 1 cm3 matter`s change in volume when 1o C temperature change
Heat of Melting
The heat amoung of 1gram matter at melting point to change phase at same temperature
Heat of Boiling
The heat amoung of 1 gram matterat boiling point to change phase at same temperature
Capable of conduction Heat
The heat amoung to change 1 gram matter`s temperature 10C
The volume of unit mass
The ratio of the applied stress to the change in shape of an elastic body
WHAT CAUSE FATİHS LUNG CANCER?
Let's examine uranium atom
Uranium is silvery white metal chemical element with atomic number 92, it symbolize by U. Figure shows picture of uranium atom. It occur naturally low concentration in soil, rock and water. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of naturally occurring elements, this imply that uranium is unstable because of this reason uranium naturally want to decay to reduce this weight. We called this situation radiation of uranium. More generally radioactivity is the process in which unstable atomic nucleuses spontaneously lose energy by emitting ionizing particle.
In the earth matters are generally are stable; but there are some unstable matters like uranium and these unstable atoms make radiation to become stable, in this progress elements change into other elements. For example uranium changes into radon.
Fatih learn about the history of radon
During the Middle Ages pitchblende miners in present day Austria were known to die at a relatively young age. It was not until the turn of the previous century that their cause of death was recognized as lung cancer. In the United States, epidemiological studies showed there was an unusually incidence of lung cancer among uranium miners. One of which reason of lung cancer, after smoking, is a radioactive matter. He learned that this radioactive matter is colorless, noble gas, have very high density and the most importantly decay product of uranium.* Uranium found naturally in soils racks and water so this radioactive matter found in the place where uranium found, everywhere. He learn that this gas cause 22000 people death every year in USA.
* attention the green written words define one specific matter and each word imply distinguishing properties of matter.
WHAT KIND OF CHANGE CAUSE LUNG CANCER?
Fatih learn that there are some element can change into other elements and this cause lung cancer, but Fatih wonder this change?
As we mention at the beginning of the chapter, matter compose of atoms. According to atom theory atom have small nucleus compose of neutron and proton, and there are electrons at the specific regions, orbits; when the phase of matter changes, for example, the electrons orbits change, expand and shrinking. We called as change is physical change. On the other hand; the binding of electrons, number of electrons and the nucleus of atom can change and we called such change chemical change
Examine the website blow and write a short report about
A) parts of websites you like
B) Activies in the website
C) Suggest at least one website related to chemical and phyiscal change activites or games
http://www.gamequarium.com/change.html, at this website you find same chemical and physical change activites and games. http://www.quia.com/quiz/303980.html at this web site you can find drill and practice atcivities,
Compose two groups in your class and try to find 10 physical or chemical change examples in the daily life and state the reason of why you consider as a chemical change or physical change. Discuss your finding firstly with your group member, then the other group. If you have any problem asks your teacher.
How Uranium element change into Radon
Uranium to Radon
Uranium is a radioactive element, unstable. By making radiation; uranium goes to be stable. In this process uranium atom changes into other atoms. α, β and γ are some example of radiation type, uranium make. In the figure we can see that uranium atom change into other elements and required time for this process.
In physics, the process of a large atomic nucleus splitting into two smaller particles is called fission.
As you can understand from the figures and description, after the fission there are forming new nucleus.
Radon to Uranium
Do we form uranium from the radon? Or more generally do we have combine atomic nuclei together to form a heavier nucleus.