4. Moral and ethical issues
As today's world population tends to grown exponentially, many nations are looking for new ways to control world overpopulation, this section of the essay would examine this phenomena from a moral and ethical perspective. The nation subject to our analysis is China; one country with a long history and vast culture. This essay will focus on many controversial issues that have been a part of China's history and issues that China faces today. This essay attempts to introduce different moral and ethical perspectives in an unbiased manner.
4.1 China's One-child only policy:
China, a picturesque country in the Far East, host of stunning mountainsides and plains, besides that is plagued with the sociological problem of overpopulation. In and around the 1980s the population reached one billion. This great amounts of people contained in a single country, lead to an extreme lack of natural resources and degradingly low standards of living. Along with the huge upheaval of unemployment rates and the drastically falling literacy rates, the country was in dire need of some plan to control the birth rates. The thought of controlling the country's population systematically may have too few supporters from religious groups but having an annual quota for the amounts of births allowed in the country is not something to overlook.
Population control didn't start until the mid 1970s when the government came up with the goal to keep the population under 1.2 billion. The one-child family policy was implemented in 1979 and has been a basic national policy. The main content of the current policy includes encouraging late marriage and later, fewer, and healthier births, as well as advocating a 'one child per family' (Su, 2005, p.18). Immediately the detractors begin their campaign saying it attempts against the rights of any family to planning, in line with what they believe about basic human reproductive rights. The family police implemented in China have one big concern, the right for autonomy in reproduction.
An essential question is how society should limit autonomy, and part of the answer to this is to examine the existing ways that autonomy is limited for the group interest, and how well individuals accept this. Even know the society is responsible for limit personal autonomy, the dilemma still open; is reasonable for the society limit the personal right to leave descendants?
4.1.1 China's daughters (when one child is a female)
The Policy has also been criticized because, it favors males over females as the males would grow up, bring in money for the family and carry on their name. Whereas, a daughter, once married, is likely to support her husbands family rather than her family. Afterwards the first accusations of widespread womanlike infanticide in China connected to the government's "one-child" policy, polemic has raged over the number of deaths that can be attributed to infanticide as opposed to other causes. In this matter, the policy is clearly immoral, and may lead to an unbalance gender proportion between the populations.
Even if millions of Chinese baby girls are unregistered rather than directly terminated, however, the pattern of prejudice is one that will cruelly reduce their chances in life. Unquestionably is clear that in regards to female child the policy enlarge the discrimination against women in this country, so the collateral damage is vast. China, the most populous nation on Earth, could find itself dealing with the combine frustrations of as its one-child policy is creating a scarcity of female babies, which can lead to girl traffic, prostitution and drugs as a wrong way to fix this shortage.
4.1.2 China's practices to around one-child policy
Because of the rural-urban education gap, we expect the effect of family size on child quality to be different in rural and urban areas. Given that public education is more prevalent and children's education held to be more important in urban China, having an additional child in the family may result in a smaller adverse impact on the average child education compared with the effect in a rural family.
4.1.3 China's Abortion Business
Abortions are legal in China and are so widespread that the price is considerably lower than in the United States. The policy China has in place permitting families to have just one child and penalizing them with coerced abortions and sterilizations when they violate it is hurting the nation's moral image around the world. On a whole, I do not think that abortion can be justified for any reason other than medical reasons. Women must get ready to take responsibility for their choices. Choices to abortion do exist and I believe that one good alternative is sterilization. Every child deserves a right to live and taking that away is something that women in China need to consider before they conceive it.
4.2 China's elders
Around the globe, peoples are living longer, more fulfilling lives than ever before as a result of the unprecedented advances in modern health care and technology. These improvements in life expectancy plus the one child policy in China is creating an imbalance between different generations of the population in this country. With the diminution of some, and elimination of other state-provided social services, these older adults will have to count on their children to provide for their retirement, since children are required to be the primary providers of support and care for their senior parents, grandparents and parents-in-law. This alone sounds unrealistic as young people try to prepare for better opportunities and even in the best case the scarcity of resources may doomed the quality of life of orders persons making this another immorally incorrect outcome of the one-child policy.
Should one child only be the direction to regulate growing population?
From the moral perspective, persons do have the right to determine if they want to leave descendants, the autonomy of any person in respects that matter is indisputable, but state autonomy to control its population is fair and justified to avoid scarcity for futures generations. The dilemma presented in this essay is not just a matter of quantity it's a matter of consequences, how many problems economic or moral does this policy originates it? Only through education and common sense humanity can avoid a huge global overpopulation problem, if we want a better quality of life its begins when we take care of our congeners.
Su, B., & Macer, D. (2005, April). A sense of autonomy is preserved under Chinese reproductive policies. New Genetics And Society, 24(1), 15-29.