Trampoline Basketball Injury Analysis

Kinetics is a branch of mechanics that describes the effect of forces on the body"?1. Forces can produce, stop or modify a movement. Forces provide movement and stabilization for the body, but can also deform and injure the body. There are many types of forces, such as gravity, normal force, tension, and friction, but it is the type of force, as well as the manner of other acting forces that can cause an injury or deformation to the body.

An example where forces can have a negative impact is from a video on -"You Tube"?, named Trampoline Basketball Injury [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= kL6RxBcrMiI]. This video demonstrates a young adolescent trying to dunk a basketball while jumping on a trampoline. He is projected in the air from the trampoline elastic force and while coming down, his right leg gets caught in the rim. There is a very strong possibility that this adolescent breaks his tibia and maybe his fibula as well from the different forces acting on the leg.

The first force acting on the leg is the force of gravity. The adolescent is falling at approxiamately 9.81 m/s2, which is a constant number for the acceleration due to gravity, times the force of the adolescent"„¢s mass. As the adolescent is coming down, his heal hits the rim. There is the force of the leg coming down to hit the rim, as well as the rims force coming up against the heal of the foot, keeping it so the basketball pool doesn"„¢t fall over completely. If the adolescent"„¢s leg would have bounced back instead of going through the rim, he probably would have been injury free, besides a bruised heal or ankle. However his leg went through the rim, causing injury. As his leg goes through the rim, his posterior knee gets caught on the edge of the rim. Here, there is his body mass, plus gravity force acting down on the rim, while the rim has a force acting up to keep it in place. When his knee hits the rim, his body is still falling due to gravity. When this occurs, his knee flexes and his foot comes up. Here, his ankle hits the opposite side of the rim with a force acting up, while the rim has a force acting down on the ankle. Due to the strong opposite forces of the rim acting on the leg, the force up acting at the knee and the force down acting at the ankle, it can be assumed that a fracture has a occurred. Another factor that could have influenced a fracture would be the slight rotation, or torsion, that occurred between the knee and the ankle as he hit the rim.

STRESS STRAIN.Fractures can be the result of a high force impact or stress to a particular area. In adolescents, the tendons and ligaments are relatively stronger than the epiphyseal plate. Adolescents are more prone to injuries because of their growth spurts causing them to have some imbalance in strength and flexibility in the biomechanical properties of bone. During this time, an overload on the bone may cause the bone to be more susceptible to bow or buckling, causing the bone to break or fracture.2

Bone is a complex structure that resists mechanical forces on the body, as well as having the ability to adapt to changes in the enviornment.3 Bone is made up of many layers, consisting of minerals and collage which determine the quality of bone. The minerals of the bone provides stiffness, while the collagen of bone provides ductility and the ability to absorb energy.3 The outermost layer is the periosteum which contains the blood vessels and nerve cells. The next layer is cortical bone, which is also known as compact bone, makes up the outer portion of the bone and is usually stiffer and able to withstand greater stress. This layer contains collagen, calcium, and phosphorus. The third layer is cancellous bone, which is also known as spongy bone, has a large capacity for energy and can withstand greater strain. Cancellous bone acts as more of a shock-absorber. The innermost layer is the medullay cavity, which is filled with marrow.

When a fracture occurs, it disrupts the continuity of the bone, including the multiple layers. Since the periosteum contains nerve cells, fractures can be very painful. The periosteum also contains blood vessels, which can cause edema as well as swelling which can cause pressure pain. Another characteristic of fractures is muscle spasms from trying to hold the bone together.

After a fracture, the healing process can depend on the severity, age, and general health. Bone healing is a complex cascade of biological events that is very unique and resembles the stages of embryonic bone development.4 One part of bone regeneration is angiogenesis which is the sprouting of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels.5 Bone formation after a fracture is initiated by an inflammatory reaction. There are several phases of bone healing. The first stage is the inflammatory phase, where proliferation of cells and formation of a hematoma occurs around the fracture site. This occurs during the first 14 days of the fracture. Next, is the reparative stage, which is during weeks 1-8. Here, the formation of soft bone callus fills the space between the bone ends and will eventually turn into hard callus. The last stage is the remodeling phase, which can last from 2 months to 2 years after the fracture. During this stage, the bridging hard callus gets reorganized and remodeled so it can take on the specific forces of everyday living.6

As Wolff"„¢s Law states, tissues adapt to the stresses placed upon them. Therefore, bone is laid down and absorbed depending on the stresses imposed on them. With fractures, immobilization is often necessary so the bone can heal correctly, it decreases pain, and it can protect the injured structures. Some negative side effects from immobilization can be muscular atrophy inhibition or atrophy, joint hypomobility, adaptive shortening of the capsule or connective tissue, decreased lubrication of the joint surface, degeneration of cartilage, and decreased joint stability. With these negative side effects, it is important to have proper rehabilitation to strengthen as well as attempt to get back to pre-injury abilities.

Osteoarthritis, Cartilage, and Joint Replacement

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease characterized by complex joint degeneration. Osteoarthritis usually increases with age and some symptoms are joint stiffness, deformity, and functional impairment.7 When a joint becomes damaged, chemicals build up in the joints and increase the production of cartilaginous components. When the body tries to repair the tissues of the joint, new growths of cartilage, bone or other tissue may form, which can cause bumps in and around the joints. These bumps can damage the smooth, slippery surface of the joint, and the joint then may have difficulties moving in it"„¢s once smooth rhythm. Although there is no cure for osteoarthritis, there are many treatments that can help reduce pain to improve and movement.8

One treatment for osteoarthritis is joint replacement. Joint replacement is usually a final solution to osteoarthritis due to the risks in any surgery. During a joint replacement surgery, the damaged joint surfaces are removed and replaced with either plastic or metal prostheses. Some joints can last up to 20 years, but any joint replacement has the risk of failing, and/or needing replaced again.9 A primary reason for joint replacement is to decrease pain in everyday living tasks. Another reason is to improve motion and function. Joint replacement surgery is usually very successful in improving daily living.

Reference List

1. Neumann DA. Getting started. In: Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2002:11-15.

2. Sharma P, Luscombe KL, and Maffulli N. Sports injuries in children. Trauma. 2003;5(4):245-259. http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy.udayton.edu/ehost/pdf?vid =3&hid=4&sid=f826ed42-d049-42c4-929b-892addd6d21f%40sessionmgr104. Accessed September 10, 2009.

3. Viguet-Carrin S, Garnero P, Delmas PD. The role of collagen in bone strength. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(3):319-336. http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy.udayton. edu/ehost/pdf?vid=61&hid=105&sid=964f3fed-5651-493e-a0ce0caac13a5be2 %40sessionmgr110. Accessed September 10, 2009.

4. Tosounidis T, Kontakis G, Nikolaou V, Papathanassopoulos A, Giannoudis PV. Fracture healing and bone repair: an update. Trauma. 2009;11(3):145-156. http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy.udayton.edu/ehost/pdf?vid=4 &hid=9 &sid=aaabaeca-61f9-414f-9718-ed585da191fa%40sessionmgr14. Accessed September 11, 2009.

5. Weiss S, Zimmermann G, Pufe T, Varoga D, Henle P. The systemic angiogenic response during bone healing. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129(7):989-997. http://journals.ohiolink.edu.libproxy.udayton.edu/ejc/pdf.cgi/Weiss_Stefan.pdf?issn=09368051&issue=v129i0007&article=989_tsardbh. Accessed September 10,2009.

6. Schindeler A, McDonald MM, Bokko P, Little DG. Bone remodeling during fracture repair: the cellular picture. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2008;19(5):459-466. http://journals.ohiolink.edu.libproxy.udayton.edu/ejc/ pdf.cgi/Schindeler_Aaron.pdf?issn=10849521&issue=v19i0005&article=459_brdfrtcp. Accessed September 11, 2009.

7. Silva L, Valim V, Pessanha A, et al. Hydrotherapy versus conventional land-based exercise for the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized clinical trial. Physical Therapy. 2008;88(1):12-21. http://web. ebscohost.com.libproxy.udayton.edu/ehost/pdf?vid=71&hid=9&sid=964f3fed-5651-493e-a0ce-0caac13a5be2%40sessionmgr110. Accessed September 7, 2009.

8. Altman RD. Osteoarthritis (OA). The Merck Manuals. 2008. http://www.merck. com/mmhe/sec05/ch066/ch066a.html. Accessed September 14, 2008.

9. Mayo Clinic Staff. Osteoarthritis. MayoClinic.com.October 11, 2007. http://www. mayoclinic.com/health/osteoarthritis/DS00019/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs. Accessed September 14, 2008.

Please be aware that the free essay that you were just reading was not written by us. This essay, and all of the others available to view on the website, were provided to us by students in exchange for services that we offer. This relationship helps our students to get an even better deal while also contributing to the biggest free essay resource in the UK!