Abraham Lincoln's policies

Michael 2nd period

Abraham Lincoln's policies effected American and the Civil War

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865) served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery .At the very first days Abraham Lincoln became the president of United States, he had to face a lot of problems. Abraham Lincoln won the Presidency in 1860, have won two-thirds of the electoral votes, but he only had forty percent of the popular vote. As the result of the election, there were seven states, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, Mississippi , Louisiana, and Texas seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate State, at his first four months as the president, which showed that he was not wanted as President. The first battle at Bull Run with the defeat of the Northern, made them realized that was not just the rebellion, this was the war, Civil War. From that time, Abraham Lincoln had to begin his hard and complicated duty to carry United States out of problems. Moreover as the commander, Lincoln involved strongly in the American Civil War and he also directly took a part in military planning, even he did not have battle experiments. He also played very important role in the Reconstruction era. He was the first president reorganize the policies of the Southern states. The Reconstruction period began in 1865 and continued until 1877. Abraham Lincoln took part in the Reconstruction era from 1861 - 1865, which he did while the time of Civil War happened.

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky. He was the son of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, and he also the first president of United States was born in the west. When Lincoln was nine, his mother, 34 years old, died of milk sickness. Soon after, his father remarried to Sarah Bush Johnston. At the age of 22, Lincoln moved out and began the individual life. Because of the family's finance, Lincoln's formal education consisted of about 18 months of schooling, but he was largely self-educated and an avid reader. In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, from a wealthy slaveholding family based in Lexington, Kentucky. Two years later, they married in the Springfield mansion of Mary's sister. Together, Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd had four children, Robert Todd Lincoln, Edward Lincoln, Willie Lincoln, Tad Lincoln. Unfortunately, the early death of their sons gave a lot of stresses for both Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd. Because of that, later Lincoln even suffered the mental illness.

Lincoln began his political career in March 1832 at age 23 when he announced his candidacy for the Illinois General Assembly. His decision was made based on self-confident; he believed he is equal to any man. He was esteemed by the residents of New Salem, but he didn't have an education, powerful friends, or money. As the result, he just finished eight out of thirteen candidates (only the top four were elected). Then he decided to become a lawyer, and began self-studied law by reading Commentaries on the Laws of England. He soon became the successful lawyer. Moreover, he also served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a representative from Sangamon County, affiliated with the Whig party. In 1846, Lincoln was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served one two-year term. Then he came back to Springfield and focused on practicing law. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln received his first endorsement to run for the presidency. The central issue of the presidential election of 1860 was bound to be slavery. Initially, Lincoln expected to completely stop the slavery to prevent it get further expansion into any U.S. territory, and by offering compensated emancipation (an offer accepted only by Washington, D.C). Lincoln was supported by the Republican Party in 1860, which stated that slavery should not be allowed to expand into any more territories. Moreover, most Americans agreed that if all future states admitted to the Union would be free states. As the result, Abraham Lincoln became the 16th president of the United States in 1860 with 1,866,452 popular votes and 180 electoral votes. However, the South did not expect him as president. His policies were totally a different track from their ways to make benefits. Because of their economics was based on agriculture, which needed a large amount of slave. In addition, these plantations gave the land owners the enormous income, so they did not want to lose that profits.

Just four months later Abraham Lincoln was elected; these states in the South, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, Mississippi , Louisiana, and Texas seceded from the Union, and formed the Confederate, led by Jefferson Davis. In 1861, Lincoln tried to take attempt, which is not create the war, by ordering the navy to blockade southern ports, this preventing the trade of the South's moneymaker, cotton. Moreover, it also prevented the Southern can get supplies from the North, which the South could not produce. However, his attempt was failed. There were four more states Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Arkansas joined the Confederate, which helped the South have more supplies and strengthen their forces for the war.

Finally, the first battle of the Civil War was exploded at a creek called, Bull Run. Northern was surprised, and eventually they were defeated. By then they also recognized that it was no longer a rebellion; it was truly a war. It was the American Civil War, which is between the Union and eleven Southern slave states. After that losing, Abraham Lincoln appointed George B. McClellan as new general. As the South's belief, there would be the second Bull Run. General Lee led 45,000 men of the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River into Maryland on September 5. Lincoln then sent troops reinforcements to McClellan. McClellan and Lee fought at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17 1862, which was the bloodiest day in United States military history. Both the Union and Confederate armies suffered great losses. Even though, it was considered as the victory for Union, because the invasion of the Confederate was stopped. Moreover, it also created a great time for Lincoln to deliver The Emancipation Proclamation, which state that slaves were liberated. From that time, the purpose of the war was viewed as completely changed from preservation the union to the freeing of slavery. After the Battle of Antietam, McClellan did not perform well; soon, he was replaced by Ambrose Burnside. Not as Lincoln's expected, Burnside was defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, when over twelve thousand Union soldiers were killed or wounded.

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