HOMELAND OF ARABOS:-
Islam is customary to begin with a survey of the political, economic, social and religious conditions of Arabia. The most remarkable feature of the political life of Arabia before Islam was the total absence of political organization in any form. The modern student of history finds it incredible that the Arabs lived, generation after generation, century after century, Without a government of any kind. Since there was no government, there was no law and no order. The only law of the land was lawless. Since Arabia did not have a government, they were locked up in continue warfare.
There was a king of Assyria, his name was Shalmanezer. He fights major but undecided battle at Karkar against his enemy, .name was Gindibu who was, the king of Damascus .An Assyrian writer recorded the event in cuneiform, notes the strong size of the enemy forces: 63,000 infantry, 2000 warriors on horse, 4000 chariots ( rath) and 1000 warriors on camels. The men on camels, the writer adds, are brought to the battle by Gindibu the Arab
Once Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni said that the starting of a Palestinian state would provide result to national aspirations of Israel's Arabs people.
"Once a Palestinian state is published that I can come to the Palestinian people, whom we said Israeli Arabs. We say to them that you are citizens with equal rights (rules) but the national solution for you is elsewhere." Livni was quoted by Army Radio and said to students of a Tel Aviv high school.
The idea is to keep two states for two peoples that is my way to make a democratic nation," she said.
When students asked why Israel continues to take risk itself in the face of Hamas. When the Islamist group disagree to release arrested soldier Gilad Shalit. then Livni said "If people think I can just go and free Gilad Shalit or that thing the government can do, but just we doesn't want to do it. It is not true."
The government must be responsible for the soldiers to release. We all want to avoid dangers result but it means to fight with them that there are no other choice. We can't bring every person everyone home, she said.
Last month, Livni tired Israeli Arab lawmakers after that she said, it should be clear to every person that the State of Israel is a national homeland for the Jewish people.
Livni also said at the time, that the national demands of Israeli Arabs must end the moment a Palestinian state is published.
There some improvement is being seen after that. In response to Livni's comments, sports, Culture, and Science Minister Ghaleb Majadele said, "The family of the Israeli Arab people of Israel were planted before the state was recognized. They are residents of this country with rights, their rules; their citizenship and residency are not open for talk."
"Anyone of you all who have the idea of transfer the Arab population in Israel to the states of the state of Palestine is anti-democratic, tell us" the Israeli Arab minister said.
LIFE STYLE :-
In the century before the rise of Islam the tribes dissipated all their energies in tribal guerrilla fighting, all against all. It is important to grasp the fact that on the eve of the birth of Islam. There was no government at any level in Arabia, and this fact may even have affected the rise of Islam itself. Arabia was a male dominated society. Women had no status of any kind other than as sex objects. A man could marry many women. This was not fixed. When a man died, his son has all his wives except his own mother. A wild custom of the Arabs was to hide their female child alive. if an Arab did not wish to hide his daughter alive , he still had to upload this honourable tradition, being unable to oppose social pressures. In the event a crime was committed, the injured party took law in its own hands, and tried to administer "justice" to the offender.
The period in the Arabian history this preceded the birth of Islam. This time is known as the Time of Ignorance.
It appears Judging by the beliefs and the practices of the pagan Arabs; it was a most appropriate name. The Arabs were the devotees of a many religions they can be divided into the following categories.
- Idol- worshippers
- Atheists this group was not believe in idol-worshippers and they believed that the world was lord.
- They believed that there were two gods. They representing the twin forces one was good and evil or light and other was darkness. Both were locked up in an endless fight for supremacy.
- In this categories they worshipped the stars This is the 1st known reference to the Arabs as a different group. But it nomads from Arabia (may be the source of the group of Semitic (yahudhi) languages) have been spreading sonly, through the desert fringes of the Fertile Crescent since at least 3000 BC.
Education among the Arabs before Islam:-
Among the Arabs there were extremely few people who could read and write. The richness of wandering culture is in the mind. It is history is fulfilled by the well-loved stories ,in heroic memories of battles and dream of love .this cultural become the early Arabic culture in more different form .this nomads are the backbone of the first Muslim armies. There way of life is revered by early Muslim, who collect and record the poems and stories handed down which was an oral tradition of there.
The poems are invented by specialists known as seer. They also do embroidered, recited poems. Poems are Recorded in anthologies of the 8th century and 9th century, and dated from two centuries earlier.
They divided into two categories.
The earlier tradition consist a short poem. Which kind is passionately partisan. In this there are few exceptions; the theme of this type is praise of one person's own tribe or abuse of the enemy.
The other kind of poem which is known as qasidah. in this poems is longer (up to 100 lines) and more elaborate in form.
The qasidah type have four parts, the first three part of qasidah have well-established themes. In the opening section (name is nasib), the poet have to describe himself on a journey with some other person.They reach a deserted camp. After that he tells that how he was once here with a loved one until luck separated them when their tribes moved on to fresh pastures. This part put the listeners in a good mood. The second part is devoted to praise of an animal, animal is the camel on which camel poet is riding. The third part is a tour de force, describing a dramatic scene such as a hunt or battle. With the fourth section the poet finally reaches his topic - again usually praise, of tribe or patron or of the poet himself.
Arabic poetry was rich in imagery but it was limited in range, and was less in deeply. Its content might be interesting but it was not proper, it was stereotyped. The masterpieces of their poem follow almost exactly the same sequence of their ideas and images. It was a trusty mirror of life Arabia. The greatest writers of the Arabs were called "Golden Odes," which have a collection of seven poems. Which supposedly of unsurpassed, unbelievable excellence in spontaneity, eloquence and power. They were suspended in Kaaba for a challenge to any ambitious genius to excel or to match them.
Sir William Muir writes about some things for these poems as follows: The Seven Poems still survive from a previous period even to Mohammed, a wonderful specimen of artless eloquence. The beauty of the language in poem and wild richness of the imagery are accepted by the European reader; the subject of the poet was limited. This was problem, and the beaten track sometimes deviated from.
The greatest composition of Islam was Al-Qur'an al-Majid, the Scripture of Islam, and it was in prose (poem). Muslims believe that their Qur'an was composed in Heaven before it was presence to Muhammad. This was known as the Messenger of God. They believe that human genius cannot produce anything that can match only its style or contents. For the last fifty generations it has been for them.
An attempt has been made in the previous pages to portray the general state of Arabia. The lifestyle of the Arabs before Islam also made. This picture is original it has been drawn from the record of the pre-Islamic Arabs.
Arabia before Islam was without social enjoy or historical depth, the Arabs lived in moral failure and mental knowledge. Life for them was devoid of meaning, direction and purpose. The human mind was in chains .they were waiting for a signal to make a titanic difficulty to break loose and to become free.
The signal was given in A.D. 610 by Muhammad who was the son of Abdullah in the city of Makkah, when he said his mission of prophet hood, and started the mission called Islam on its world-girdling career. Islam was the always greatest blessing for mankind. It set women and men free.
Muhammad, who called the Messenger of God, was the high emancipator of mankind. He comes out the man from the pits of life.
Before Islam the Arabs had played a marginal role in the history of the Middle East. They would have remained always a nation of animals and shepherds if Muhammad had not provided them the focus and the motive that welded their diffuse wandering tribes into a purposeful and easy driving force. He built a nation out of a rough mass and strong without basic structure. He invested the Arabs with a new idealism, explosive creativity and dynamism and they changed the history. Thus they terminated the pagan prologue in the history of the Arabian people. However compares it with what followed, which gave the Arabs primary role on the stage of world, and inspired with high thoughts and their high works. then not only to an exceptional man come from their work, bosom, but is was to an entire elite which work for several generations gathered and promoted for his word, cannot but notice the leap that the faith of this people consider here. The aim of its life until then they weak and dispersed was to find a unity among themselves, a propulsive centre, a finite goal, and all this under the sign of all religious faith. Romantic love for the primitive cannot make us fail to recognize, that without Mohammed and Islam they would have remained vegetating for many year in the desert, destroying themselves in the bleeding of their internecine war.
The Arab conquests:
One of the most dramatic and sudden movements of any people in history is the growth places, by victory, of the Arabs in the 7th century. The desert tribesmen of Arabia form the size of the Muslim armies. Their natural cruelty and love of battle, together with the sense of moral justice provided by their new religion, form an overpowering combination. When Muhammad dies in 632, the people of western half of Arabia is Muslim. After Two years the starting peninsula has been brought to the trust, and Muslim armies have went away into the desert between Syria and Mesopotamia. That year Damascus is the first to be captured.
Antioch follows in 636. In 638 he brings the greatest prize of all, in Muslim term.
The Arab captures the Egypt and north Africa begins with the arrival of an army in AD 640 in front of the town Babylon. They give it their own name and calling it Al Fust at.
After this army moves on to Alexandria, But here the defences are sufficient to keep them at bay for fourteen month. But at the end the Greeks of Alexandria agree to leave peacefully. the Arabs continue rapidly westwards along the coast of north Africa, capturing Cyrenaica in 642 and Tripoli in 643.but these remain The small journey across the water from Africa, which bring an army into Spain in 711. After that begins the final thrust of Arab expansionism in the west. There sonly repeated form of history the invaders, in this invited to assist one side in a quarrel, as soon as possible they take control and suppress both squabbling parties. After a few months Arabs drive the Visigoths from their capital at Toledo.Soon governors appointed a new man by the caliph in Damascus are ruling much of Spain and the Arabs press on northwards Arabs and Constantinople:- In the overpowering attack on the Byzantine king by the Arabs during the 7th century, only one drive is every time unsuccessful. This is their usually repeated attempt to arrest Constantinople itself. This is the 1st unsuccessfully attacked by sea and earth in AD 669. The last of some expeditions ends in accident for the Arabs in 717, when a group of some 2000 ships is cracked by a storm and the army straggles for homewards through a cold Anatolia. In mid-670s the Byzantines king have one strong psychological benefit - a new device in their weapon house which is known as Greek fire.
Greek fire:- In AD 674 a Muslim group in large number enters the Bosporus to attack Constantinople. It is greeted and deterred by a new weapon. The weapon can be seen as the precursor of the modern flamethrower. It has never been discovered precisely how the Byzantine chemists achieve the jet of flame for their 'Greek fire'. The top secret of such a dangerous benefit is jealously protected.
Modern accounts mean that the combustible substance is petrol which is based floats on water and is almost impossible to turn off or control. It can be lobbed in a container. It is most disturbing form it is projected as a stream of liquid fire from a tube mounted in the head of a ship and left among a wooden group, this do damage of their persons.
Arabs and Muslim:-
In first century of Arab growth the relationship subtly changes between two religious - Arab and Muslim.
At first they are indivisible. The Muslim armies are made up completely of Arab tribesmen, and it is take for Granted that only Arabs can be Muslims. Between camps of the Arab armies live together in winter camps or Garrison towns.
They are an occupy force, this have having little link with the citizens of the occupied Territories. Before 8th century when the Muslim increase has reached something close to its peak, there are not enough Arabs to provide the troops.
Out of requirement, people of other groups start to be received into Islam and fighting alongside the Arabs Berbers do in the west and Persians in the east. Certainly there are resentments. Non- Arabs feel they are treated as second-class Muslims. It begins to sharing out look after a fight. And the transfer of outsiders to Islam brings a economic load. Non-Muslims have to pay a poll tax, which is not paid by believers, who believe in god. Increase of the faith is a drain on the capital.