Spatial Integration in Historic Cities – A Comparative analysis of Spatial Planning tools and techniques from Jaipur (India) & Bath (England)
List of Acronyms
CDP- City Development Plan
EU - European Union
ESDP - European Spatial Development Perspective
SPESP - Study Program on European Spatial Planning
OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
EEA - European Economic Area
GoI- Government of India
GoR – Government of Rajasthan
ISOCARP – International Society of City and Regional Planners
UIT – Urban Improvement Trust
JDA – Jaipur Development Authority
JMC – Jaipur Municipal Corporation
B&NES – Bath & North East Somerset Council
The idea to write a dissertation focused on Spatial Integration systems in Historic cities born from the fact that within the historic cities, they are integrated with administrative, political, cultural, social & economic levels and in present time these cities are growing with fast rate. The change in all these levels due to various internal and external factors is changing the spatial integration/pattern system in the historic cities.
Starting from these above points, I will study the spatial integration systems in historic cities with the support of two case studies: - Jaipur (India) and Bath (England) by comparing the spatial planning tools and techniques, which are to be used by administrative bodies of these cities for the development. The central focus of this dissertation will be to compare the spatial planning tools and techniques in the scenario of spatial integration.
The findings of this dissertation will be practical; therefore I believe that is of relevance for urban planning & Development in the historic cities.
Inevitably, a dissertation of this kind is in large part of synthesis of the work of others. It is believed that some of the most important works in this field & few older ones are mentioned in the references. The main methodical problem of this research will be to “Compare Spatial Planning tools & techniques in the context of spatial integration” in two different countries (cities).
The cases of Jaipur (India) and Bath (England), as it was previously said, will help to see and understand different spatial planning tools and techniques, used for the planning and development of them in the context of spatial integration. The main tools & techniques to make the comparison of these two countries (cities) are planning policies & guidelines, Acts/ Bye-Laws, Planning documents, Plans etc. This study is policy orientated, attempting to analyse and compare the spatial planning tools and techniques between two countries (cities). Once the information be complied and the analysed, the policy variation resulting from across comparison of the countries (cities) stated will be described specially at city/neighbourhood level.
The objectives of the study are therefore:
§ Compare spatial planning tools and techniques between Jaipur (India) and Bath (England) in the context of spatial integration through various indicators/aspects.
§ To identify the role of spatial planning tools and techniques in terms of policies, plans, documents, guidelines at the city or neighbourhood level of the two case studies the Jaipur (India) and Bath (England) and also identify what are the similarities & differences between them in the context of spatial integration.
The study is split into five chapters. It starts with the Introduction chapter, and next chapter reviews the literature on the selected topic i.e. “spatial integration in historic cities – a comparative analysis of spatial planning tools and techniques from Jaipur (India) and Bath (England)”. This chapter will explore the different meanings, its relation in different contexts, concepts and frameworks to understand it thoroughly.
The third chapter introduces the methodology, in which it will address the aims and objectives of the study. The fourth chapter introduces the two case studies from Jaipur (India) and Bath (England). These case studies will reflect the comparison of spatial planning tools and techniques in the context of spatial integration & the differences and similarities between both of these cities through selected indicators/aspects.
The final chapter relates back to the main aims & objectives of the dissertation, bringing out the conclusions and recommendations in order to draw comparison between two different cities.
1. The Concept of Spatial Integration
"Spatial integration expresses the opportunities for and level of (economic, cultural) interaction within and between areas and may reflect the willingness to co-operate. It also indicates, for example, levels of connectivity between transport systems of different geographical scales. Spatial integration is positively influenced by the presence of efficient administrative bodies, physical and functional complementarity between areas and the absence of cultural and political controversies." (ESDP, Noordwijk, 1997)
According to the complexity and the importance of the concept of spatial integration, it is necessary to start with an exploration of the different possible meanings which should be as wide as possible and related concepts like interaction, cohesion, cooperation, etc.
A review of possible meanings, the following sections are as far as possible based on recent literature on spatial integration and neighbouring concepts;
§ Spatial integration and spatial interaction(s):-
In itself, the term "interaction" can seem at least as global as the one of "integration". However, this term, often coupled with the "spatial" or "territorial" qualifier is often used in scientific literature, in particular by geographers. In a wide sense, the concept of spatial interaction can be related to any kind of relationship between places (connexity, similarity, flows, and proximity) and one could assimilate the analysis of spatial interaction to spatial analysis in itself, or even to geography.
In the practice of (mainly geographical) research, spatial interaction often takes a more limited and technical meaning and may refer to a phenomenon described as "decreasing of the intensity of flows with distance". Different spatial interaction models have been built in order to give account of this phenomenon, many of them relying on the general gravity model, based on distance and on relative weights of the considered entities. Taking into account the ESDP definition, its global approach as well as the history of the criterion, it seems that "interaction" must be understood here as a rather comprehensive concept, that can not be directly limited to some domains of relationships, nor even to spatial interaction as it is generally understood. For example the definition mentions "interaction between areas" rather than "spatial interaction", which could indicate that distance is not necessarily seen as central (maybe because the concept of distance is more specific of another criterion, "Geographic position")
The ESDP definition, through its reference to "willingness to co-operate" and to "absence of cultural and political controversies", also indicates that the social and human aspects play an important role in an open minded approach of the concept of spatial interaction. Besides its various interpretations, use of the term "interaction" in the definition of the Noordwijk draft of ESDP can also be seen as conveying some implicit ideas through its etymology.
§ Spatial integration and (spatial) cohesion:-
In the same range of ideas, European documents often refer to a term whose meaning seems close to integration: cohesion. It is most often used in the locution "economic and social cohesion", one of the fundamental aims of the European Union (Treaty on European Union, title I, article B). (Economic and social) cohesion is not formally defined in the Treaty, but reference is made to the reduction of disparities: "the Community shall aim at reducing disparities between the levels of development of the various regions and the backwardness of the least favoured regions, including rural areas" (article 130a).
The "First report on social and economic cohesion" published by the European Commission (1996) analyses the situation of the European regions in the same perspective of assessment of inequalities and of their trends. In that sense, cohesion seems closely related to the idea of homogeneity, even if reduction of disparities is not seen as a purpose in itself, but as a way to attain a better "functioning" by giving more opportunities to all of its components. Spatial (or territorial) cohesion is much less often mentioned than social and economic cohesion, although it appears in some documents related to spatial planning.
By analogy with the concept of social and economic cohesion as meant by the European Union, one could see spatial / territorial cohesion as a situation where all parts of the territory would have equivalent opportunities in matter of territorial features. Of course, the role of territorial parameters such as location, altitude and climate indicates that reduction of such disparities is in some way an inaccessible aim, even if efforts can be made in order to alleviate the constraints of areas that are particularly disadvantaged from this point of view (ultraperipheric areas, areas with harsh climatic or soil conditions for example).
§ Spatial integration and co-operation:-
The Noordwijk project of ESDP introduces in its definition the concept of "willingness to co-operate", as a basis for spatial integration. This adds an important dynamic element to understanding of territorial (or spatial) integration. Co-operation is often associated to integration, although there are some fundamental differences between the two concepts.
A priori, the concept of spatial interaction, which is at the core of the definition of spatial integration, has no positive or negative sense. Spatial interaction generally relies on human motivation (even if natural phenomena such as floods may cause spatial interaction), but these motivations might not be shared by all actors nor lead to win-win situations.
In contrast, absence of co-operation may result either in a limited level of spatial interaction, as relationships will not be supported by all actors, or in unbalanced relationships solely ruled by the law of the strongest. Lack of co-operation can be observed in practice in some cases where actual relations are less than one would expect in view of shared interests, physical possibilities available, or presence of spatial systems to manage (e.g. river basins). But absence of co-operation may also exist where integration (in terms of interactions) is strong, and in those cases it may have harmful effects for some of the partners.
Although the ESDP mentions the "willingness to co-operate", it must be said that co operation does not always rely on willingness but also on need to co-operate. This allows us to distinguish between situations that require co-operation (even if the partners are somewhat reluctant) and situations where spatial integration is actually weak but the "willingness to co-operate" exists. In the second case, certain material organisational changes may lead to an increase in the significance of relations between areas.
Attempting to translate the concept of "spatial co-operation" into indicators is recognised as being a very difficult task, as co-operation mainly relies on a "state of mind" and on organisational patterns that do not necessarily imply easily measurable phenomena.
§ Networks of places:-
For many authors, it is useful to reflect further on how places are linked, in order that integration might occur. Places are no longer considered as simple geographical constructs, rather they are defined through social analysis (for a review, see Amin and Graham, 1998). These stress that places are "articulated moments in networks of social relations and understandings" rather than "areas with boundaries around" (Massey, 1993; 66). In this configuration socially-constructed places are "noncontiguous, diverse, dynamic and superimposed. As well as being bound to place-based relations, cultural, social, economic, political and environmental links and relations can be stretched across space" (Graham and Healey, 1999 (forthcoming)).
This partially reflects a more sophisticated analysis of how networks of cities and towns interact, an area that Theme 2 explores further. As Dematteis notes we have witnessed the "passage from a functional organisation in which the centres are graded with a multi-level hierarchy (as in the models of Christaller and Lösch) to interconnected networks organised on the basis of the corresponding complementarities of the nodes and the synergies produced" (Dematteis, 1994). It also reflects an understanding that it is not places which interact but the people and organisations (actors) which inhabit that space.
Geoff Mulgan (1997) labels the current era one of 'Connexity'. This reflects the ESDP's definition of spatial integration as: "Opportunities for and level of interaction within and between areas". In Mulgan's view cultures, economies, social worlds, politics and environments all become driven by logics of increasingly intense interconnections and flows, over larger and larger geographical scales. A growing range of economic, social, and cultural interactions which are "both in place and out of place" (Adams, 1996; 279) are being supported by modern communications technologies (Graham and Healey, ibid.). Of course, it is possible that connections may only occur between specific sections of society. We may therefore witness different social geographies of spatial integration.
The Noordwijk project of ESDP suggests that measures of spatial integration will include levels of linkage between transport systems at different geographical scales. However, a fuller interpretation of the conception offered above implies that spatial integration is wider than simply transport linkages but includes all transactions (or flows) between areas.
To Mulgan, the growing importance of network-based connections means that economies are increasingly driven by "the logical or 'virtual' regularities of electronic communication, a new geography of nodes and hubs, processing and control centres. The nineteenth century's physical infrastructures of railways, canals and roads are now overshadowed by the networks of computers, cables and radio links that govern where things go, how they are paid for, and who has access to what. The physical manifestation of power, walls, boundaries, highways and cities, are overlaid with a 'virtual' world of information hubs, databases and networks" (Mulgan, 1991;3).
§ Networks of actors:-
The societal networks which facilitate spatial integration are also an important consideration that spatial integration will be positively influenced by the presence of:
§ efficient administrative bodies;
§ physical and functional complementarity between areas; and
§ the absence of cultural and political controversies.
Those conditions may be viewed not only as potential for efficient integration but also as fundamental requirements in order that the concerned spatial entities may interact on an sufficiently equal and constructive basis as to produce beneficial effects for all of them or at least as to avoid globally negative effects for any of them.
These societal networks can be conceptualised by what Boden and Molotch (1994; 259) call the "thickness of co-present interaction", where "intense, recursive, face-to-face interactions are supported within urban space, with growing mediated flows of communication and contact via technical media, to the broader city and beyond" (Graham and Healey, ibid., also see Thrift, 1996b). For if places are social constructs then it is the strength of social relations which sustains them, and any consideration of spatial integration will need to review the presence of linkages between different actors.
In the same range of ideas, one could focus on some specific agents of spatial integration. Those may be multi-locational firms, but also the so-called "transnational communities", in other words groups of migrants that establish links not only between their country of origin and their country of settlement, but also between their different countries of settlement.
§ Spatial integration and territorial homogeneity:-
The homogeneity and discontinuities can be seen as neither cause or effect but as simple indicators of less visible phenomena that also have some link with spatial interaction and / or integration (for example, discontinuities in population density do not necessarily indicate a low level of spatial interaction / integration, but may reveal some (social, economic, environmental) difficulties of a given area that also act on spatial integration).
The link between homogeneity and integration is thus far from being simple, particularly if considered at a given moment in time. Analysis of the trends is often required (but not necessarily sufficient) in order to better assess this link. Besides it seems very important to deepen the analysis of its nature in a political perspective, because promoting integration in terms of increased interactions can not be seen as a simple way to generate more homogeneity between territories. It may even result in generating more inequalities if the concerned spatial entities are not strong enough to make the best of a more open situation.
Finally it must be said that if integration cannot be viewed as an aim in itself, nor can homogeneity for its own sake. The main challenge may be to achieve a balance - or even better, a synergy - between spatial equity and spatial diversity.
§ Territorial and Sectoral dimensions of spatial integration:-
Among the various interpretations of the concept of spatial integration, one can identify two main sets of meanings that can be summarised respectively as “integration between different domains on the territory and integration between territories in different domains".
In most cases, it refers to spatial integration as a process aiming to integrate different sectoral policies or objectives on a territorial basis. In other words, spatial integration points toward the first meaning, which is integration between sectoral approaches on a given territory. The ideas of a "framework for spatial integration" and of a "strategy for spatial integration" also mentioned in the text seem to go along with this meaning.
This does not mean however that the concept of "integration of approaches / policies on a territory" is not worth interest in the context of European spatial planning. At the contrary, it seems particularly promising, and several parts of the work, it may constitute privileged fields for such an approach in the particular field of rural - urban relationships. Moreover, the Potsdam ESDP recommends global approaches of this type for areas such as networks of urban regions, Euro-corridors, cities and regions at the external borders of the European Union, natural areas contributing to biodiversity, areas of particular significance for the heritage and coastal areas.
2. Spatial Integration in Different Contexts (Other Countries)
§ India: - According to Jordar, Souro D., “Spatial integration is the combination of all the activities like economic, social and physical which can be achieved by the modern spatial planning tools and techniques, different and dual modes for the participation towards development in the cities.”
There are very few cities in India which have undergone planned development by using the modern spatial planning tools and techniques towards spatial integration. The author signifies the role of resources like land and infrastructure in the spatial integration of cities. Moreover, the role of modes like public and private sectors, public/private sector for the development of spatial integration, is also most important for spatial development.
§ Brazil: - According to Edja Bezerra Faria and Valerio Augusto in their paper, “Spatial Integration/Configuration is a set of independent relations in which each is determined by its relation to others and the fundamental correlate is of the spatial integration/configuration is movement ”
But according to Hillier, (1996, 35/152), “the structure of the grid considered purely as a spatial integration/configuration, is itself the most powerful determinant of urban movement, both pedestrian and vehicular. Because this relation is fundamental and lawful, it has already been a powerful force in shaping our historically evolved cities, by its effect on land use patterns, building densities and part-whole structure of the city”
§ South America: - According to Poul Ove Pedersen and Walter Stöhr “Spatial development and Economic Integration is associated with spatial distribution of physical & geographical patterns, transport networks, economic activities, natural resources & different policies etc” and change is these factors can change the spatial integration pattern in the areas/city or in the region.
In Contrast to many literatures, Hillier's establishment of a theory of space as configuration and series of related methodologies, called space syntax, (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier, 1996) that spreads a new light on the spatial formation of area structure. Hillier (1987, 1989) first suggested that optimizing correlations between spatial configuration measured by spatial integration and movement rates and the growth of settlements changes the pattern of Integration.
Read, (1993, 2003, 2005) studied that Dutch cities on the basis of integration gradient map to explain the levels of integration (High or Low), as a way to highlight the areas.
3. Spatial Integration in Different Frameworks
§ The emergence of the spatial dimension in the European views of integration:-
The idea of integration (social, economic and political) underpins the formation of the European Union. Within the EU several distinct concepts of integration can currently be identified:
§ The original concept, based around economic integration, is bound up with the Single Market and is promoted through the Structural Funds. This concept is linked to the notion of "economic and social cohesion" promoted in the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and implies a need to address disparities in these two areas and Support for social integration has also been promoted by bringing together by the means of different projects like ERASMUS and INTERREG or RECITE among different nationalities and the exchange of experience between countries.
§ The role of services of economic general interest through the concept of "territorial cohesion" is addressed by the Amsterdam Treaty. The inclusion of this concept suggests that a new concept of cohesion, which is based more on relationships and exchanges, is emerging.
§ The EU has recently emphasised the integration between policies operating within a given territory. It promotes an emphasis on the spatial dimension of integration. It is also possible to identify one final emerging concept. This involves the use of spatial integration as a means of identifying functional territorial units, which might be promoted as efficient spaces in which to live and work.
§ The evolution of the concept of “spatial integration” in the ESDP:-
The concept of spatial integration as an important criterion to assess the situation of the various parts of the European territory emerged progressively during the works on the first project of ESDP. When it first appeared in 1995 (under the term "Spatial articulation"), it was centred on the specific aspect of cross-border relationships, but gradually it extended to a more comprehensive vision, summarised in the first official project of ESDP (Noordwijk, 1997).
In particular, there are no more indications on the definition of spatial integration (nor on definitions of the six other criteria). This shows - if needed - that even if the Noordwijk document gave the impulse to the research on the seven criteria, research on the criterion "Spatial integration" and its related concepts can not be based on one reference document, but must adopt a broad approach, based on confrontation of ideas, dialogue and creativity.
The CEMAT, in its Guidelines for Sustainable Spatial Planning in Europe, develops a similar idea, recognising that sustainable development implies a long-term spatial balance, choosing to emphasise the importance of trans-continental relationships and the internal spatial development of the European continent.
As the ESDP recognises, Spatial integration may therefore imply a degree of spatial balance between linked areas, characterised by the presence of two way relationships. Whereas the concept of (spatial) integration is generally recognised as a crucial one for spatial planning, it is not easy to delineate. If the aim is to reach a common definition, the task is even more difficult, because the views on this point are various, while awareness of all the possible meanings of this concept is not generalised.
§ The criterion "spatial integration" in the context of the Study Program (SPESP):-
The proposals of the Study Program on European Spatial Planning (SPESP) was launched in May 1998 for a deepening and improvement of the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), it was asked to the research team from each of the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) to make propositions related to three themes:
§ Development of spatial indicators
§ Strategic study on new urban - rural partnership
§ Cartographic illustrations of policy options of the ESDP
In the framework of the theme 1, it was asked to propose indexes of spatial differentiation related to seven criteria:
§ Geographical Position
§ Economic Strength
§ Social Integration
§ Spatial Integration
§ Land-Use Pressure
§ Natural Assets
§ Cultural Assets
It was also asked to produce synthetic indexes which should be able to take into account the seven dimensions of spatial differentiation in a global approach. These criteria, it is argued, provide a starting point for recognising and assessing the spatial dimension of the ESDP and, in combination, have a particular value for the purpose of spatial analysis.
As it was recognised, spatial integration is, perhaps, one of the criteria which is most directly related to the concept of spatial planning itself. Consequently, and by virtue of its comprehensive nature, it may often overlap the fields of interest of the other criteria. From the start criterion has an overlay with the criteria "Geographical position" (1.1) but also with all the other criteria of spatial differentiation and probably with all the other parts of the call for proposals. In other words, the question of spatial integration is present everywhere in the SPESP and it is well known that "what is everywhere is also nowhere".
For example, there is a potential overlap between spatial integration and geographical position on the questions of distances and of transport and communication infrastructures. Some less obvious overlaps may occur with social integration (about integration factors such as language, culture, political sensitivity), with economic strength (economic functions generating relationships), with land use pressure (impact on migration moves through effects on land prices) or with natural and cultural assets (common resources that can account for spatial relationships). Links exist also with work on the urban - rural relationships typology and urban - rural partnerships considered under theme 2.
All this indicates that one of the first tasks related to the work on this study strand is a deepening of the concepts, taking into account not only the concept of spatial integration itself, but also some other related concepts that may help to delineate the field of the study.
The previous points all go to show how interrelated the concept of spatial integration is with concepts such as economic and social integration. Far from serving to narrow its field of application, the body of literature concerned with spatial integration is in fact serving to widen its influence.
This raises the question of identifying the specific nature of spatial integration, and reminds of another similar question, that is identification of the specific nature of spatial planning / spatial development. In both cases, the multi-facetted nature generates a difficulty to focus on specific issues, notably because isolating the spatial dimension of a reality is a rather abstract exercise whose practical purpose is not always obvious to perceive.
An analysis focused on a set of elements (Spatial planning tools and techniques) of spatial integration considered as specific and significant: flows between places and willingness to co-operate, to which analysis of spatial patterns is added in order to complement the analysis of flows in the context of Jaipur and Bath.
Since the research is an analytical investigation of the spatial integration in the historic cities from Jaipur (India) and Bath (England), the spatial planning tools and techniques from each city throughout its historical process appears to be its basic research implement. The spatial planning tools and techniques, mainly includes the planning guidelines and documents, policies, planning acts or bye laws, previous development plans of the cities to undertake the research. For Bath & Jaipur, the main sources of data are the previous development plans which are provided by the local authorities in both of the cities, and various other resources like planning documents, guidelines etc. However, these data have also been completed by other documents and by researcher`s observations. The desk study based methodology provides an opportunity to tap into the knowledge and skills base of the local authorities.
The methodology of the research required from the researcher to establish the research question, which focuses on different spatial planning tools and techniques from two case studies. The attempt is to investigate the similarities and differences in spatial planning tools and techniques in two different cities (Countries) in the context of spatial integration & their importance in the spatial integration of the cities. The study makes a review of the historical cities from point of view of spatial integration and the review includes aspects like traffic & transportation, infrastructure, heritage & management and some other major issues etc.
The Process began with the review of the literature of spatial integration; its relation in different concepts, frameworks and contexts. The literature review will highlight and analyse the different meaning of the term `Spatial Integration` in different places. However, in terms of hypothesis of this study the analysis of spatial integration of the two cities is realised through the comparative analysis between them. This analysis has reveals the spatial structure of each city. The spatial analysis comprises the structure of inner historical core and the surrounding parts of the city & how they are integrated with each other in the sense of different aspects. The external/internal forces like biophysical constraints & potentials, economic factors & social factors, which are responsible for the creation of pressure on the local authorities to impose spatial planning decisions in the city can affect the spatial integration of cities. This spatial analysis will be measured on the basis of different selected aspects/indicators like housing, traffic & transportation, heritage & management and various other important issues etc.
As a result of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, the existing historic cities have lost their historic identity as well as historic & cultural values, which made the unique from other cities. The main idea to compare two different historic cities from the different countries is to bring out the analysis of various spatial planning tools and techniques to understand the concept of spatial integration and the importance of those tools & techniques in the spatial development of those cities.
These case studies comprises - a city from Northern India, Jaipur which is popularly known as “pink city” and capital of Rajasthan State & another city from England, Bath which is s a unique city; its hot springs, Roman Baths, splendid Abbey and Georgian stone crescents have attracted visitors for centuries. Both of the cities have different historical characters, different functional and spatial patterns.
The reason for the selection of the case studies, each of which form a fascinating body of data, is that to date no study has been carried out of these towns which have significant individual characteristics in relation to their immensely rich historical and cultural background.
To address the aims and objectives of the research, a detailed analysis of these cities –Jaipur (India) & Bath ( England) in terms of spatial planning tools and techniques in the scenario of spatial integration to be measured . The analysis will comprise the major aspects like housing, traffic & transportation, heritage & management & other various issues.
Jaipur (India): -
The city of Jaipur, nestled in the rugged hills of Aravallis, popularly known as the “Pink City”, was founded in 1727 AD by one of the greatest rulers of the Kachhawaha clan, the astronomer king Sawai Jai Singh. The pink colour was used at the time of making to create an impression of red sandstone buildings of Mughal cities - and repainted in 1876, during the visit of the Prince of Wales. The city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into sectors separated by broad streets.
Jaipur which means the city of victory was built exactly 273 years back and is 262 km by road from Delhi (Capital of India). A strong wall encircles the old city and even today has a suggestion of formidable strength; its function of protecting all within is obvious. The plains of Rajasthan of which Jaipur is the capital once thundered and echoed with clash of swords and the drums of wars, Built in 1727 by Sawai Jai Singh-II, Jaipur was the first planned city of its time ( the earlier planned city in northern India having been built near Taxila sometime in the 2nd century BC ).
Jaipur was planned by Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, a Bengali architect, who gave shape to the ideas of Sawai Jai Singh in a grid system with wide straight avenues, roads, streets and lanes and uniform rows of shops on either side of the main bazaars, all arranged in nine rectangular city sectors (chokris), planned on the basis of principles of `Shilp Shastra`. The city itself is an attractive creation worthy of universal admiration.
The population size of the city is 2.5 million, as per Census 2001. The Municipal body was recognised in 1926 and a Municipal Act was in place in1929. Recently, it achieved the status of a Municipal Corporation and its jurisdiction spread over 64.75 sq.kms. The old city occupies 9.8 sq.kms. The average density of population works out at 38610 persons per sq km. amongst all the mega cities of the country, Jaipur ranks 11th with a total population of 2.3 million. It is one of the fastest growing mega cities of the country with an annual average growth rate of 4.5% whereas the national urban growth rate is only 2% as per Census of India, 2001. With its current growth trend, it is likely to supercede many other cities. Jaipur is thus a vibrant city.
Earlier it was Urban Improvement Trust (UIT) who deals with the planning and maintenance part of the city but now it is Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) who deals with the planning and maintenance of the city.
1. Historical Background: -
This section describes the spatial growth of Jaipur city since the time it was founded. The spatial growth pattern of Jaipur city is divided into four distinct phases which will enable us to understand the growth of city phase wise about the growth trends better. The spatial growth pattern is shown in .....
Phase I: 1727-1850 AD : - The city was founded by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in 1727 A.D, is one of the few planned cities of its times based on the principles of ancient town planning doctrine of Shilpa Shastra. The city conformed to the traditional walled city concept with the encircling wall and 9 entry gates. Jaipur walled city evolved as a grid-iron plan with the main road running almost east west along the ridge in the centre and the palace complex at the core. The buildings were built following a strict Architectural guideline. By 1734, the main markets of the town including various bazaars had been built.
Phase II: 1850-1930: - During this phase, the city grew out of the confines of the walled city. The establishment of railway line in 1868 A.D fueled the growth of the city. During the Rajasthan Famine of 1868-69, Ramniwas Garden was constructed as part of the famine relief work. Modern water Works and Gas Works for lighting the city streets was also established during this phase.
Phase III: 1930-1970 : - In 1930s, five development schemes, Fateh Tiba, area south of Ramniwas Bagh, Ashok Nagar, New Colony in Jalu pura and Bani Park commonly known as A, B, C, D, E respectively were conceived to provide residential plots, land for public institutions and other amenities for the increasing population. Civil Lines area was developed primarily to house the Senior Government servants. Mirza Ismail (MI) Road was constructed as a ceremonial highway from Ajmer Road to Moti Doongri Road in the early 1940s.
The Rajasthan University was inaugurated in 1947 thereby opening opportunities for the southward growth of the city. A sudden increase of population after partition was seen that was mainly due to the influx of refugees during this time. Jaipur then became the capital of Rajasthan leading to further attraction of administrative and economic activities. These factors led to increased development of residential areas to cater to the growing population. For instance, Bapu Nagar and Gandhi Nagar residential areas were developed towards south of the city. Development towards the Northwest of the city took place in the early sixties with the establishment of the Jhotwara Industrial Estate.
Phase IV: Post 1970s: - During the last 3 decades, the major growth direction has remained largely the same i.e., towards the southwest and northwest of the city. This is due to the presence of hills in the northern and eastern side of the city that act as natural barriers. The National Highways have also acted as an important determinant of urban form in this phase1. Corridor development along the highways has developed over the last 3 decades. Towards the south, the city has extended beyond Sanganer. On the west, the city now extends uptil the western bypass road. New areas have developed between the Delhi railway line and the Amanishah Nalah on the west. The residential area in this place has been developed by the cooperative housing societies. Such societies have also come up in areas between Gopalpura bypass and Jhotwara Industrial Area (these are located beyond Amanishah Nalah).
2. Spatial Integration of Jaipur city: -
The spatial integration of Jaipur city will be determined by the city land use assessment method & changes in it can be analysed and the spatial planning tools & techniques, which are responsible for the development also can be analysed. The land use of Jaipur city in 1971 has been compared with the existing land use in 1991 to find out the spatial analysis.
Due to the lack of latest landuse data of city, the assessment is confined uptil the year 1991. There is a very sharp change in the some land uses like residential, public and semi public, and industrial sectors etc. The area under residential increased upto 62% in year 1991 while it was 51% in year 1971, under public & semi public is decreased 17 % (1971) to 8 % (1991), also under circulation decreased from 17% (1971) to 12% (1991) but the area under governmental uses remains constant. In case of recreational area, also further decreased by 1% from 1971 to 1991, the area under industrial (7% to 10%) and commercial has an increase of 1%.
There are also 3 different constitutes in the Jaipur city named as: - Walled city, the rest of Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC), and rest of Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) area. The largest proportion of all the developed land uses is concentrated in the JMC area & a large proportion of undeveloped land is in the rest of JDA area.
In order to achieve spatial & planned development, JDA prepared two master plans for the JDA area till now as a spatial planning tool. The first master plan for 1971-1991 came into effect in May, 1976. The master plan defines the objectives of the comprehensive development of the city along new 125 revenue villages & Jaipur was proposed to be developed as major tourist destination. The proposals were made as follows:
§ The Walled city Area: - The population density was recommended as 700 persons per ha and other proposals were like tourist facilities, five star hotel in the Jal Mahal Lake & shift of some industries from walled city area.
§ Jaipur Nagar Nigam Area: - The proposals were prepared for the additional areas in the periphery along the existing urbanized area and the proposals were prepared for residential, commercial, industrial and parks & open spaces. There were also detailed proposals to develop whole sale markets & industrial development by size, nature of the industries.
The second master plan was conceived for 2011 for the Jaipur region and now it's under proposals for the revision for the year 2021. This master plan was prepared in 1995 and came into force from 1998. It covers the entire Jaipur region including new 6 satellite towns along with the Jaipur city. The total area of the Jaipur region is 1464 sq.km. & the proposal of inner towns between Jaipur city and satellite tows to develop to accommodate the total projected population 42.2 lakhs by 2011.
Ø Spatial Strategies: -
The second master plan has come up with strategies for each of the constituents of the JDA region. The spatial strategies for Walled City are described as:-
§ No permission to be given for commercial complexes, shopping areas etc inside the walled city area.
§ New building bylaws proposed for the walled city to reduce the density.
§ Shifting of wholesale activities, traffic generating and intensive activities to areas outside.
§ Parking would not be allowed inside the walled city on the main roads.
Source: CDP. Jaipur
Ø Brief Description About Spatial Planning Tools and Techniques: -
The city of Jaipur, the `Pink City`, can be described as a good example of a planned city. The spatial planning tools and techniques which were and are using by local authorities for the development of city can be described as:-
§ City Development Plan: - 1st Master Plan or City Development Plan (1971-1991), 2nd Master Plan -2011 and Zonal Development plans.
§ Building Bye Laws, Rajasthan Urban Housing and Habitat Policy- 2006 and Rajasthan Conservation and Heritage Byelaws, 1961 etc
All these are the major tools and techniques of spatial planning of Jaipur city and results in the spatial integration of the city. The various Government & Private, NGO`s are working with these spatial planning tools and techniques for the better future of the city. The major departments are like Jaipur Development Authority (JDA), Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC), Rajasthan Housing Board (RHB), Public Works Department (PWD), Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and Ford Foundation, Hindustan Charitable Trust etc.
Ø Housing: -
This section assesses the housing situation of the city & specifically in the walled city (Old Area). If we look at the housing scenario of the city, the number of houseless population has increased in the past ten years thereby indicating a housing gap. The data given in table below shows the clear picture as:
Housing Stock: - On the total housing stock the most predominant use is residential (75%) of the total houses and others are like shops and offices (15%), rest have very minor proportion in account of total proportion. The occupancy rate in the city was 7.2 % in the past decade while it has been seen that it was more in walled city and in the other areas of municipal boundary while it was less in JDA area. But now in days, occupancy rate is high at the periphery of the city because of migration of people from the inner area to the new area, townships, new developments etc. There are various factors behind the migration are like easier availability of land at periphery with different options like big plots, location etc, too much congestion in the walled city area and municipal area, land prices are very high in the central core etc.
Housing Type & Condition: - The city overall has a relatively flatted development but within the walled city, only G+2 structures are predominant. Now in days multi-storeyed buildings can be seen in JMC and other areas of JDA. The housing conditions vary within the city. A qualitative analysis of housing conditions has been done for the walled city is described as:
Housing Supply: -The housing development in the whole city can be categorised into 4 type's i.e. traditional housing, Formal housing and informal housing. The housing in the walled city is a type of traditional housing. The houses are around 100 to 150 years old and are built in typical Rajasthani architecture style. Mostly, the houses are two storied with decorated doors, windows and chhajjas (projections) etc.
Housing Stakeholders: - The total housing supply in the Jaipur is through six sources : - JDA, Rajasthan Housing Board (RHB), Private Developers, the Co-Operative societies, the traditional houses in the walled city & the slums (kacchi bastis). In case of walled city, most of the houses come under traditional housing. The proportion of housing supply provided by all of these sources is given below as: Source: JDA, Jaipur
New Developments in Housing: - In the light of Rajasthan Urban Housing and Habitat Policy- 2006, there are new developments which can be categorized as: group housing schemes, redevelopment schemes, flats of RHB and new townships at the outskirts of the city.
In case of walled city, redevelopment schemes are taking place, and under these schemes individuals are allotted plots of an area 40 sq.mts while JMC and JDA are responsible for the implementation process of redevelopment schemes.
Problems/Issues in Walled City: - There are some problems/issues related with housing in the walled city which should be addressed. These are listed as:
§ Most of the houses are very old like built around 100-150 years back and they are in dilapidated condition especially in the market area which are occupied by lower income groups (LIG`s).
§ Most of the area of walled city is facing poor infrastructure facilities.
§ Due to high population density, the houses are overcrowded with families leads to unhealthy living environment.
§ Most of the housed occupied by Middle Income groups (MIG`s) and Lower Income groups (LIG`s) have no open spaces, houses are semi-pucca or kaccha, some of them are without toilets and electricity connections.
§ Water supply is only through public taps or old wells only and the ventilation in the houses in not adequate.
Ø Traffic and Transportation: -
Traffic and transpiration is also an integral part of the spatial integration of the Jaipur city. As Jaipur is one of the metropolitan cities in the country with a population of over 2.5 million and is observed to be growing at very fast rate. Besides being the capital city of Rajasthan, the city of Jaipur is a major tourist centre in the country as well. Major portions of economic activities of the city are located in walled city area, spreading over 9.8 sq.kms. This area is, besides having heavily concentrated activities, a very important tourist centre and attracts tourists from all over the globe. The economic activities in the form of wholesale trade, commerce, household industries, administration and tourist spots generate heavy traffic to and from these areas. The limited road space of the area is congested with vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The shopkeepers and vendors also occupy the sidewalks and carriageways. Consequently the traffic in these areas is facing acute congestion, bottlenecks and hazards. The environmental pollution as well as physical and visual intrusions are also some of the other problems increasingly faced by the residents and the visitors to the area. In case of transportation facilities, only bus service is operated throughout the city by public sector. The other modes are like private taxis, auto-rickshaws, animal driven vehicles, rickshaws, private mini buses etc.
The situation of parking in the walled city is also in haphazard condition. Parking demand in the walled city area is met mainly by roadside parking along all major roads and there is no major off-street parking facility. With the ever increasing parking demand the vehicles are parked in two rows on carriageways. Footpaths are also filled with parked vehicles. While there is heavy demand for parking, the limited enforcement of regulatory measures fails to control and manage the parking problems. The following pictures will describe the nature and extent of traffic, parking problems in the walled city.
On street parking on the major roads of walled city
Animals like Elephant and Camel are very common for transportation of goods on Jaipur Roads
Street Hawkers/vendors along the roads in the walled city.
Problems/Issues in Walled City: -
§ The pressure on the roads of walled city can be easily observed due to encroachments by on street parking, hawkers/vendors and excessive commercialization and mixed vehicular movement.
§ There is a lack of proper traffic management system in the old area as well as in the whole city like no regulations on mixed traffic, no maintenance of signals & junctions, animals are moving freely in the daily traffic etc.
§ The public transport facility is also inadequate due to insufficient number of vehicles like buses etc. for transportation.
§ Parking is also a major issue in the walled city due to lack of parking spaces and due to this, leads to other issues like on street parking, encroachments on the roads etc.
Ø Heritage & Management: -
Heritage is a word which expresses the character of Jaipur city. The city is known as the `Pink City` which is very rich & famous for its heritage culture. Due to rapid urbanisation, the new developments are coming but still the city has fascinating heritage from its earlier times.
In Jaipur, all the historical buildings are described into three classes as: royal palaces & forts, temples and museums. Each heritage building has different history and different characteristics. Most of the buildings are situated in the walled city area and others are in municipal area. The historical Buildings which are situated in the city are as:
Walled City Area
City Palace Complex
Nawab Sahib Ki Haveli
Swargasuli or Isar Lat
Maharani Ki Chhatri
Jal Mahal Place
Ram Niwas Garden
So, there are 8 buildings which are situated in the walled city and 10 buildings are in JMC area. There are other historical components which has unique values. These includes like bazaars (Commercial area), water tanks, small temples and chabutras. These are 100-250 years old built. Besides this, JDA has identified total 300 historic buildings into the various parts in the walled city and categorized into different levels as per their area.
The existing situation of the walled city is assessed on the basis of current status and condition of these historical monuments. The rules and regulations of conservation are violated and traditional planning system has no use in the present time in the walled city. An existing situation analysis shows it very clearly as follows:
The Rajasthan Conservation and Heritage Byelaws, 1961 also guides about the conservation of historical properties and many agencies (Governmental and Private, NGO`s) are working towards conservation of those historical monuments but somehow the rules and regulations are violated.
Problems/Issues in Walled City: -
§ Due to excessive commercialization, it leads to the major traffic congestion in the streets and the irregular construction of shops in streets; Chhajas (projections) in front of shops have disturbed the fabric of historical streets.
§ The encroachments on streets also spoiled the character & image of streets and led to congestion in traffic movement too.
§ Due to lack of sufficient parking spaces, the on street parking becomes a major problem for the loss of cultural fabric of street & traffic congestion.
§ The maintenance and Lack of infrastructure facilities like water supply, sewerage, garbage collection and solid waste management in the inner streets also creates unhealthy environment which may disturb the character of inner areas.
§ Due to the lack of rules and regulations for heritage walkways, they have lost their historical image.
§ The maintenance of heritage buildings under private ownership is not adequate, and some of them have converted into modern buildings.
§ The conservation rules & regulations are violated in the walled city due to lack of co-ordination among different departments.
§ Heritage buildings are treated as only commercial spots without the proper conservation and protection.
Bath (England): -
The City of Bath and the beautiful countryside which surrounds it has been described as one of England's most beautiful places to visit. Bath is situated within the south west of England and is a fabulous city to visit. The population of the city is 169,040. It was granted city status by Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1590.
The city was founded, among surrounding hills, in the valley of the River Avon around naturally occurring hot springs where the Romans built baths and a temple, giving it the name Aquae Sulis. Much later, it became popular as a spa resort during the Georgian era, which led to a major expansion that left a heritage of exemplary Georgian architecture crafted from Bath Stone. Bath and its stunning surrounding countryside offer's tourists a multitude of fantastic places to visit from stately homes and gardens to the impressive Stonehenge.
As City of Bath the city became a World Heritage Site in 1987. The city has a variety of theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues, which have helped to make it a major centre for tourism, with over onemillion staying visitors and 3.8million day visitors to the city each year. The city has two universities and several schools and colleges. There is a large service sector and growing information and communication technologies and creative industries, providing employment for the population of Bath and the surrounding area.
Historical Background: -
A city which is one of the most beautiful cities in the world, making it the ideal city break destination and Bath is a World Heritage City (UNESCO), featuring the famous Roman Baths & Pump Room and simply stunning Georgian period architecture. The history of city came across the different periods started from Roman era.
The Roman BathsRoman Period: - After the Invasion of Britain by Romans in 43 AD, Bath was also occupied by Romans. The worship of Sulis continued in the Roman times. That's why during Roman period, grand temples, and bathing complexes were built. In the 3rd century, the city was given defensive walls. But with the start of 4th century, the Roman Empire and its urban sprawl declined while the some of the suit of Baths were in use.
Post Roman and Saxon Period: - In this period, the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle mentioned the falling of Bath into West Saxons after the battle of Deorham in 577 AD. The name `Bath` came from the “Baoum or Baoan” given by Anglo-Saxons. By the 9th century, after the Royal possession, the old Roman street pattern had been lost and with King Alfred laid out the town afresh leaving abbey precinct in the south.
Norman, Medieval and Tudor Period: - By the 15th century, some major churches were badly dilapidated like the abbey Church. After the status of Spa city, the baths were improved and maintained; city began to attract the aristocracy again. Finally in 1590, Bath was granted as city status by Royal Charter.
17th Century Period: - In this period, the heath giving properties of the hot mineral waters came to the attention of whole country and the aristocracy also started to partake in them, invented by the Thomas Guidott, a student of chemistry from Wadham College Oxford in 1676. Also he wrote “A discourse of Bathe, and the hot waters there” with some inquiries into the nature of water.
Georgian Period: - There had been much rebuilding in the Stuart period, but this was eclipsed by the massive expansion of Bath in Georgian times. The old town within the walls was also largely rebuilt. This was a response to the continuing demand for elegant accommodation for the city's fashionable visitors, for whom Bath had become a pleasure resort as well as a spa. In the early 18th century, the development of first purpose-built theatre, parks and gardens, assembly rooms etc came into existence. The use of Sedan Chairs also can be seen into this period by Grand Georgian people (rich people).
Victorian Period: - In this period, Bath crossed the population of 40020 according to Census 1801 & it came into the list of largest cities of Britain. Bath Spa rail station & many industries were also built in this period for the Great Western Railway.
20th Century Period: - During World War II, Bath faced three air raids, 400 people were killed and more than 19000 buildings were damaged & destroyed. Houses in the Royal Crescent, Circus and Paragon were burnt out along with the Assembly Rooms, while part of the south side of Queen Square was destroyed. All have since been reconstructed, and regeneration work is continuing. Since 2000, developments have included the Bath Spa, South Gate and the Bath Western Riverside project.
Historically part of the county of Somerset, Bath was made a county borough in 1889 and hence independent of the newly created administrative Somerset county council. Bath became part of Avon when that non-metropolitan county was created in 1974. Since the abolition of Avon in 1996, Bath has been the main centre of the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset (B&NES). Bath remains, however, in the ceremonial county of Somerset, though not within the administrative non-metropolitan county of Somerset.
Spatial Integration of Bath City: -
The Spatial Integration of the Bath city will also be analysed with the help of city landuse assessment method and the changes in it with time and the spatial planning tools & techniques, which are used for the integration of the city can be analysed. The Bath city is now days under a unitary authority “Bath & North East Somerset Council” (BANES or B&NES) which was created in 1st April, 1996. The total area under authority is 220 Sq. Miles and city of Bath is the principle settlement in the district.
The Former Bath City Council prepared Local plan as a Statutory Local plan in accordance with the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, as amended by the Planning and Compensation Act 1991. The Plan guides development in the City of Bath up to 2001 with the co-ordination of public and private investment decisions. This Local Plan supersedes the Bath City Plan that was adopted by the City Council in June 1990. But after objections, ratifications & modifications at different stages, On 12 June 1996 a letter was received by the Council from the Government Office for the South West on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Environment stating that the Bath Local Plan was now in accordance with the Direction which was henceforth lifted. The Council issued its Notice of Adoption of the Bath Local Plan on 20 June 1996.
Bath and North East Somerset Council adopted this Plan on 20th June 1996 and it now forms part of the statutory Development Plan for the new Authority. The Plan was, however, progressed through all the formal procedures outlined above by the former City Council, and it has been considered appropriate to retain the text which was the subject of public consultation and examination, including references to the "City Council". These references will serve as a reminder that the Policies are applicable only within the City of Bath, but it should be understood that in most instances the "Council" referred to is that of Bath and North East Somerset. However a High Court Challenge in August 1996 resulted in Bath and North East Somerset Council having to re-adopt the Plan on 19 June 1997.
The Bath and North East Somerset (BANES) council prepared a Local plan which is adopted in October 2007. The Local plan sets out the key objectives for the development of policies in different aspects: Living and Working (Social Inclusion, Resources, Housing, Economy, Urban & Rural Areas, Shopping, and Services & Leisure), Environmental Assets and Transport & Access etc.
Ø Brief Description About Spatial Planning Tools and Techniques: -
Bath is not just a historic marvel, but a living, growing city that must constantly change in order to keep up the modern world. With the change in time and requirements, the City of Bath undergone various changes which resulted in the demand for various plans, frameworks and guidelines to maintain & enhance the character as it as World Heritage Site. The Local plan which is prepared by the Bath and North East Somerset (BANES) council and adopted in October 2007; establish a robust policy framework to provide clarity for all those involved in the development process.
The Local Plan includes other spatial planning tools & techniques like Public consultations, Government Guidance, the Joint Replacement Structure Plan, the Council`s Local Transport Plan & the Strategies of the Council (Community Strategy, National and Regional Planning Guidance) and other organisations etc.
These are the spatial planning tools & techniques which are adopted by the Bath and North East Somerset (BANES) council to address the main objectives of the strategies. Like the Spatial Framework in 2006 by BANES to address the objective; “Manage & encourage the change within the context of World Heritage Site. The challenges it addresses include space for workers, visitors and residents, the riverside potential, architecture quality, the public realm, pedestrian movement, and how to repair the fractured city.” With its objectives, it also supports other spatial planning tools & techniques like the Business Plan for the City of Bath.
So the spatial planning tools and techniques which are also included in the Local Plan for the City of Bath are an important & vital for the development and management of city.
Ø Housing: -
Housing Affordability: - The Housing section assesses the housing situation of the City of Bath. If we look at the housing scenario of the city, the affordability of housing is least in City of Bath as compared to whole of the district. The following s represents as:
So many people are migrating due to high cost of living in the City of Bath. This is leading to recruitment difficulties and skill shortages which could have a knock-on effect on the local economy.
The need for affordable housing (per year) is also much in Bath city as compare to the other areas in the district. The following s represent it as:
The land supply for housing development is also limited in the City of Bath. This places considerable pressure for development both on sites allocated for housing and on other sites in the City to meet the demand for housing.
Problems/Issues in City of Bath: -
§ In the listed Georgian properties in Bath can resulted in an additional challenges and improvement works due to large number of high risk houses in multiple occupations.
§ Due to the relatively high property values in Bath, the refurbishment of converted buildings often results in higher rents being charged and people are moving off to City of Bath.
§ The problem of decent housing type is also major concern in the private rented sector which is mostly occupied by university students. It includes the Abbey ward in Bath City and Bathavon wards surrounding city.
§ The current and future needs of older residents are generally exceeds then Government funding allocations in housing schemes.
Ø Traffic and Transportation: -
The city of Bath is a small & complex city as compared to other cities and it has well defined activities like commercial areas and employment areas. The various sectors of its transportation systems are like parking facilities and public transport services are not only interdependent but all are affected by the other activities and decisions made for them e.g. new developments to meet the housing objectives, conservation of the historic buildings or streets etc. The traffic management system came into force since 1970 rather than building only new roads in the city and at boundaries.
The main problem of the City of Bath is the congestion within the city by through traffic because most of the traffic in city has an origin and destination in the city. The following s show the mode of transport in the City of Bath to travel to work as:
It represents that the residents which are working in Bath city are more dependent upon their own/private vehicles like car, the residents which are working in Bath and living somewhere else and residents which are living in Bath and working somewhere else (outside the city), are totally dependent upon their private mode of travel i.e car.
But in case of comparison with other area in the district and national level, the s represents that the residents within Bath are more dependent upon private mode of transport i.e car or on the walk which is much higher as compared to other areas & National level but
more interesting point is that the City of Bath has percentage of residents who has no car as compared to other areas and National level.
These s clearly show that the private mode of transport is creating congestion in the City of Bath and through traffic generated by them. Parking and pedestrian safety are also important issues in the City of Bath.
Problems/Issues in City of Bath: -
§ Traffic problems have been a dominant issue in planning for Bath but the development of new major road schemes within the City is no longer seen as a solution. The emphasis now is on careful management of traffic and the integration of policies for use of land in order to make the best use of existing road space and minimise the congestion, pollution and danger caused by vehicles.
§ The road and rail network are at capacity and congestion across the area is a problem in terms of journey times and public transport travel times, a key impediment to maintaining a healthy economy. Congestion is also affecting air quality and in areas of Bath City Centre air pollution has reached levels that are higher than the Government recommended acceptable limits.
§ The lack of parking spaces and their capacity is also an important issue and recent studies have indicated that there is a greater need for pedestrian management schemes, such as improved signing of information etc, and areas given over to pedestrian priority.
Ø Heritage & Management: -
The city is internationally known for its Roman and Georgian heritage and archaeology, its culture as a spa that stretches back over two thousand years, theinnovative architecture and town planning, and the harmony between the city and the landscape. The city of Bath was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987 for its unique and outstanding universal value for its Historic character. The city is a blend of history and modern life, continually changing, growing and adapting to modern requirements which attracts approximately 3.7 million tourists each year and lies on strategic road & rail transport routes. The City of Bath has a close relationship between the success of modern city and heritage due to the wide range of business, industries and regional centre for employment, shopping and entertainment etc.
The City of Bath (World Heritage Site) is vulnerable to change and growth with the time, but this is both inevitable and desirable in a living city. There are threats to the fabric and character of the World Heritage Site and its setting, and uncontrolled or inappropriate change in these areas can become a threat to the very values for which Bath is inscribed as a World Heritage Site. So even to tackle these kinds of situations, the local authorities were much concerned about them. They identified various issues related with the World Heritage Site & its management etc. But along with these threats and vulnerabilities, the City of Bath has also many opportunities as a World Heritage Site which are helpful in many ways to the City of Bath.
To address those threats and vulnerabilities, incorporating opportunities, The B&NES and English Heritage prepared a World Heritage Site Management Plan for the City of Bath for the period of 2003-2009. They have identified various issues which are described as:
Problems/Issues in City of Bath: -
§ Due to the scale and complexity of site, numbers of people are involved in the management, ownership and cultural assets. So it's really an important from management point of view which requires the coordination of a large number of disciplines and agencies
§ The protection of World Heritage Site is achieved only through the planning system of plans and designations so for the appropriate protection, and according to World Heritage Site criteria, a appropriate legal system is required because there are number of actions like risk assessment, mitigation & awareness campaigns etc which are necessary for the appropriate protection of World Heritage Site.
§ There are number of planning applications involved in the whole process as general due to the complexity of the site and the number of listed buildings.
§ There are number of new developments on the outskirts of the city which may or are degrade the historic fabric of the World Heritage Site which gives an authenticity and outstanding universal values to the site. So there is a need of development controls in and around the city keeping in mind the character of the city.
§ In the recent times, the condition of contemporary architecture is not good with the test of time & other physical changes in climate, due to which it doesn't match with the historic architecture of the city. So it's more challenging from integration of contemporary design into a historic environment.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Annexure - I
Salient Features of the Rajasthan Urban Housing and Habitat Policy- 2006
Goal of the policy is ‘to ensure sustainable development of human settlements including Shelter for All and a better quality of life to all citizens using potential of all the stake holders. The major components include:
ü Slum policy to be prepared for the state.
ü Setting up of an independent and centralized agency to act as single window system for resolving all slum development issues.
ü Encouragement of slum development through participation of the cooperatives societies, like maintenance of the
ü Common facilities and to pay lease charges, etc.
ü Infrastructure development through land pooling arrangements by constructive multi storied building (G+3/ G+5 structures) on existing slum sites to minimize relocation problem where houses shall be provided at free of cost and free land claimed at disposal of the developer.
ü Execution of slum habilitation work through various programmes like JNNURM/ IHSDP schemes launched by GoI.
ü Free houses of carpet area 225 sq ft to each of slum household as decided by the GoR.
ü Priority wise provision of basic amenities depending on the availability of space.
ü Provision of training, technological support and finance for up gradation of existing housing stock in slums.
Legal and Regulatory reforms including Urban Land Reforms:
ü Major components of urban reforms are rationalization of stamp duty, management of land records and guaranteed land title.
ü Specific provision for involvement of private sector for EWS/LIG.
ü Introduction of IT system for easy and simplifying registration procedures.
ü Preparation and Enactment of Apartment Ownership Act to facilitate sell of roof rights.
ü Amendment of Rent Control Act 2005 & 2006 to stimulate investment in rental housing so that more vacant house owners can use the houses for rental purpose.
ü Revamping of Rajasthan Municipalities Act 1959 & induction of new Rajasthan Municipal Bill- 2005.
ü Promotion of mortgage insurance.
ü Mandatory reforms as per GOI directions.
ü Introduction of housing norms at local level with regard to the geo-climatic conditions and life styles of the people.
Human Resource and Infrastructure Development:
ü Training and awareness promotion to adopt low-cost and cost-effective approaches for housing.
ü Formal and non-formal training facilities on a widely decentralized basis to upgrade skills of construction workers, artisans and contractors.
ü Encouragement of increased facilities in the technical institutions and colleges.
ü Encouragement of NGOs and consultants to involve in giving the training of the construction workers, artisans and contractors, both in formal and informal sectors.
ü Provision of non-formal training to facilitate maintenance and improvement of housing stock on a self-help basis.
ü Spatial Data Centre for database management has been also proposed to be set up.
ü Disaster Management and Relief cell has introduced codes for measures to be adopted for earthquake resistant building and flood control system.
ü Fiscal concessions for attracting more and more investments in housing.
ü City based models for improvement in the infrastructure facilities like sewerage treatment, wastewater disposal, solid waste management, etc.
ü Implementation of policy for management of solid waste biomedical waste.
Policies in Urban Areas for Promotion of Housing:
ü Reservation of land for EWS and LIG people in each of local plan.
ü Regularization of the Housing Cooperative Society land (HCS) as per town planning norms.
ü Future plans for vertical growth.
ü Encouragement of financial institutions/banks to give assist SC/ST/OBC communities.
ü Encouragement of RHB to provide 50% of houses for EWS/LIG people.
ü Review of Master Plan area for cities, which are heavily urbanized area with high-density population or fast growing Religious/industrial towns.
ü Re-planning and defining the No development Zones to prevent Slums or unauthorized constructions.
ü Tax regulations on vacant urban land and vacant houses in order to curb speculation of land.
ü Freezing of all the lands identified in the Master Plan. Restricting private transactions in the land except for agricultural purposes.
ü Implementation of effective Urban Land record system/GIS mapping/registration of land.
ü Provision of affordable serviced land to the poorer section.
ü Proper utilization of land reserved under various government agencies.
ü Optimization of cost of land and simplified procedures while conversion of land from JDA/UIT/Municipal bodies to RHB.
ü Redevelopment of the areas, which are in dilapidated conditions.
ü Amendment of Revenue or other acts as necessary for the implementation of the policy with regard to supply and management of land.
ü Revision of standards of Master plan.
ü Promotion of establishment of cost effective building materials, eco-friendly and energy efficient innovative industries.
ü Proposal for Habitat Infrastructure action plan for improvement of the infrastructure conditions.
ü Encouraging builders and developers to provide housing stock for rental accommodations in the urban areas.
ü Utilization of vacant houses for rental purposes.
ü Encouraging industries to provide houses for the workers/labourers.
ü Integrated approach for the urban poor especially the BPL families.
ü Conservation of Heritage buildings to revive the culture and heritage of the cities like Jaipur, Udaypur, etc.
ü Encouraging Real Estate developers, builders, and colonizers to develop townships.
ü Encouraging cooperatives to assemble land, construction of houses and development of amenities.
ü Encouraging private developers/FDIs to invest their project in the future growth areas.
 Joardar, Souro D., Development Mechanism in Spatial Integration, 42nd ISOCARP Congress 2006
 Edja Bezerra Faria and Valerio Augusto, Studying effects of change in spatial integration over land use patterns and architectural conversation in the old town centre of Natal, Brazil
 Hillier, B.,(1999, 1996), Space is the Machine, London, Cambridge University Press
 Poul Ove Pedersen and Walter Stöhr, Economic Integration and the Spatial Development of South America
 For more details about the research, see references
 An Analysis of Distribution of Landuses- JDA Constitutes, drawn in the CDP, Jaipur.
 In 1954, Urban Improvement Board was constituted to ensure a planned development in Jaipur. Later it was renamed as Urban Improvement Trust (UIT). Later in 1982, UIT was upgraded to Jaipur Development Authority
 See Annexure-I for Details.
 JMC Building Bye Laws
 Existing Situation Analysis – CDP, Jaipur
 Bath and North East Somerset District Council: Population Statistics, 2001
 "The Roman Baths". Somerset Tourist Guide. http://www.somersettouristguide.com/Bath/The_Roman_Baths_722.asp. Accesses on 31/07/09.
 A Vision for Bath – Spatial Framework, February 2006.