The Age of Enlightenment
As scientific understanding advanced through the centuries, our perceptive of the earth and the universe has developed. In the start things were hazy, gloomy and unknown. Although, science may not having all of the answer it has revealed a bright light on a great deal of things. It has assisted in introducing the age of Enlightenment and exposed all sorts of advances in several significant fields. In fact, several of the most intriguing scientific progressions accomplished in space study and astronomy. These advances have taught us about our solar system and its unique way of working. The following presentation will explore the solar system. It will also explain why and how our understanding of it has changed with new inventions and discoveries.
In the western world it was previously thought that a giant named Atlas, held up the sky other believed a large tortoise was holding up the earth. In several ancient cultures such as Mesopotamian and Indians, it was supposed that the earth and sky were formed with the blood of a goddess that was murdered and mutilated. Later it was suggested that the earth was the center of the universe and the sun rotated around it. even though we know now that this is has been proven false, the heliocentric solar system was major growth from the mythic observation that the ancient world made. In 150 AD Ptolemy developed the geocentric system in which a stationary Earth is claimed to be the center of the universe with the Moon, Sun and planets revolving around in unconventional and epicycles circles, the theory also stated. Surprisingly the Ptolemy theory held up for 1,400 years until it met its first serious challenge with the publication of Nicholas Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, in 1543. Copernicus' heliocentric model placed the sun at the center of the universe and demonstrated that the experiential movements of celestial objects can be clarified without locating Earth at the center of the universe. Although his theory was not accepted during his time his work is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the essential perception that commenced the Scientific Revolution.
Science has assisted man in making extraordinary discoveries and increased our knowledge in understanding the solar system. With amazing and profound inventions such as powerful telescopes, cameras, probes, orbiters, and a desire for discovery; we have evolved from popular pastime legends about our planet to put a man on the moon. An example of the advancements made through scientific exploration would be the planet Neptune and its moon Triton. Before, it was unthinkable for a large ordinary moon to orbit in any manner besides the expected way. Triton uniquely shatters numerous rules. Foremost, it is the coldest of all the known bodies in the solar system. Furthermore Triton is the only large moon that orbits in the opposite direction of its planets rotation. Previously Triton was believed to be a dead moon however through observation and scientific study scientists recognized that although Triton is very far away and extremely cold, it's volcanically effective. They also determined it has, fault lines, fissures, a thick atmosphere and geysers.
In the early 1600's Galileo redesigned the telescope allowing him to take a closer more detailed look at outer space which in turn ushered in the era known as the Scientific Revolution. During this era significant growth in scientific knowledge and fascinating discoveries occurred. The planets Mercury, Mars, Venus, Saturn and Jupiter were identified by ancient astronomers in 2nd millennium B.C. But the use of his telescope, Galileo was able to discovery nine new bodies which include the Galilean Moon or the four moons of Saturn. Another important advancement occurred with a newly developed understanding of physics Galileo, Kepler and Sir Isaac Newton were able to confirm Copernicus's heliocentric theory allowing it to finally be accepted. A significant discovery transpired in 1781, when William Herschel observed the planet Uranus through a telescope for the first time. Amazingly by the 19th century, the Solar System dramatically increased to 31 major bodies with the discovery of asteroids. With the approach of the space age in the 1950's many new important developments in technology came about. The most significant was the world's first artificial satellite- Sputnik 1 launched by The Soviet Union in 1957. Sputnik was able to orbit the Earth in 98.1 minutes. With the launch of Sputnik 1, scientific technology entered a new era of advancements.
On August 24th 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted on the first scientific definition for the word planet. A planet was now defined as a celestial body that (1) has adequate mass for its self-gravity to conquer firm body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) and (2) is in orbit around a star, and is neither a star nor a satellite of a planet. With the new definition of planet, Pluto was downgraded from qualified planet to "dwarf planet" making the planet count eight.
1) When Galileo Galilei heard of an instrument that would allow him to see objects from a distance he designed his own and turned it towards the heavens in 1609. With his newly designed telescope Galilei was able to make discoveries such as craters on the Moon, sunspots and several bodies in space.
2) Kepler's laws of planetary motion were revealed by observation, in 1605, by Johannes Kepler who discovered them by examining the astronomical notes of Tycho Brahe. Kepler's laws provide an estimated account of the movement of planets around the Sun.
3) Throughout the decades many discoveries, inventions and advances were made, but in 1957 one of the greatest accomplishments was achieved with the Soviet Union launching of the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. Not only did Sputnik make technology history by being the first of its kind, but the discoveries acquired by Sputnik also assisted in discovering the upper atmospheric layer's mass, through calculating the orbital changes of the satellite. It also provided the first chance for meteoroid detection.
4) Mans biggest achievement may have occurred on April 12, 1961 when Yuri Gagarin became the first human in outer space also the first to orbit outer space another significantly important milestone occurred in July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to land and walk on Earth's moon.
These are only a few of the scientific advancements and inventions that expanded our knowledge about outer space.
The following presentation will identify the how the use of the Atomic Bomb altered the scientific perceptive, it will discuss the social and historical context of World War II and the impact that it has had upon our scientific understanding.
In hopes of spreading their Empire, On the morning of December 7, 1941 the Japanese navy conducted a military strikes against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; in hopes of destroying the U.S. Pacific Fleet and eliminating it as a significant fighting force, to prevent any opposition towards their conquest of South East Asia and the Pacific Islands. This attack prompted The United States to declare war on Japan.
After three years of a brutal bloody war On July 26, Japan was presented with the Potsdam Declaration stating the terms of surrender for Japan by President Truman and allied leaders The terms of the declaration were an ultimatum and explained that without surrender, Japan will be attacked by the allies, which will result in the complete destruction of the Japanese army an homeland. Unaffected by the ultimatum Japanese newspapers reported that the Japanese government has rejected the declaration. President Truman stuck to his decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan and believed that immense display of U.S Armed Forces was the only way to force an unconditional surrender by Japan; stating his intentions to use the destructive bombs to bring about a fast end to the war.
The bombing of both Hiroshima and Nagasaki-- the first and last use of an atomic bomb continues to be both a shocking and devastating topic throughout war history. The instantaneous effects of the blast killed approximately 70,000 people in Hiroshima. Estimates of total deaths by the end of 1945 from burns, radiation and related disease, the effects of which were aggravated by lack of medical resources, range from 90,000 to 140,000. Some estimates state up to 200,000 had died by 1950, due to cancer and other long-term effects. Another study states that from 1950 to 1990, roughly 9% of the cancer and leukemia deaths among bomb survivors was due to radiation from the bombs, the statistical excess being estimated to 89 leukemia and 339 solid cancers. In total both bombings killed close to 110,000 Japanese citizens and wounded an additional 130,000. The total dead rose by 1950 by another 230,000 who died from the aftermath effects of the bombs such as radiation. The chief explosions of the atomic bombs were devastating but their destructive abilities did not end there. The Rain that followed the atomic bombs was dangerously tainted with radioactive elements. Most survivors of the first blast ultimately died due to radiation toxin. The survivors that lived suffered severe burns, queasiness, vomiting, weakness, diarrhea, and loss of hair. The effects of the bombs would continue to surface for many years to come for example studies have shown that a survivor passes on Leukemia to their offspring.
The atomic bomb was the first of its kind. In 1945 the United States secret operation, The Manhattan Project accomplished its goal and created the first atomic bomb. Since 1939, scientist had struggled and strived to find a way to control the power of fission. Through the collective labors of many, On July 16, 1945 in a New Mexico desert the world's first nuclear bomb test was performed and leaded in the Atomic Age. The success of the experiment bomb led to the formation of two additional atomic bombs that were used in WWII. Although devastating and destructive not all aspects of the atomic bomb have been harmful, scientist have discovered how to control the power of nuclear energy. As a result, Nuclear power plants were created and are far more resourceful than traditional power plants. Significant benefits have also impacted the medical field. Surprisingly the same technology used in the atomic bomb is also used for saving lives by way of CAT scans and chemotherapy.