The Southerners farmers

Economical difficulties made the majority of the Southerners farmers immigrated to the west, to Texas, looking for a better living. The effort for a better life started when the Farmers' Alliance was founded in Lampasas, Texas; the alliance was an organization campaign with the purpose that farmers working together. It started to be strong movement that in St. Louis, Feb. 1892 an un-presidential alliance was made, that became a third political party, to fight against the entrenched interest of the big businesses and banks.

American farmers were the main who were affected economically and socially, during the Industrial American farmers were the main who were affected economically and socially, during the Industrial Revolution. Agriculture was severely hit by the big businesses, which were practically the ones who had the control of the economy. Furthermore, with the creation of monopolies, farmers started facing problems with the crop prices that were falling, leaving them just with an overproduction and without any way for a better progress.

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As we talk about understanding and guiding behavior, think about examples of mixed messages and confusing directions from your own childhood that gave you pause and made you wonder what the adults in your life were really trying to say. Why couldn't they be clear in their communications? I remember hearing things like, "I'll give you something to cry about!" Well, duh, I was already crying at the time so what sense did that make? Why do adults say what they say and why don't they say what they mean? Even with babies--lots of parents can't wait for their children to learn how to talk and then once they do, they tell them to shut up. Go figure!

Here's an example of the kind of messages I'm talking about:

The Mom Song Sung to William Tell Overture with Lyrics

Offer an example of a communication that either a parent or another adult in your life gave to you as a child that left you baffled and then translate it into what you think they really meant to say, had they known about the Guides to Speech and Action. The Guides to Speech and Action Document is located in "Resources" in the left-hand navigation tree.

Please be sure to post your response to my question and respond to a classmate by clicking on quote. Thanks.

Popular Discourse

In the later quarter of the nineteenth century there seems to have been an explosion of interest in reading and the common discussion of just about everything. Explain how journalism, new magazines, new styles of writing, "yellow journalism," philosophy, technology, industry and education affected American culture.

The boom of the industrial revolution influenced Americans look towards their future. The needs for knowledge with the rapid technologic evolution, made Education important. Many new schools as well as the appearance of new specialties and the increased of others as journalism, law and medicine took place. Government and wealthy men began to be interested in the improvement and the creation of new schools of higher education with better teaching quality, that later became so important and popular like Harvard. With the rise of education, the importance of libraries increased as well as leading to the establishment of new libraries. Moreover, this time of knowledge expansion made women to pursuit for a better education as well.

The advance of education together with the industrialization eventually affected the newspaper industry, allowing newspapers access to machines that could easily print thousands of papers in a single night. People started to be informed through newspapers and its importance increased as well as its demand. The demand of newspapers made the introduction of new styles of writing as "yellow journalism" that catch the interested of everyone. The New York World by Joseph Pulitzer was very popular at the time.

As well as newspaper, magazines also affected American society in the form of advice literature. Magazines popularity increased when those started to offered

Alan Trachtenberg's The Incorporation of America describes the process of industrialization and its affects on American culture and society during the Gilded Age. According to Trachtenberg, "economic incorporation wrenched American society from the moorings of familiar values...". The impact of the anxiety associated with the transformation of late 19th century American society can be measured by the growth in advice literature. Advice literature was common throughout the nineteenth century but during the last three decades of the century, over 50 advice magazines and books were published per year (triple what had been published in the beginning of the century).

The majority of the readers of advice literature were middle class Americans. Advice literature reflected their definition of culture "in the sense of cultivation and refinement, of formal education and trained aesthetic sensibility" (Trachtenberg p. 9) and focused primarily on the Many changes to the way of living, on newspaper, and styles of literature appeared.

Americans were moving onwards and upwards in the industrialization stage of growth and their attitudes were moving up also. They believed in more education and more training towards occupational skills. They believed their children should have a more formal type of schooling than from previous generations to ensure their children's capabilities and successes in this new era of technological growth.

Libraries were becoming popular and states supported the use of these buildings and materials of knowledge. Andrew Carnegie believed in libraries and wished to make the materials available in libraries accessible to everyone, whether rich or poor. He contributed much to the libraries, leading other private donors to contribute also.

Communication and articles of interest were being written and spread to the public through the use of newspapers and magazines. The web press (developed in 1871) and the linotype machine (developed in 1886) helped to reduce printing costs. Wood pulp machines further reduced these costs. With the desire for education, news, and general interest in their surrounding communities, people were finding more convenient and cost affordable methods of communication through written materials.

The science field was being expanded, and newer discoveries in such areas as psychology, chemistry, sociology, political science and physics were contributing much to this new time. People were curious and began to question how, what, why matters were the way they were. Newer ideas began to come around and people wanted more of an answer to these ideas. The question of evolution took place, making Americans want to discover more about themselves and their surroundings. Other people, such as Lewis Henry Morgan, wanted to show and make people think about how kinship relationships co-related with tribal institutions.

The quest for information, newer technology and general involvement in life and its possibilities were bringing about a thirst for more knowledge and a questioning of how, exactly, things worked or had developed.

Alan Trachtenberg's The Incorporation of America describes the process of industrialization and its affects on American culture and society during the Gilded Age. According to Trachtenberg, "economic incorporation wrenched American society from the moorings of familiar values...". The impact of the anxiety associated with the transformation of late 19th century American society can be measured by the growth in advice literature. Advice literature was common throughout the nineteenth century but during the last three decades of the century, over 50 advice magazines and books were published per year (triple what had been published in the beginning of the century).

The majority of the readers of advice literature were middle class Americans. Advice literature reflected their definition of culture "in the sense of cultivation and refinement, of formal education and trained aesthetic sensibility" (Trachtenberg p. 9) and focused primarily on the home since it was considered the center of a family's (and society's) morality. The domestic space had always been considered the center of family life, including religious observation, education, and morality, but when the home was no longer the center of production as well it became a sacred space that needed to be preserved rather than a space that could evolve with the family. The assumption was that the new economy provided men with more opportunities for leisure away from the home and after a long day in a factory, away from familiar surroundings, men would need to return to a tranquil space that would reinforce their morality. Advice literature taught women how to create and maintain that space and everything in it (including themselves and their children).

The purpose of this site is to demonstrate, through illustrations from advice literature and art from the late 19th century, how women's roles were redefined to accommodate the need for a static moral center in the home. Men were also impacted by newly defined gendered spaces and gender roles. However, I will focus on women because of the close relationships between the perception of the middle class wife and the appearance of the home, rising commercialism, and a growing middle class. Women and their homes became symbols of homogeneity and middle class life, and as such, they served as a response to the perceived emerging immigrant and industrialist threat. In a certain respect, for many Americans, the home and women were the last frontier. Americans desperately clung to the idea of a romantic idealized space where children, morality, and culture could flourish without the influence of industrialization.

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Evolution and Society

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution had great impact on American culture and not strictly as a theory of biology. Explain how the theory of evolution affected religion, economic theory, the social sciences and modern concepts such as "pragmatism."

Subject: 3. Political Leadership

There were many powerful and significant American Presidents in the nineteenth century, but arguably none after Lincoln. Explain why the presidency seemed to change from an office of decision to one of care taking. Consider the economy, the robber-barons, the political issues of the period, the major political parties and anything else that seems important.

Subject: 4. Third Parties

The late nineteenth century was ripe with third party activity and people open to alternative political systems. Explain why the two major political partied did not seem to meet the needs of Grangers, Alliance members, Silverites, Socialists, labor union advocates, and other discontented Americans. Also explain why with all this discontent none of the third parties survived as national parties.

Women in the Progressive Era

The history of women suffrage before and up to the Progressive Era (1860-1920) and their attempt to achieve equality.

Abstract

This paper focuses around the "American Dream" in which women sought to achieve equality. It includes an in-depth explanation of their dream, a section on the limited rights and political and social norms that kept them from achieving their dream and a section on how their activism brought equality.

From the Paper

"During the Progressive Era, all Americans had an essential dream or motivation that accounted for their presence in the United States. Be it good work for the Irish, or a fair banking system for the Farmers, each group was motivated to succeed and achieve their dreams, in order to better their lives or the lives of their children. Women were no different. Women struggled to achieve equality; equality as a citizen, equality in the work place, and equality at home. (The Declaration of Sentiments: Report of the Woman's Rights Convention)"

The U.N. In The Post-Cold War Era

Examines its changing roles, challenges and opportunities after the break-up of the Soviet Union, focusing on European conflicts.

From the Paper

"The United Nations faces a new power structure in the world with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc. This provides a new opportunity to reconstitute the UN so that it more clearly fulfills the original purpose of the United Nations, which was to avoid conflict or to settle it without force. The new paradigm may be bolstering international law and arbitration in order to judge the actions of nations according to ethical standards.

After World War I, many of the nations of the world tried to address one of the issues that had interested idealists for some time--the creation of some means for international adjudication as a way of authoritatively and peacefully settling international disputes. One of the institutions that emerged from this war was the League of Nations, a forerunner of the United Nations but ..."

An examination of Roosevelt's New Deal and its attempt to save America from the Great Depression.

Abstract

This paper is about the Great Depression that hit Americans during the 1930's. The author goes into depth about FDR's "new deal" and how it helped get America out of the depression. Includes information about each program and how it worked.

From the Paper

"During the 1930's, Americans witnessed a breakdown of the Democratic and free enterprise system as the US fell into the worst depression in history. At the depth of the depression, in 1933, one American worker in every four was out of a job (Conkin 136). During these times the people looked to the federal government for solutions. The president then, Herbert Hoover, did little for the country to get out of the depression, because he believed that the country did not have the power or money for social programs and many people blamed him for the depression. With the economy at an all time low people wanted change, change which Franklin D. Roosevelt offered through his legislative program. This program represented a new way of government for capitalism in America. Roosevelt first used the term "New Deal" when he accepted the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932. He said "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people," (Morgan 36)."

The New Deal and African-Americans

This paper discusses the New Deal, a set of federal policies targeted at welfare relief and economic development during the administration President Franklin Roosevelt, and its effect on African-Americans.

Abstract

This paper explains that the Roosevelts were promoters of human rights and racial equality; thus, part of the goal of the New Deal was to promote racial equality by creating federal agencies to help ease discrimination against African-Americans and to create economic opportunities for the advancement of black citizens. The author points out that, despite their status as free Americans and the general economic prosperity that occurred in the 1920s, African-Americans were still far from being treated as full citizens; therefore, for many black families in the 1930s, the difficulties spawned by the Great Depression magnified already existing forms of inequitable treatment. The paper concludes that, even though the promises of the New Deal engendered hope in the African-American population, which was desperate for social and political change, studies show that the New Deal fell far short of its goal of promoting racial equality.

From the Paper

"This mass migration, however, led to growing racial tensions in the cities. Unemployed whites felt that they should have first priority for the few factory jobs that were available. Many desperate white workers also began taking jobs as janitors and street sweepers -- positions that were formerly reserved for African Americans. This contributed further to the displacement of African Americans from the paid labor force. Furthermore, while limited financial aid was available, white families had priority for any unemployment assistance."

Abstract

The New Deal (1933-1939) is the term used to refer to the program of relief, recovery, and reform that attempted to solve the economic problems created by the economic depression of the 1930's in the United States. The paper shows that the New Deal consisted of a federal action of unprecedented scope to aid industrial recovery, assist victims of the Great Depression, ensure minimum living standards, and prevent future economic crises. In each of its goals, the New Deal was partially successful. This paper discusses how the New Deal worked and how it impacted the United States.

From the Paper

"Roosevelt wanted to alleviate the burdens of the farmers by any means possible. However, his quick the legislation resulted in overproduction (a major mistake in an economy suffering from under-consumption). Still, the new Deal helped farmers with their debts, developed a process of soil conservation and improved methods of cultivation."

Abstract

This paper examines how the New Deal ushered in a number of changes for the African-American population of America and how these changes unfortunately would reinforce rather than turn established societal pressures working to keep the African-American population down. It looks at how under the Roosevelt and Truman administration attempts were made at adapting a truly progressive social policy and how these policies ignored Black Americans, largely excluding them from these programs, denying them the benefits offered to others.

From the Paper

"The first New Deal programs initially were conceived to be temporary means to improve the economy by "putting money into the hands of consumers to increase buying power and begin an upward spiral of the economy". Roosevelt believed his first solutions to the problems of the society needed to be "saving farms and homes, reducing farm production, hiring out the unemployed in public works and supporting manufacturers so they would hire the unemployed" The second phase of New Deal programs (which occurred after Washington's resignation from FERA) were aimed towards an agenda of social reform marked by the enactment of the Social Security Act and the beginning of the welfare state. In both periods, African Americans were largely discriminated against. (Barrow 201) This establishment of a welfare state, as mentioned above, is one of the prime obstacles facing the African American community, even today, due to the disparity between the availability of work for the African American community as opposed to the white community. "

Abstract

This paper examines how domestic labor market was effected by World War II and enabled a professional revolution for American women. The paper describes how women moved into careers that were previously only considered for men. It illustrates the climate of social change in American, as a result of women being able to earn money for their families. The paper gives great detail to the new professional areas opened to women.

From the Paper

"Many aspects of change occurred in the United States during World War II. World War II brought about to the fore several different ideas. One of the most notable ones c was the change identity for many women. The war facilitated them to gain strength and mobility. Before the war, women were set in certain roles in society but after the war began, women were asked to work outside their homes as well. This situation then made women believe the war symbolized freedom, which increased equality for them. Women started to obtain traditional male responsibilities because most eligible men were in the war. Great numbers of women began to take control of their lives by working as factory workers, nurses, doctors, and journalists. Some joined the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. Women also found jobs as drivers, farmers, mail delivery personnel, garbage collectors, builders, and mechanics. These new opportunities allowed women to earn their own money and do what they wanted with it. Women became more independent and could as they chose. World War II truly enhanced the lives of women. "

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