This research summarizes the development phases of advanced behaviour change database system (ABCD). It also presents the sequential activities of building a reliable system to change the workers' behaviour based on behaviour-based safety process (BBS). Human nature and organization health and safety strategy plays a major role to create and develop a system matches both employee and the organization needs. In fact using useful, easier, and effective data base system will make a wide difference for both employee and the organization itself by saving time, energy, and finally getting accrual data.
Behavioural Systems Analysis focuses on performance improvement and progress in the organization by using methods, principles of behaviour and systems analysis.
In our project we will discuss the organizational behaviour management and how does it impact the health and safety concept in a Kuwait National Petroleum company (KNPC), also the implementation of changing workers behaviour and how does the advance behaviour changing data base system.
Most organizations know a day's concentrate on the organizational behaviour field, The Organizational behaviour concept consists of the expansion, development and appraisal of performance improvement process which are based on the values of behaviour exposed through the science of behaviour analysis. These process are measured to be within the range of OBM when they concentrate on how to improve individuals or group appraisal within an organizational site, no matter whether that organization will be a business, industrial, or human service settings, and whether the organization was profitable or not.
Background and overview of KNPC
Kuwait National Petroleum Company was established in October 1960 as a shareholder company owned by the government and the private Sector. In 1968 the company commissioned its own "Shuaiba Refinery" and in may of the same year, the first shipment of refined petroleum products was exported from Shuaiba Refinery Shuaiba Refinery is the world's first all hydrogen refinery. Its capacity is 195,000 Barrels per day in 1975 the company became a fully owned state company. After the creation of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation in 1980, KNPC became fully owned by KPC which itself is owned by the State of Kuwait.
Where the Idea came from
There was a system used by KNPC health and safety department for collecting information's called; Behavioural-based Safety (BBS) and it was a well-established method for changing workers behaviour and incident rates, BBS process depends on site observation, site observation includes individual feedback, which is the most effective act in the behaviour-base safety model (see below figure 1).
BBS is found on site interaction between observer and the worker. The observer would admire the safe behaviours the worker is performing; then highlight the at-risk behaviour the same worker is making. The observer would suggest safe behaviours for the worker to use. This site observation is recorded in a BBS Observation Check list. The checklists are gathered and entered in electronic database. Reports are generated for BBS steering committee to analyze and recommend practical solutions. As the following figure shows the ABCD system new chick list.
Our Research objective is to understand and discover the advantages of using the ABCD system, and whether it is applicable for another companies and different industries or not.
- Does the ABCD system useful for different organizations?
- Does the ABCD system made difference in KNPC?
The observer starts his feedback by commending the safe behaviour the worker was doing during his work. Then he explains, one by one, the At-risk behaviours the worker was doing. Then the observer asks the worker why he was putting himself at risk.
For example, if the worker is welding a piece of metal and the sparks are flying in the workers direction. The observer would then ask the worker why he was not wearing protective clothing, like flame-retardant apron.
They both discuss the at-risk behaviours until the worker agrees to try the suggested recommendation made by the observer. The worker might be aware of his at-risk behaviour or maybe not. The worker may be doing the at-risk behaviour for long time without hurting himself (negative consequences).
The Observer's job here is to highlight this behaviour, and then explains the associated negative consequences with this behaviour. The above discussion and agreement is the individual feedback which helps the worker to change his behaviour.
At the end of the observation, the Observer would fill in a checklist with the safe and at-risk behaviours he noticed along with the date, time and location of the observations.
The worker's name or identification numbers are not noted in the checklist. Part of the check list can be used to summarize the observation process and the discussion. Workers comments and reasons for the at-risk behaviour are recorded along with the suggested safe behaviour.
The goal of the study was to: (1) identify the factors that influence workers behaviour in KNPC and to develop possible solutions to solve it. A qualitative research method was used on this research. We interviewed a health and safety managers and supervisors within petrochemical industry; KNPC, Equate, Knloc, GPIC, and Schlumberger.
Behavioural Systems Analysis focuses on performance improvement and progress in the organization by using methods, principles of behaviour and systems analysis.
"Systems Analysis is a scientific discipline that studies the operations of complex systems such as organizations, and focuses on the interactions between parts of those systems. A system can be understood as interrelated components or parts that interact toward a common purpose. Accordingly, the behaviour or functioning of one part or parts affect(s) the behaviour or functioning of other parts. In systems analysis, a system is not considered to be reducible to its parts. Therefore, the parts can only be understood in terms of their interaction with other parts of the system"
As per Dale Brethower, 2009 analyzing performance is about pinpointing performance and the identifying the variables that influence it. Dale Brethower mentioned that there are other terms floating around that are similar to "Performance Systems Analysis."
In the performance systems analysis a few of the sets of terms and how they compare to performance systems analysis. "Dale Brethower, 2009" explain some factors as following:
Human Performance Technology is essentially similar, HPT is the "official terminology used by the International Society for Performance Improvement. He also mentioned the Organizational Behaviour Management which essentially similar, OBM is the "official" terminology used by the Organizational Behaviour Management Network.
Not forget to mention the Performance Management when used in the context of HPT or OBM, performance management is a key part of improving performance. When used in the context of the Society for Human Resource Management, it means a procedure "owned" by HR and having much is common with the procedures of what was formerly called "performance appraisal." The major differences between the SHRM and the HPT or OBM or Performance Systems Analysis focus is that the SHRM language is closely aligned with HR procedures rather than managing day to day work. The HR procedures are intended to help manage good performance but, according to HPT, OBM, and SHRM experts, typically do not unless they are closely integrated with day to day management practices. Systems Analysis and This terminology is used by many different professional groups. It is intended to mean the widely advocated practice of looking at entire systems even when analyzing the performance of one part of a system. It is often used in a much more restrictive sense, referring to specialized data processing systems or management information systems. I used quotation marks to indicate this is a restrictive use of the term, closer to what ISPI or OBM members might call procedures.
Regarding Employees Behaviour Tom Olzak, 2009 confirmed that "Attempts to change employee behaviour must be combined with technical tools which ensure compliance or monitor for non-compliance. In other words, data leakage prevention and detection relies on a collection of controls, layers which hopefully either prevent leaks or at least warn security personnel that a leak is or has occurred. And it all begins with attention to the basics, including well designed physical, administrative, and technical access controls".
"Force field analysis is based on the idea that behaviours result from a set of forces working in opposite directions. That is, some forces tend to make the behaviour happen while others work to keep it from happening. Further, the model assumes that both types of forces are always present. Force field analysis rejects the idea that behaviours are merely habits or that they have simple causes" (Wayne Smith, 2009,).
Linda Andrews, 2004 says that "Most workplace harassers, bullies and abusers gradually inch over the line that separates acceptable and unacceptable conduct. Occasionally, though, someone bolts across the line".
Changing on employee's behaviour depends on a history or story as Shale Paul, 1966 mentioned "Recognize that problem behaviour usually has a history, it usually develops over time and seldom from a single incident. As a manager, it is your responsibility to be alert to the early warning signs and deal with the underlying causes before the situation reaches a crisis".
So every organization has the responsibility to discover there own employees behaviour and analyze them to be alliance with the organizational concepts. "If the staff are hardworking people, but the results that you're getting isn't congruent with what you were expecting; take a step back and evaluate how and what you evaluate" Darth Sidious, 2008. Also Terry McSween & Jerry Pounds, 2009 said "Managers and supervisors who understand and apply the primary behavioural concepts of reinforcement will be well-liked by their employees and have high performing teams. The concepts of behaviour analysis are deceptively simple, but their application does not come easily. Further, simply knowing and understanding the concept is not sufficient, the key is in their application".
Information technology plays a main role on this matter as per Denise Dubie, 2007. "Business and IT executives looking to drive bottlenecks out of business processes and uncover security threats in their environments might want to check out a product that promises to map a company's organizational network and provide analysis as to how it can be optimized". "Benefits of good health and safety Addressing health and safety should not be seen as a regulatory burden: it offers significant opportunities. Benefits can include: reduced costs and reduced risks , employee absence and turnover rates are lower, accidents are fewer, the threat of legal action is lessened; improved standing among suppliers and partners; a better reputation for corporate responsibility among investors, customers and communities; increased productivity - employees are healthier, happier and better motivated". www.hse.gov.uk, 2009
Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) had two fatal incidents in year 2000. As a result, KNPC developed and inaugurated a new Safety, Health and Environment Management System (SHEMS) in year 2003. Behavioural Safety was one of the main items in this management system but did not take off until year 2006. Behaviour related accidents decreased after implementing the Management System but never reached zero. In year 2007, Behaviour-based safety process started in Mina Abdullah Refinery to overcome the behaviour based incidents; put the main concern is how to record and analyze the feedbacks from the observation checklists.
Then after we finished visiting three operations departments in KNPC refineries and local marketing department, we evaluated their BBS systems, and found that most of the BBS users facing a difficulty of using the current system, and they are not satisfied because of the limitation, and they required additional features to have an accurate data, reachable reporting tools and to complete the BBS model cycle.
ABCD system provides all the features we need to complete the BBS model cycle and achieve the major goal "Changing Workers' Behaviour".
This research was placed to conceder several aims in order to achieve the result expectations as following:
- Building a powerful, constriction and reliable database system.
- Easy search mechanism.
- Shift all manual procedures & paper work to computer system "working systematically".
- Shift the system requirements and the business rules of the system to a computerize thinking.
- Having a flexible and customize system.
- Having a security privileges by assigning privileges, which mean users can be assigned varying priority levels within the system meaning that key functions and access to sensitive information can be restricted to those users who have been approved access.
- Data backup and recovery features.
- Having a flexible reporting tool and supported with interaction charts.
- Having automated e-mail services.
- Learnable graphical interface and easy to use.
System Context Description
Main Menu Form
The Advanced Behaviour Change Database (ABCD) starts with menu that leads to the system functions.
Observation Sheet Entry Form
This is the main form in the database. The site observation data are recorded on a checklist.
Observer Data Entry Form
Use this form to enter the observers' data.
Observers' Performance Report
This report is intended to check each observer's performance during the selected period.
Work Group Summary Report
Workers are usually dispatched into work locations or projects. Sometimes they work in shifts or teams. This report is designed to give an overall look on the team performance. It may be used to start an incentive program to reward the teams with best safe performance or used to face on the at-risk teams. Type of supervision, equipment or location can result in similar behaviours in a group. This report will highlight this fact and the detailed reports in the following section will identify which behaviour should be focused on.
Sheet Time Summary Report
Workers' behaviour change according to the time of the day or the number of hours they have worked so far. Most of the workers are enthusiastic at the beginning of the working hours and their supervision level is high. At such moments the workers will be behaving at their best. This might not be true for all workers and locations. The sheet time report is designed to find out workers behaviour during each hour of the work day. The report helps identify the at risk timing in the working hours to focus behaviour change effort.
Location Detailed Report
The location detailed report details workers behaviour in each location in the organization. The locations are set by utilizing the location sub menu in the entries section. Only the locations where BBS observation took place and reported are listed in the report.
Companies Detailed Report
The report details the company's workers' behaviour. Intervention is required when a dominant at-risk behaviour is seen in the company behaviour profile
Behaviour Elements Detailed Report
This is the most important report the database generates and the first report checked by the BBS concerned individuals. The report divides the behaviour to different categories and each category group related behaviour elements.
Work Groups Detailed Report
This report has the same analytical functions of the companies detail report. Workers are usually dispatched into work locations or projects. Sometimes they work in shifts or teams. The report articulates for each work group. Intervention is required when a dominant at-risk behaviour is seen in the work group behaviour profile.
Sheet Time Detailed Report
The sheet time report is designed to find out workers' behaviour during each hour of the work day. The report helps identify when at-risk behaviour occurs during the working hours.
The database charts option is another powerful tool to represent the accumulated data. Charts give meaning to a raw data and present the outcome in easy format.
Survey Generator Form
The user may need to gauge the BBS process success and changes by surveying the observers and/or the workers. The survey will be useful if conducted after at least six months of the start of the process.
Save & Print Reports Form
Some users would like to save reports for further use or just to keep them in their record for future reference. Saving a copy of the report electronically is always preferred to avoid generating the same report again in the future.
Export with Criteria Form
Some specific data might be required from the database for the steering committee to analyze. The database has 17 preset reports to address most of the requirements; however, sometimes specific day is required. This submenu will enable the user to request any specific data from the database.
Observer Performance Form
This submenu is useful to check on the observer performance, the user can identify the observer's performance pattern. It will be easy to find out: Does the observer perform his observations in a preferred and does he mark all the behaviour elements as Safe or at-risk.
- E-mail reports
- E-mail to selected observers
- Interaction E-mail
- E-Mail Top Observers (Automated and integrated with Outlook)
- E-Mail Average Observers (Automated and integrated with Outlook)
- Email Limited Observers (Automated and integrated with Outlook)
- Observer's data update (Automated and integrated with Outlook)
- Database Backup
- Import and Export Tables
- Delete All Data
Findings and Discussion
A qualitative method was used in this research in order to collect information about the system; we interviewed the managers and supervisors in the health and safety department in different petroleum companies.
First company was KNPC, Mr." Mishal Alfailakawi, 2009" the health and safety supervisor in KNPC- comments: that KNPC discovered new generation with high performance and behaviour from workers, observers, supervisors, and managers. The entire organization stick together in order to create and update new system and to have accrual data to depend on, also he mentioned that ABCD system is simple, useful, and inelegant system its easy to use and he think that the ABCD system can work very effectively with other petroleum companies who has the health and safety concept as one of their main strategic goals. He express his feeling by saying" they are broad of what we did and achieved, reducing time, effort, and cost to get and accrual output is a unique thing to do, we hope that some day other competitors will ask KNPC for the ABCD system" In Equate the second company we meet the health and safety manger, but first Let's have an overview about equate Petrochemical Company, it is Established in 1995, equate Petrochemical Company is a state-of-the-art petrochemical complex located in Kuwait supporting markets in the Middle East, North Africa, the Far East and Europe with the different range of Petrochemical products. Ms." Rejain cool, 2009" the health and safety manger said: health and safety is strategy number in our company, so that we are developing and following up with any new system could make it easier to our employees. Regarding the ABCD system I found it very good system, although it is a simple system but it covers every information's we might need. In my opinion, workers behaviour could be affected by the system they used, because they need some thing easy and not taking to much time and effort from them. I believe our organization had a good health and safety system. But if we need to adopt another system I will recommends the ABCD system.
Third company was Schlumberger which is the leading oilfield services provider, trusted to deliver superior results and improved E&P performance for oil and gas companies around the world. Through our well site operations and in our research and engineering facilities, we are working to develop products, services and solutions that optimize customer performance in a safe and environmentally sound manner. In Schlumberger - Mr. "stevin Vink, 2009" the Head of health and safety unit said: actually it is a very competitor system, since it is compete with our system in a very easy way. From my point of view any system created in house is a very especial, because it will reduce and minimize cost for the organization. For sure the workers behaviour will be affected by the system they used. I am personally encourage the ABCD system to be developed more and soled for other company.
Our fourth company was Knloc, Kuwait National Lube Oil Manufacturing Co. which is specialized in cars oil which came from petroleum derivatives. In Knloc - eng."Mohamad Mostafa, 2009" said: we do not have accrual health and safety system, our workers behave differently, currently I am searching for a system, which will be suit to out small business and at the same time easy to use and not costly, I would like to get this system to KNLOC.
Finally the fifth company we meet GPIC, the Gulf Petrochemical Industrial Company was established in December 1979 as a joint venture between GCC member states for the manufacture of fertilisers and petrochemicals. The joint venture is equally owned by the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain, Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, and Petrochemical Industries Company, Kuwait. We meet Mr. "Yousif Zainal, 2009", he is the head engineer of safety and health. He said: as an introduction to safety, I think Safety is the quality of freedom from any risks of injuries and danger for both living creatures (people, animals, plants, etc.) and other substance (buildings, equipments, etc.). In my opinion the advantages of the system are: Identifying the risks on each job description separately and comparing them clarifies the areas which are more critical than the others, hence required additional attention. Increases the workers awareness and knowledge about safety, which leads to lower incident rates, Also collection of data base and trending the workers behaviour vs. the incidents, clearly shows whether the safety levels in the company changes or not.
He also comment on the disadvantages of the system as; the high frequency of checking the data for the checklist, which interferes with the workers jobs. Feedback is kept at the end of the program process, where it can also be on a daily basis, so that any urgent unsafe working behaviour could be reported and corrected immediately He mentioned that applying the system on a daily basis could interfere the workers actual jobs, therefore delaying it. Another way to solve this issue is by having this check lists filled with the responsible supervisor, or by having this schedule in a weekly basis.
This program refreshes the workers about safety matters, therefore keeping them aware about the possible hazards all the time as they are working. All this will reduce the incidents which can occur at work, therefore no injuries for human beings, nor damages to equipments or tools, which will eventually lead to longer hours of working without incidents, causing continuous production, none stop, which saves the production costs. And at the end, it is an advantage to the company and workers in the first place.
The literature shows that workers behaviour and analysis is an import phenomenon for the workplace health and safety concept. The study shows that most of the health and safety leaders agree that the workers behaviour could be affected by the system they used, which is mentioned in our literature review. The research also shows that ABCD system is a useful element for changing workers behaviour in the plant because of the specific data collection that included in the ABCD system which makes the follow up and collecting data much easier than previous system especially in KNBC Company, and it attract other companies as well. Most of the health and safety leaders said that the good system could have a wide of advantages such as: easy to use, saving time, saving money, and getting accrual data. Which are finally would affect workers behaviour in the workplace to be highly motivated to reach the zero accidents. That what the scientists said in the literature review. Finally we believe that the concept of health and safety is very important and they system used if the core element to develop workers behaviour in order to be a competitor organization.
ABCD system is built to be a powerful, reliable and intelligent system implement all the BBS processes and activities to speed up the procedures and users afford. By using this system help the company to identify the safe and at-risk areas and analyze the reason behind at-risk behaviour. Finally our major goal is to help the workers to change their behaviour.
Managing and collecting data to achieve the target of health and safety concept in changing workers behaviour is not easy for both the supervisors and the workers. From the above research on ABCD system and their results, we found several things to recommend such as: organizations needs to give more attention in health and safety concept, especially to concentrate on the workers' behaviour and concerns on behaviour-based system. Supervisors who work directly with the workers in the plant need to be involved in the system selection process because they are the people who will work in a daily basis on that system and who will provide data to the top management. Again workers behaviour might influence the whole organization image in the community and influence even the new employee interest on the company from the recruitment selection process.
In future scope we would like to study how to Shift the system from a standalone application to a web application. Also another future scope could be Make the system more fixable to change the system boundary to cover all type of behaviours not only the safety issues. Finally we might study how to sell the software for all companies in Middle East, those who need to change their workers' behaviour and concerns on behaviour based system.
- Kuwait National Petrochemical Company, 2009," About KNBC", available on: www.knpc.com.kw, accessed on: 15 October 2009.
- Linda Wasmer Andrews, 2004, "Egregious employee behaviour can lead to expensive lawsuits and crippled employee morale", available on: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_12_49/ai_n8583188, accessed on: 25 October 2009.
- Shale Paul, 1966, "The Top 10 Tips for Dealing with Employee Problem Behaviour", available on: http://topten.org/public/AE/AE29.html, accessed on: 25 October 2009.
- Darth Sidious, 2008," The results that you measure drive action &behavior", available on: http://sithsigma.wordpress.com/2008/06/10/the-results-that-you-measure-drive-action-behavior, accesses on: 25 October 2009.
- Terry McSween & Jerry Pounds, 2009," What Behavior Analysis Offers Managers", available on: http://www.obmnetwork.com/members/articles/mcsween_managers, accessed on: 20 October 2009.
- Denise Dubie, 2007," Appliance monitors, analyzes employee behaviour", available on: http://www.networkworld.com/news/2007/051007-etelemetry-metron-employee-behavior-analysis.html , accessed on: 20 October 2009.
- Dale Brethower, 2009," What do we mean by Performance Systems Analysis", available on: http://www.behavior.org/performanceMgmt_new/index.cfm, accessed on: 15 October 2009.
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- Tom Olzak, 2009, "Employee behavior is what it is", available on: http://it.toolbox.com/blogs/adventuresinsecurity/employee-behavior-is-what-it-is-29195 , accessed on: 20 October 2009.
- Wayne Smith, 2009, "Understanding Employee Behavior", available on: http://human-resources-management.suite101.com/article.cfm/understanding_employee_behavior, accessed on: 20 October 2009.
- Health and safety, 2009,"the benefits of good health and safety" available on: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg417.pdf, accessed on 25 October 2009.
- Sami Malallah, 2009," Changing Workers' Behavior", research, Kuwait.
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- Kuwait National Petroleum Company, 2004, "Element 12 Team". Incident Investigation and reporting procedures, Kuwait.