Conceptual model


Conceptual model is used to successfully plan and design complex systems. "They are a medium to foster communication with prospective users and they (should) provide a sound basis for system implementation. Ulrich F.,Koblenz (1999)

In information systems design & development, conceptual modelling plays an important role in many complex system (s) designs, where the relationships among components and elements are complicated and need proper modelling and understanding. (Zhang Y. 2003)

(The concepts within the Systems Approach as People find it difficult to represent or interpret the development of a model. This could then lead to a model of bad quality as confusion and misconception if perceived.)doesn't make sense

Quality of conceptual modelling

The Quality of a conceptual model can be defined along three dimensions and these are syntactic, semantics and pragmatic. Hussein T. Shamail S. (2004)

In order to get a good quality conceptual model, all of these features should be well suited with one another. We look at some of the frameworks that have addressed the quality of conceptual modeling in an organized and broad approach.

Framework for quality models

Based on (Krogstie, Lindland and Sindre 1995; Krogstie and Slvberg 2003; Krogstie 2001) they(who? Make It clear if was the people u mentioned that defined it, or someone else defined it, bading it on the theories of those mentioned defined the framework on semiotic theory and are listed below as follows:

  • Language

This can be expressed by statements that are feasibly made to syntax or grammar.

  • Model

Model represents the set of statements that has been made or perceived in a written language

  • Domain

In order to solve the problem the domain must consist of a set of statements that would have to be correct and to achieve this, the language must have a good distinction of which the notation and syntaxes that are beneficial to present. Gunhild A. Nysetvold and John Krogstie(year)

  • Interpretation of the Audience

The audience and stakeholders interpretation of the statements the model contains......???

The model quality types are defined as relations between these sets, and are identified below:

Syntactic quality

Krogstie, J., Lindland, O.I., & Sindre, G. (1995) state that "The more closely the model adheres to the language rules, the higher the syntactic quality, therefore the syntax should be error free and all the statements in the model should be correct and completed, not deviating from the rules.

According to Krogstie, J., Lindland, O.I., & Sindre, G. (1995) we notice syntactic incompleteness when the model lacks constructs or information to obey the languages grammar,. Tthis then allows morphological errors to occur if symbols that were not expressed in the language alphabets are expressed in the model statement. In order to measure the syntactic quality of the model, syntax checks would have to be done in reassurance of an error free model, and these are error detection, error prevention and error correction. The first; (being delete) error detection,( this delete) helps find the problem after the insertion of the statement. Error prevention will exclude the insertion of statements that hold errors in them into the model and error correction is when errors are found and it replaces it with the correct statement.

Semantic Quality

Sementic quality is the correspondence between the model and the modelling domain,. Krogstie, J., Lindland, O.I., & Sindre, G. (1995) state that "The more similar the model and the domain; the better the semantic quality; the worse the different, the worse the quality this then concludes that the language model will have to focus on different descriptions used and both are consistent with each other.

In order to gain clearer understanding of the semantic quality, a manual check would have to be done to gain an insight of the model, thus making it easier to recognise inconsistency if a statement is added or deleted to make the model valid. In the event of an incomplete or invalid statement, (then?) the statements would be inconsistent.

Pragmatic Quality

John Krogstie (2003) states that pragmatic quality "is the correspondence between the model and audience interpretation i.e. the degree to which the model has been understood(year, page). If the model is somehow of poor quality then the meaning of the given concept, will differ and three to four places have to be looked at. It is important that each member of the group audience should understand the part that is relevant to them. The goal of pragmatic quality is the understanding between all parties of the language model.

On the other hand, in the means of achieving a goal the model needs to be easy to understand as difficulties may arise when the model gets larger at scale. In the prevention of this, a supporting tool needs to be used as the analyst will have complications in conception. The model will need to be filtered as it will be a necessity in order to comprehend, due to its size. If the development process is not understood, then the means of an engineering tool needs to be used for good automating tasks. Krogstie, J., Lindland, O.I., & Sindre, G. (1995)


Having (to) taken into consideration that to have a good quality model, three qualities which are; syntactic, semantic and pragmatic, have to be taken into account as they need to work together, to create a model of high quality. and It is also important that these language quality goals are then linked to model quality goals (in order?) to adapt to a generic framework to the task at hand.

Having tried to perceive an error free model, will help improve the quality of it once represented.

Different perception are perceived from stakeholders thus creating ambiguity(suggestin- Different perceptions of stakeholders, creates ambiguity because..._ because the requirements asked by the user might be totally different to how the analyst saw it, to how the system was designed and how the programmer wrote it,. Tthat then concludes to the first phase on what the user really wanted to the final phase on how it actually works in the end.???


  • Zhang Y. (2003) On Conceptual Modelling and Design of Role-Based Access Control Systems (Journal)
  • Wand, Y., Monarchi, D.E., Parsons, J. And Woo, (1995) 'Theoretical foundations for conceptual modelling in information systems development', Decision support systems, 15, pp. 285-304
  • Ulrich Frank, Universitt Koblenz (1999) Conceptual Modelling as the Core of the Information Systems Discipline -Perspectives and Epistemological Challenges Journal
  • Hussein T. Shamail S. (2004) Improving quality in conceptual modelling journal
  • Krogstie, J., Lindland, O.I., & Sindre, G. (1995). Defining Quality Aspects for Conceptual
  • Models. In E. D. Falkenberg, W. Hesse, & A. Olive (Eds.). Proceedings of the IFIP8.1 working conference on Information Systems Concepts (ISCO3); Towards a consolidation of views, March 28-30 (pp. 216-231), Marburg, Germany.
  • John Krogstie (2003) Evaluating UML Using a Generic Quality Framework journal
  • Gunhild A. Nysetvold and John Krogstie Assessing Business Processing Modeling Languages Using a Generic Quality Framework
  • John Krogstie (2003) Chapter I Evaluating UML Using a Generic Quality Framework journal

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