Employing IT support marketing information system


I am very much grateful to the Head of our Department, Institute of Management and Information Technology (IMIT) as a whole, who has been a guide during our course and for this case study.

I shall take this opportunity to acknowledge the efforts of our lecturers especially Mr. Praveen, G.J who guided me and was available at any time to provide assistance and the college who also provided me with their valuable study materials thus contributed to the compilation of this assignment.

My honest and sincere appreciation goes to NCC Education who made it possible by bringing such high quality education to the local Institute Center-IMIT. Indeed, I thank you so much.

I am much indebted to all the people who directly or indirectly contributed to this case study to be completed successfully.

Finally, I would particularly like to thank my wife Martha G/Michael and My daughter Rinnah Teklay for trusting in me, showing level of consideration and encouraging me during my study; and my organization- Cats-net Limited who gave me every support that enable me to attend this course.


Strategic Management is a course of action, comes from top to down managements, to decide the core aims or goals of any organization, and it also makes sure series of decisions which will allow for the success of those goals in the long run, while setting a certain method in responses to the short period issues.

However, the requirement for change in the organizations' structure and processes has become obvious as a result of the effort to survive the severe competition both in domestic and international markets. The strategies that lead this change are critical tools for firms in attaining their aims and goals. Since firms try to form a value chain to succeed in the market by highlighting their strength in the marketing strategies they develop, this topic requires closer considering in dissemination of quality marketing information within organization.

The progress of the abovementioned value chain involves that collecting, processing, and analysis of data, strategy formation, and control stages be soundly carried out. The coherent marketing decisions, accomplished as a result of such a process, provide the opportunity for the firm to reduce the risks of uncertainty. On the hand, they contribute to more effective performance measurement and to assess all functional areas of the organization, especially in marketing.

Task One


The main objective of this case study has been in an attempt to propose an IT support marketing information system (MkIS) to Cats-net Limited in consideration of restructuring its strategy formation in the competitive environment that leads to sustain and core competence to capture the market opportunities. The findings should finally propose an integration framework and hopefully show how cross boundary marketing intelligence dissemination could uphold the corporate strategies-Cats-net Limited.


Whereas every Marketing Information System (MkIS) will be tailor-made, it is advisable for all MkIS to have limited scope in the beginning. It's advisable that users expectations at the beginning should be modest in related what they achieve using MkIS tool and then concentrating on meeting those objectives. This way might be far more satisfying than beginning with high prospect and then failing. It is essential that all the objective and activities of the MkIS should be considered at the early stage of planning, starting with those that assure the highest satisfaction and are the most likely to succeed. After those have been accomplished, and the users get more experience with the system, it is wise to consider taking on more objectives and to add activities.

Although there are so many options to expand the MkIS, as the list below show the expansions which may be required as the MkIS proved its value and efficiency, however, this process should always take into consideration the real need of the additional information and activities that required from the expansion of the MkIS. Otherwise, users should keep and use the same simple MkIS tool as far as it meets their need and purpose.

  • The scale of the MkIS increases while collecting the same information in the same way
  • Changing the kind of information being collected
  • Same data can be used for several types of analysis that increases users capability to use information
  • Information can be used in several ways

Method of Enquiry

A system is considered as a set of elements which are connected or interrelated with each other. In analysing the element of a system, such as Marketing Information System, the modes of enquiry are used. Basically, modes of Enquiry is divided into three categories, the simple (inductive-consensual and analytic deductive), complex (dialectic and multiple realities) and innovative (unbounded systems thinking). These modes enable us to break a certain system down into smaller sub-system and focus on how each of these sub-systems became an important factor for achieving the goal of the system. Accordingly, analytic-deductive method of enquiry has been used for the purpose of this case study.

Analytic-deductive is a mode of enquiry which views the world as formula. This enquiry often highlights logical consistency. This method believed that everything leads only to one answer, i.e. the truth. The main attribute of this method is its ability to break down the issues into different part through reductionism, which is helpful in identifying a plausible solution. This enquiry attempts to analyse the issue base on the categorise part, to be able to get some insightful details and solution parts by parts.

Analytic-deductive way of thinking is the practice of coming into a decision that is definite to follow, provided the fact specified is true and the reasoning used to arrive at the decision is accurate. The foundation of such decision also must be only on the proof that specified previously; it shouldn't be based on new information about the subject matter.

In a conclusion, when we use analytic-deduction we reason from general principles to particular cases. Thus, I preferred to use analytical-deductive enquiry method of published literature condensed through SWOT analysis and combined with a qualitative evaluation of questionnaires directed to companies with experience of those developing and implementing Marketing information system(MkIS).


This case study assumes to contribute with general framework that maintain the implementation of a Marketing information system (MkIS). It will also try to analysis Cats-net's present market position using the Porter's Competitive Force Model and SWOT analysis.

Company Background

Cats-net is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cats Tanzania Limited, the pioneers of Information Technology in Tanzania. Cats-Net started it operations in 1997 and was registered as an Independent company in 1999. The Experience and Resources accumulated by the parent company enabled Cats-Net to be recognized as the best ISP in terms of Customer Service & Solutions.


To offer complete range of Internet solutions that can help you cut costs, boost productivity, expand into new markets, and improve the way you work and communicate online.


Our vision is to make efficient and cost-effective Internet Solutions within the reach of all Tanzanians, irrespective of their location.


Cats-Net Limited (Cats-Net) is an Internet Service Provider (ISP) based in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The company offers the following services to its customers:

  • Corporate WiMax based Wireless Solutions.
  • Residential Wireless using our flagship Simply Wireless Solution.
  • V-SAT Solution for remote office on both C-Band and KU-Band.
  • Residential Cable (please notes that this is not a fiber-optic cable but based on wireless solution).
  • Website and virtual domain hosting.
  • Server collocation.
  • Network design, installation, and administration services.
  • Web design
  • Security Audit and Consulting.

Cats-Net Currently holds a client base ofover 5000 Active internet subscribers with an equal mix of Residential and corporate users.

Task Two

Formation of Strategic

Strategic Management is a process, comes from top to down managements, to decide the core objective or goals of any organization, and it also makes sure series of decisions which will allow for the success of those goals in the long run, while setting a certain method in responses to the short period issues.

Analyzing the strategy formation process we can see as depicted by the following four major steps:

  1. Anticipating market / Environmental change scanning
  2. Forming strategies based on prediction and internal boundary conditions in account
  3. Implementing the strategies formed
  4. Controlling

Despite the fact, that unpredictability of the business environment is escalating, faster changes in customer preference and technological development are the major drivers for change in today's business environment, scanning the competitive environment in strategic planning. Porter's five forces of competition model (according to Figure 2) enlighten the relations of all players on a market place. Through the environmental scanning process we figure out the current relation between porter's the five degree of competitors predict possible change and the insinuation it will have for Cats-net limited. Thus, competitive environment consists of core competitive forces, which are bargaining power of suppliers, customers, threat of new entrants and substitute products.

Here I will attempt to scan the internet industry environment using Porter's competitive force model to see where cats-net stand in the crowd.

Current Cats-net major competitors

  • Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited (TTCL)
  • Afsat Communication Limited (I-way Africa)
  • Africa online
  • Simba net
  • BOL (Benson On Line)

New market entrant

  • SASA Tel which is a newly born an Internet Service Provider (ISP) has just opened its door less than a month, this Company might be a potential New Market Entrant.
  • The other threat comes from the mobile phone operators who are fighting among themselves and the existing ISPs' to get their market share within the internet industry. The following are some of the Mobile phone operators who are coming up fast into the internet market using different technologies.
    • Zain
    • Voda
    • Tigo
    • Zantel

Substitute Products / Services

  • The threat of substitute product has been seen from TTCL and Mobile phone operators as they are started introducing and using a high speed with EVDO Technology, while Cats-net remained with its 3G wireless technology modem which is still 400 % more costly than its competitors.
  • At present, the internet service charges of the competitor such as TTCL has fallen half way especially once after they migrated into the fiber-optic cable provided by SEACOM, while Cats-net price remained the same even though they are also using the same fiber-optic cable from SEACOM.

Customers bargaining power

There might be possibilities of Cats-net customers waiting for big slash on the price of the fiber-optic cable internet service currently using, however Cats-net failing to respond on time, they will certainly loss some or all their customers to TTCL who is already aggressively advertising the half way price reduction on the fiber-optic cable.

Suppliers bargaining power

No much threat from the supplier side as such except that for the fiber-optic cables that SEACOM provided to Cats-net comes through TTCL's Office and its infrastructure who is also the main rival of Cats-net as we have seen, we will see more in detail about this during the SWOT analysis on my next discussion.

Managers suffer from information overload; thus, instead of providing more information, companies should concentrate on providing good quality information for the decision makers. Though, some advanced computerized information filtering practices do exist, they should be further developed to support strategic management and operational managers, efficiently with a minimum cost possible.

Due to the fact that best information filtering happens through humans, the most effective and best solution in the future is human-computer base information processing. Despite this recognition, most of the described methods for scanning the competitive environment are concentrating on either processing the information by people or processing the information by computers, without combining them such as Cats-net Limited does. On the other hand, it is noted that most of the methods rightly concentrate on providing analyzed information for the managers, instead of purely acquiring more information on the competitive environment.

Despite the preeminent SWOT analysis exists, most companies do not have or use defined environmental scanning process at all. Thus, I decided to discuss next the pragmatic quality of SWOT analysis in related to Cats-net Limited strategic formation and environmental scanning.

Strategic action

Using the SWOT analysis we pragmatically project the most important constraints of influence for a specific situation in order to envision/map the road how to reach our objective which in our case is the successful implementation of a Marketing Information System for Cats-net Limited.

In a SWOT analysis we scan the current situation and project it upon the future. If the border situations of the game change, the strategy has to change as well. Unfortunately this feature is not instinctively taken into account in the SWOT analysis as it is suppose to be.

Let us reason on this, as any conceptual model the SWOT analysis is a powerful tool if used appropriately. The question is not whether the SWOT analysis supplies an efficient framework for strategy analysis. I think it does. The key is to avoid underestimating important factors of influence and take into account how they change. This is, according to me, independent on the framework used for the analysis.

The SWOT analysis made for sustaining a strategy framework should certainly be able to help the user to scale down complexity and simplify the most important factors. Simplifying complexity is a must in order to envision a complete picture and focus on most important constraints. The danger in this is, as already mentioned, the underestimation/ oversimplifying of certain factors.

The SWOT analysis fails to integrate the change of external factor with time, though the internal landscape change is usually identified easily by the actor. The change of the external landscape although is not included in the SWOT analysis, we shall never forget that the SWOT is a fingerprint of the current internal and external situation. The base for the strategy must also take in account how the rules of the game can change with time.

As I believe that it is a practical method for simplify complexity and give a holistic overview, I decide to apply the SWOT analysis to see the present situation of the internal and external factors of Cats-net Limited.


The following are strengths of Cats-net Limited at the present:

  • WiMax based Wireless Solutions for corporate clients.
  • Wireless using Simply Wireless Solution for Residential clients.
  • V-SAT Solution for remote area using C-Band and KU-Band.
  • Fiber-optic cable from SEACOM
  • Server collocation.
  • Network design, installation, and administration services.
  • It has been established more than 12 years since 1997.
  • More than 5000 mix of Residential and corporate clients.
  • The biggest and favored ISP in Tanzania.
  • Using high Tech end network equipment
  • Equipped with High skill and experts employees
  • Provides high end internet security protection to their clients
  • Security Audit and Consulting


The following are the opportunities of Cats-net Limited:

  • Potential Customers such Embassies, NGOs' and corporate clients
  • This can be a great opportunities for cats-net as it helps them to establish a big name in Internet industry market.

  • More than 5000 customers
  • This can be proving of huge numbers of satisfied customers for the new comers who want to join cats-net for Internet service.

  • Sharing resources with Cats Tanzania.
  • Cats-net Limited being an Affiliate to Cats Tanzania as an advantage and tremendous opportunities to share resources such financial and human resources among themselves.


  • The following are the threats of Cats-net Limited from their competitors:
  • Cats-net lacks proper infrastructure to accommodate the fiber-optic cable from SEACOM.
  • Using Tanzanian Telecommunication Company Limited -TTCL's infrastructure to hook the fiber-optic cable from SEACOM while TTCL is the main and strongest rival of Cats-net currently.
  • TTCL's reduction of price (half way) for its customers
  • If TTCL terminates the fiber-optic agreement that cats-net totally depend on at the moment then it might take some time to come up with some other solution or option and in the process may loss very potential customers.
  • SASA Tel provided cheap rate internet services
  • Mobile Phone operators aggressively fight to penetrate into the internet market.
  • Cats-net stands out still the most expensive internet service provider at a price rate of $ 60 per month comparing to its competitors who are charging at an average rate of $30 for the same period of time (monthly).
  • Cats-net internet service has been limited only within Dar es Salaam (Capital City) while most of its compotators are aggressively moving and expanding to the other 20 regions of Tanzania.


The following are weakness of Cats-net Limited:

  • At the moment, so many people are using cats-net internet for free as Cats-net fail to establish proper controlling system of the internet users.
  • Getting the fiber-optic cable from SEACOM through TTCL (Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited) who the major rival of Cats-net
  • Cats-net lack fiber-optic infrastructure to reach their client, therefore forced to use same existing wireless infrastructure which is not effective.

Task Three

Marketing information System (MkIS)

Strategic Information System seems now the core factor for Organizational change as well as its product, services and operational procedures, driving the organization into new behavioral patterns. Successfully using information systems to achieve a competitive advantage is challenging and requires precise coordination of technology, organization and management.

The function of management is to plan, organize, coordinate, decide and control/ pursue the effect of their decisions that is form, implement and measuring the effect of strategy implementation. The formation of strategies is based on information defining the environment for which they play a vital role. A system that sustains the information dissemination and analysis needed for the planning of strategies for a defined environment would in general term be defined as a Marketing Information System. The goal of market information system is to bring together parts/incoherent data to form a coherent picture of the market, propose a manner to interpret it and sustain the formation of strategies leading a company or specific product/ services to success. Kotler defines the market information system as "an interacting structure of people, equipment and procedures to gather, sort, analyses, evaluate and distribute, timely and accurate information for use by marketing decision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation and control".

Marketing Information System could be described as a system designed to systematically collect, filter, decode and transmit parts of enterprise front end information through the company connect the mined information and the ability to analyses it in correlation to back office information and supply chain with the aim to sustain the formation of strategy planning and implementation.

The marketing information system is supposed to supports managers in their decision making on each level of decision: strategic, operational and control, dependent on the level of integration according to Figure 8. A marketing information system consist basically out of four parts: an Internal report system, marketing intelligence system, marketing research system and marketing models. Let me however stress that there's a multitude of different models addressing the internal design of marketing information's system containing more or less subsystems than the four just mentioned.

The internal reporting system provides the correlation of internal operational data giving access to information such as volume and product type in demographic dependence derived from sales invoices or deduction of the level of customer services by correlating received orders with actual invoices and stockholding in line with demand patterns.

The marketing research is the proactive search for information. This means that the company deliberately goes into the hunt for information in order to solve a specific marketing problem or continuously follow the development of a specific market.

Following are the two division of marketing research parts:

Primary research, this is a kind of research which engages carry out and completion of research for the reason that anticipated.

Secondary research, this is a type of research that initially carry out for certain purpose, however, it end up supporting another goal.

Marketing intelligence system is rather the opposite of market research namely as system that should gather informal information from the business environment.

The marketing intelligence system is responsible for the collection, analysis and dissemination of tacit and explicit market intelligence collected internally in the organization and externally from the surrounding environment. The marketing intelligence system together with the market research system forms the base for the external analysis. Together the analysis tools/ models correlated with internal business intelligence sustain the anticipation most delicate but perhaps also the most important part of the system. Of course we can deliberately search explicit marketing intelligence that helps us support the anticipation of market development. However, perhaps the most important intelligence is the tacit information present throughout management with no deliberate redistribution but a big impact on the strategic decision. Who are the holder and user of specific information is an important question.

The marketing information systems can be classified in two groups dependent on the users and the type of use: The systems for manager and the system for operational sales and marketing activities. The users of marketing information systems are mainly senior executives, strategic business units, marketing managers and analysts.

Although what the marketing information system proposes seems intuitive and logical in the light of the last decades IT development there is even today not many companies with fully integrated marketing intelligence systems. So the question that we what to answer is why? Talvinen delivers a critique to existing information systems. He stresses that focus have been to optimize the IT system for each organizational sub unit and try to achieve maximal efficiency for each and every system. However, nobody have looked at the entire efficiency of a marketing information system taking into account cross linkage between different sub systems. I think this an extremely important issue. The cross functional design of a marketing information system and the interconnection of different subsystem implies that the all over efficiency of the system will be dependent on both subsystem's efficiency but also and perhaps even more the optimization of the cross functional integration. Talvinen stresses that cross functional networks will replace functional hierarchies. The organization will be designed around business processes rather than functional hierarchies. Talvinen questions if the fully integrated marketing information system really is needed by marketers or if it is only a theoretical ideal since the experience is that such systems are complicated to implement, difficult and costly to develop and maintain. Information systems are mainly considered as a link between separate user groups in hierarchical organizations and not a system to sustain a business process. Talvinen emphasize the importance of maintaining a view of the marketing information system as a system to sustain the development of the marketing process additionally to that of disseminates information across functional boundaries. The systems should reflect that three levels of strategy of marketing: Corporate, business and functional. He summarizes, the marketing information approach is suitable for bureaucratic and hierarchical organizations which will be replaced by new flexible organization forms such as strategic partnership and networks.

So basically a marketing information system is made to sustain the management/ Marketing Management in external analysis and perceptual positioning of the company through the structured presentation and analysis of collected tacit and explicit marketing information correlated with objective market research internal operational data and treated with specific models. It should differentiate and selectively identify the most influential environmental factors for scanning. A marketing information system should convert tacit vision and knowledge into explicit criteria to guide information scanning and sustain strategic marketing. A strategic oriented marketing information system should put emphasis on external environmental scanning, processing and strategic analysis in order to enhance the organizations strategic sensibility and capability. The mining of this information and the retracibility of the decision offers a chronological view of the development of events, future sales forecasting and the possibilities of correlating these with business development.

Companies have to focus their efforts on high quality environmental analysis and strategy formation in order to minimize risk and focus development through the diminution of strategic anticipation to real market environmental mismatch. This mismatch comes to stand either through the volatile fast changing environment or through inefficient (in time or quality) analysis and anticipation of environmental (market related) change. It is therefore reasonable to believe that any company active in high tech environment is addressing this very issue: How to minimize the anticipation error and focus development? It is also reasonable to believe that the strong volatility of these markets implies a higher correlation between company results and the efficient environmental scanning, analysis and company internal dissemination of this information

As the consequence of this, any high tech company should address this issue and take measure in reducing the mismatch.

Business intelligence solutions have developed immensely during the last decades and have found their application in most companies sustaining and facilitating business internal data dissemination and analysis, throughout the value chain.

As we have seen, the efficient cross-correlation of business internal data with external data have a greater importance the more volatile the market. We have presented and existing solution to serve this issue: The IT based Marketing Information System. This system should serve as a link between company business intelligence and environmental market related information sustaining planning, implementation and control of corporate, business and product related strategies. In order to sustain the managerial decision of why to integrate a marketing information system I have decided to treat the issue in form of a beneficial SWOT analysis to point out the implication of such integration in Task 2.

Task Four

Soft System Methodology (SSM)

Soft System Methodology (SSM) is a user-driven methodology developed by Checkland. It is a way of analyzing unstructured and poorly defined problem in the real world.

SSM recognizes that change is constant and that there is no objectively verifiable 'real world'. The real world consists of an individual's derived experienced based view which, of course, changes as actions are taken and new experiences are gained.

Thus, SSM is a more user-centered design approach. Its use helps Marketing Information System (MkIS) designers to understand the system needs of different users. Different managers may want to interact with the MkIS in different ways (e.g. some would like to click icons on the screen, others may like to type out their responses and instructions). Others wish to see information presented in different ways (e.g. some may like to view detailed tables while others may prefer summaries in the form of graphs). Thus, this softer methodology draws the attention of MkIS designers to the needs and preferences of user, to what it will be used for, how the users would prefer to interact with the system ( the colors, fonts, navigation, information presentation), and to the wider context and environment in which the work will be carried out.

The underlying assumptions of SSM can be depicted as shown in Figure 7.

Conventional system design concentrates mainly on how to complete a given previously defined task. However, there are many situations where the task is ill- defined or where are conflicting views of what task is to be done. SSM help to resolve this problem and particularly to highlight or expose differences between individual view points.

In outline the main stages in SSM are as shown in Figure 8

The logic based path starts from the selection of a 'relevant system'. This is a subjective choice as it is never possible to identify a particular human activity system as automatically relevant to a given problem. Once the system is selected it is named by developing its root definition.

The root definition is a concise verbal description of a system which captures its essential nature and core purpose. In forming root definitions it is necessary to ensure that six characteristics are present, that is who is doing what for whom, to whom are they answerable, what assumptions are being made and in what environment is this happening.

A convenient way of remembering these six characteristics is to remember the mnemonic CATWOE thus:

Customer is the 'whom', that is the people who benefit or suffer from the system.

Actor is the 'who', that is those that will carry out the transformation process.

Transformation is the 'what' that is the conversion of input to output.

Weltanschauung (world View) is the 'assumptions' behind the root definition.

Owner is the 'answerable', that is the people who could stop the transformation.

Environment (environment constraints), that is the fixed elements outside the system.

Root definitions are useful for exposing the differing views to the various people who are affected by the system.

After the root definition, a model of the relevant system is created. The model is an account of the activities which the system will perform. It is process oriented and seeks to ensure that the required outputs produced efficiently and that long-term objectives are met. The model is compared with the real world not merely to establish the correctness, or otherwise, of the model but to stimulate debate as to whether changes should be made in the problem situation.

The cultural stages of enquiry study the roles and relationships of the groups involved and the norms, values and political (power) dimension. A tool used in this part of SSM is the rich picture. This is a pictorial caricature of the organization relationships resources conflicts worries and constraints.

The most vital of aspect of Marketing Information Systems (MkIS) planning and design is the recognition of the marketing information requirements of decision makers. Information requirements often distinct as the users measurement of information distinctiveness concerned in information they looking for. Drawing on empirical result from my studies of Marketing Information System design, I would like to review a framework to explore the information needs of marketing decision makers and senior marketing executives. The result, based on interviews with several senior marketing decision-makers and marketing information tool designers, specify that marketing information requirements may define using seven information characteristics.

  • Broad scope information
  • Timely information
  • Accurate information
  • Aggregated information
  • Current information
  • Personal information sources
  • Impersonal information sources

The designer underlines that the marketing information system solution, although based on standard technology, always are tailor-made to fit every customers need. Full customer satisfaction can only be achieved through a design adapted to each company's special culture, organization and situation. The idea is to develop a lean framework and let grow modularly with demand of the stakeholders and its users. The technical connection to other databases and systems is easy stuff, the challenge lies rather in the meaningful interpretation of data into management dashboards. The main challenge lies on the designing an integrated system lies in moderating the design and keeping the system lean while still realizing full stakeholder satisfaction.

The MkIS was design for marketing, product and strategic managers as for mangers on corporate level with focus on corporate development. This user base was based on historical experience and future strategic initiative of the company.

Thus, the above mentioned aspects are the most significant for effective Marketing Information System (MkIS) design. Poor MkIS design can lead to the rejection of the system by the users, a reduction in user productivity and an increase in error levels and frustration with the system.


In order to conclude this case study, I would like to summarize the result of MkIS and managerial implication to support a successful implementation of a marketing information tool.

The major benefits of the implemented system (MkIS) are the enhanced efficiency of the marketing benchmarking process as much as an increased overall process effectiveness that comes from the improved information simplicity and up to date information. The tools create the sense of necessity among its users and supply information which makes the company less sensitive to personal change. The global accessibility for all relevant users, all using the same up to date data, improves the accuracy of strategic implementation. As the main disadvantage of the tool the limited information depth was recognize. Supplementary reports were needed for detailed information.

The system guide to imminent about future new markets and market sizes which elicited strategically reform of certain sales territories and organization. The up to date information have shown to be very advantageous to react faster to market change. Even though in process, the direct quantification of how the mismatch between real market/environment developments to anticipated development changed has not yet been possible to calculate. The execution of a marketing information system (MkIS) has directed to the use of a common language and global definitions within the whole organization.

However, following are the managerial implication to support a successful implementation of marketing information system (MkIS).

Execution should be initiated by top management in order to protect full organizational cross boundary apathy implementing the system. Use benefit presented in this case study for motivation.


The size of the company and the instability of the market decide the time for execution. When structural complexity hinders transparency and efficient communication, measures should be taken to change this. One holistic approach is the integration of a marketing Information System (MkIS).

The execution can only be done in close corporation with the stakeholders and the future users. Avoid the production of a non-user friendly black box. Change management is the key to a successful implementation.

Finally, the most important thing you need to keep in mind is that a holistic approach can only be tailor-made for your specific company's needs. No ready to buy system will be able to proficiently improve the nodes between all subsystems in your company internal business intelligence system.



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