Implementation of Information System

Implementation of information system in an organization.

SUMMARY

1.0 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)

Generally, management information system could be define as a process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. Accurate and timely MIS reports are an essential component of prudent and reasonable business decisions. Many levels of management view and use management information system, which should support the company's longer-term, strategic goals and objectives. IT management typically sets policies, procedures, and controls to govern database management and report creation to help ensure the effectiveness and usefulness of the organization's MIS.

Management information system is design to provide the following roles and responsibilities:

§ Ensure the integrity and availability of data

§ Deliver complex material throughout the institution

§ Facilitate the management of the business

§ Provide management with an adequate decision support system by providing information that is timely, accurate, consistent, complete, and relevant

§ Support the organization's strategic goals and direction

§ Reduce expenses related to labor-intensive manual activities; and

§ Enhance communication among employees

MIS supplies decision makers with facts, supports and enhances the overall decision-making process and enhances job performance throughout a company. At the most senior levels, MIS provides the data and information to help the board and management make strategic decisions. At other levels, MIS allows management to monitor the institution's activities and distribute information to other employees, customers, and members of management.

Over the years advances in technology have tremendously increased the volume of information available to management and directors for planning and decision-making. Technology increases the potential for inaccurate reporting and flawed decision making. Because report generation systems can rely on manual data entry or extract data from many different financial and transaction systems, management should establish appropriate control procedures to ensure information is correct and relevant. Since management information systems can originate from multiple equipment platforms and systems, the controls should ensure all information systems have sufficient and appropriate controls to maintain the integrity of the information and the processing environment.

Sound fundamental principles for MIS review include proper internal controls, operating procedures, safeguards, and audit coverage. These principles are explained throughout this booklet.

To function effectively, as a feedback tool for management and staff, MIS should be useable. The five elements of information technology processing activities that create useable MIS are timeliness, accuracy, consistency, completeness, and relevance. Compromise of any of these elements hinders the usefulness of MIS.

§ . Accuracy - A sound system of automated and manual internal controls should exist. All information should receive appropriate editing, balancing, and internal control checks. The board should ensure a comprehensive internal and external audit program exists to ensure the adequacy of internal controls

§ Timeliness - To facilitate prompt decision-making, an institution's MIS should be capable of providing and distributing current information to appropriate users. Developers should design IT systems to expedite the availability of reports. The system should support quick data collection, prompt editing and correction, and meaningful summaries of results

§ . Completeness - Decision makers need complete information in a summarized form. Management should design reports to eliminate clutter and voluminous detail to avoid information overload

§ Consistency - To be reliable, data should be processed and compiled consistently and uniformly. Variations in data collection and reporting methods can distort information and trend analysis. In addition, management should establish sound procedures to allow for system changes. These procedures should be well defined, documented, and communicated to appropriate employees. Management should also establish an effective monitoring system.

§ Relevance - Information that is inappropriate, unnecessary, or too detailed for effective decision-making has no value. MIS should be relevant to support its use to management. The relevance and level of detail provided through MIS directly correlates to what the board, executive management, departmental or area mid-level managers, etc., need to perform their jobs.

Having carefully introduced or stated the general concept of MIS, the first major task in deploying effective and efficient IT services in an organization is to look at the following peripherals, such as:

§ Hardware (e.g. CPU, RAM, Secondary Storage, Cables, Switches, Routers, Bridges, Server machines parameters)

§ Software components needed

§ And other acquired computer gadgets such as Digital Camera, Video e.t.c.

1.1 Universal Integrated support Company Structure

President

Mr James Evans

Director

Mr Ola Atatise

Manager Account Manager

Milki Pedro Oluwole Williams

Operations Manager / Warehouse Manager Sales and purchasing

Matins Thomas Oluwole Nik

MIS Manager

Tunmise James

The organization structure of Universal Integrated Support is grouped as above, the company deals majorly in service provider to oil companies and relatively oil service companies around the Niger Delta coast of Nigeria Africa.

The first department that really require the use of computer is the account department and purchasing department .The account department who make use of computer for automate repetitive manual processes like the payroll of staffs, Account payable, general ledger and costing analyses.

The Sale and purchasing department would need a computer for critical daily sales and purchasing requirement for the company where a large number of suppliers are dealt with, the allocation of groestries / order for supply and likewise purchasing requirement.

The operations as well need computing in arranging work and booking of staffs crew change daily and other requirement needed by the companies. Datas of staffs names, locations and medium of communication to staffs and nobilities to work avenue is critical to this department because most of the locations are on off shore with few onshore .

The warehouse department systems is to replace the classic bulk warehouse stock systems. due to this huge requirement of computing for the company it become unavoidable for the company to bring in Delby consultant an IT software company to manage the computing aspect of the company in 2002.

In 2005 the company decide to create an MIS department solely to install and maintain the company's software thereby began to employ her own programmer to make improvement to existing software by adding more important modules for purchasing and distribution to all their locations nation wide .

To this end the

1.3 HARDWARE

Firstly, we need to ask the question what a network means. A network is any collection of independent computers that exchange information with each other over a shared communication medium.

Now, for Universal Integrated limited to install new network Pc computer, they must have an I.T (Information Technology) department. This department will be the one to make inquiry about the latest and best working functional Computer hardware in the world or best still acquire professional personnel that have the knowledge of Information technology.

Service provider is the one responsible for the development of the new computer network because they have the resources and are a provider of such. Computer networking has become an integral part of business today. Individuals, professionals and academic now rely on computer networks for capabilities such as electronic mail and access to remote database for research and communication purposes and have thus become an increasingly pervasive reality worldwide because it is fast, efficient, reliable and effective. Average computer users do find it mystery how all this information is transmitted, stored, categorized and being accessed.

It is the principle of every service provider to explain in details on how every computer hardware works and how costly they are. Another service provider's principle is to explain how Organization Integrated support can manage a particular set of network Pc computer hardware based on their financial capacity and this is called managing a network efficiently.

The question on what the latest standard of computer hardware such as cpu, Ram, secondary storage and peripherals are:

Starting with CPU, one of the latest standards is based on Intel Centurion 2 processor

technology for the home use or Intel Centrino 2 with vpro technology for business.

This help experience a new breakthrough in mobile performance, and for the movable computer such as laptop, has the future of wireless with 802.11n standard. With Intel c

Centrino 2 processor, one can make quick work of the toughest computing task like HD video encoding which is also up to 90% faster because these devices are equipped to handle many things, from robust business to masterful multimedia.

RAM latest standard is gigabyte, but then there is DMA (direct memory access). DMA can be used to bypass the processor and it's also a feature of modern computers and microprocessors that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the central processing unit. Many hardware systems use DMA including disk drive controllers, graphics cards, network cards and sound cards.

A secondary storage is different from computer's primary storage which is known as the hard drive. Secondary storage is design as a backup to the main storage, and it stores data on a long-term basis. The latest standard or more popular is the optical disc.

With optical discs, a laser beam reads and writes data to a disc. Optical disc do not spin nor need to move read/write heads or access arms because the laser beam electronically moves.

Peripherals are external hardware but are controlled by a computer's central processing unit. Peripheral devices are Intel Pentium Dual Core E2140 (1. 6Ghz) – 1MB Cache, Intel 945G Chipset Mbd, 1 GB DDR2, 160 SATA HDD, DVD-Writer with Light scribe.

The latest standard major networking hardware and equipments (cables, switches, Routers, Bridges, server machine parameters)

CABLES

One of the most common elements of most networks is cabling. Cabling provides physical connections from a single computer to the rest of the network.Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs but in some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable and others will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.Here are some of the major cables used in networking:

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Cable

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP) Cable

3. Coaxial Cable

4. Fiber Optic Cable.

SWITCHES

The main purpose of a switch is to make a LAN work better, optimize its performance providing more bandwidth for the LAN's users. It doesn't forward packets to other networks as routers do. Instead, it switches frames from one port to another within the switched network. It breaks collision domains by default and it's a layer two device.

ROUTERS

Routers are used to connect networks together and route packets of data from one network to another. It also breaks up a broadcast domain by default and it is a layer three switches.Router functions in network can be listed as:

1. Packet switching

2. Packet filtering

3. Internetwork communication

4. Path selection

BRIDGES

Bridges are used to segment networks; they will not isolate broadcast or multicast packets. Bridge is used in a network to reduce collisions within broadcast domains and to increase the number of collision domains.

SERVER MACHINES PARAMETERS

Server is a computer in a network that stores application programs and data files accessed by other computers. There are two type of network model, these are:

1. Pair to pair: In this network, every computer is a stand alone server. I.e. users account of my computer manage its own security. (member server)

2. Server to client: It's merely the installation of a server software that doesn't make the particular computer have power over other client until it has been promoted using the command called DC promo to make it a domain controller.

Here are varies of servers:

1. Win 98 server

2. Win 2000 server

3. Win 2003 server

4. Win logon 2008.

In this case I believe market study should be thorough observation, thinking about the future in the sense of asking the question what computer networking has to offer tomorrow.

All over the world, there are many Organization that deals in manufacturing computer hardware and examples of them are:

1. HP (Hewlett Packard)

2. IBM

3. Compaq

When it comes to business or home use of computer, HP is my reference but IBM has a better chance of being a suitable server .To acquire a hardware and software is very easy but acquiring software is much easier. Hardware can be acquire through the manufacturing company or through any of the registered and licensed retailers but like I said earlier, software is much easier to get because by browsing the manufacturing company websites or by searching through Google, you can easily buy and download any of your wanted software.

1.4 SOFTWARE

Basically, every once in a while new products are being manufactured but with higher capacity or capability. This factor brings effects on older designs. Every manufacturer uses its competitor inventions to develop another invention. It brings confusion into world when there's need to upgrade every system in a particular Organization.

Identifying different computer network software:

1. System software

2. Programming software

3. Application software

Computer plays a major part in the world, so in this case there are sixteen known operating system.

Each of these operating systems has its advantage and demerit but studying and observing them can help understand how they work, their capacity and way to go acquiring the best one suitable for whatever it is the function you need the system to perform for you or your reputable Organization.

Network security helps prevented intruder from accessing the data base. It helps the administrator to keep the organization files safe and it also allows a particular packet to be sent without a third party having an unauthorized access. Security is of major essence after deploying a network. It could be of two major types, logical and physical.

One of the logical ways to secure a router is the ACL (Access control list). This is a set of if, then statements that categorize packets as it enters and passes through the router.ACL is principally divided into two types: standard and extended.

Standard is represented by numbers from 1-99 and it's used to block an entire suite of protocols. It focus on the source IP address and its best placed close to the destination network. Standard Access List can be applied in an interface, in one direction (inbound or outbound) at a particular point in time. “Packets are being checked before routing takes place in inbound while packets are being checked after routing but before queuing.

Extended Access list it's been represented by numbers in between 100-199 unlike Standard Access List. Extended gives room to streamline the configuration of the access list by allowing certain programs or applications to be blocked while permitting others. It allows us to state the source and destination addresses, destination pool numbers, protocols, etc, and its best placed close to the source network.

One of the ways to keep a network safe is to con a VLAN (Virtual Local Area network) for every department in an Organization. At such, someone from finance department can access a system from a marketing department floor without sharing the same network with marketing department. The network can also be secured by using a WPA key during the configuration.

To my knowledge, it's very hard to know the numbers of the very network security software because everyday come new software by different software companies.Client server computing is just like a pair to pair where every computer is a stand alone server.A database management system is a software system that facilitates the creation and maintenance in use of electronic database. Software used to create and manipulate databases. It includes Microsoft Access, Oracle 9i, and MySQL.

UI (User Interface) development is an Object-oriented interfaces which are sometimes described as turning the application inside-out as compared to function-oriented interfaces. The main focus of the interaction changes to become the users' data and other information objects that are typically represented graphically on the screen as icons or in windows.MVC (Model View Controller) is a software architecture that separates the components of the application: the model represents the business logic or data.

An O-RM is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type of system in relational databases and object-oriented programming languages. There are free and commercial packages that perform object-relational mapping but some programmers do create their own ORM tools.

An ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning) is an integration of business management practices and modern technology

ERP support an Organization to manage its resources of all its departments because Information Technology (IT) integrates with the core business processes of a corporate house to streamline and accomplish specific business objectives.

IS (Information Service) is the bridge between the business world and computer science.

The precondition of IS to be developed in an Organization is to first understand the value of IS and its resources .Report management is basically a secure point-in-time report repository offering centralized management and distribution of reports.Since it's an Organization set up to achieve world-wide adoption, IS can help Universal Integrated support to achieve its goals and objectives by creating a world standard for RFID and the use of the Internet to share data via the EPC global network.

1.5 Digital Camera

A digital camera that encodes an image digitally and store it for later reproduction . A camera that captures and stores still images as digital data instead of on photographic film.
A camera equipped with an electronic photosensitive sensor. The digital pictures are stored directly in the camera's memory and can be used immediately on a computer.
Some new latest digital cameras Instead of using film, this kind of camera records data in "pixels," small squares of light of varying hues that can be directly loaded into and interpreted by a computer."

The newest generation of video cameras transform visual information (lightness and darkness) into pixels, then translate the pixel's level of light into a number (or, in the case of color, into three numbers _ one for the level of red, green and blue in the pixel).

This is a camera that does not use film, but instead stored the photographs in a digital format in memory on the camera. These images can then be downloaded to a computer. camera that converts a collected image into pixels that are black or white digital or shades of gray. A camera that stores still or moving pictures in a digital format (TIFF, GIF, etc camera that does not take analog video; digital video cameras can capture truer color and more details than analog cameras. Digital cameras frequently use digital video tapes, internal hard drives or memory cards. Digital video is not always high-definition.

A camera that captures information in a digital file, rather than on film. Digital cameras eliminate the film process of reproducing an image therefore allowing for less colour casts etc. The digital data will also archive better .An input device in the form of a camera, capable of delivering bitmap image data of real-world scenes in digital form to a creator application.

For Universal Integrated Support ltd installation of digital security camera the most favourable and reliable type to install is i-Catcher Console 4 provides a complete scalable CCTV system, with motion detection, alerting, remote web interface, simultaneous record & playback, scheduled activity, device control, and flexible display options, exceeding the standards you'd expect from a modern digital CCTV system.

i-Catcher Console uses a wide range of camera devices, including USB webcams, capture cards (for connection to conventional analogue CCTV cameras), and the latest network/IP video servers and cameras. Because of its modular design, you are not limited to one type of device for the whole system - you can mix devices as required.

Image of i-Catcher Console running on a 3-monitor flexible CCTV system

i-Catcher Console running 18 cameras on a PC with 3 monitors attached. i-Catcher's ability to display information on multiple monitors is unrivalled, making the most of CCTV 'sparest commodity: screen space. i-Catcher Console also works with PTZ (Pan, Tilt & Zoom) cameras to not only provide a remotely moveable CCTV camera, but also provides auto tracking - the camera can move to follow movement through a monitored area.

Motion detection is performed without the need for PIR triggers and external motion detectors. Once motion is detected, recording begins. For extra security, i-Catcher can record before and after the motion event to ensure you capture everything, and sensitivity controls add an extra level of flexibility. Digital image storage means that access to stored images is instant, and allows you to playback the footage while still recording, as well as a loop play feature, to continuously loop the most recent activity - features traditional CCTV systems are simply unable to provide.

With digital image storage comes simple yet comprehensive systems for image management. Archiving automatically ensures you retain the right amount footage, image integrity checking ensures your footage isn't tampered with, and feed management allows you to precisely control the storage of images per camera feed.

Manages the acquisition, installation and maintenance of the organization's local area network hardware/software.

Manages network operations to include: troubleshooting connectivity problems; installing & maintaining routers; adding/terminating users; assigning rights and access; resetting passwords; establishing e-mail addresses; assessing and reporting operational status; performing backups and restores; etc.

Conducts technology orientation and exit briefing for all staff; prepares technology and systems for new and existing staff.

Ensures technology documents/certificates such as product registrations, SSL certificates, maintenance agreements, service contracts, etc. related to technology operations and/or technology services are evaluated, updated and processed.

Implements, administrates and maintains data bases. this and a lot more are the functions of I.T manager in any organization.

i-Catcher Console supports I/O input and control through a variety of interfaces, allowing almost any remote control configuration (subject to use of controller hardware). We have Set up a web page that uses our Console with an Axis 241Q video server to demonstrate both remote control of appliances and the simple means to embed control of devices into your own web pages. See our i-Catcher Console-based remote device control systems.

The flexibility and simplicity of the user interface is available remotely, and yet requires only a web browser for use. No ActiveX controls are needed, no software needs to be installed. The remote interface provides a full live feed view, with digital zoom options, control of PTZ cameras, multiple simultaneous feeds, and image quality settings to improve performance through bandwidth reduction. Playback is also provided with all the options of the local playback facility, and most of Console's configuration can be adjusted through remote administration. All of these features can be password protected at many levels to provide a powerful security system.

Sales of software for this project will be max software provider because it is our view that we did not mind the cost but rather a reliable, dependable software that stand among the best is what the organisation want to use. whereby guarantee and after sales service will be provided by the software provider.

1.6 SUMMARY

IT Manager is an office that is responsible for managing all organization technologies and providing technology support and training. Primary duties include: analyzing systems and processes; maintaining workstations and networks; and designing, developing and maintaining Web-based applications and all other Information Technology (IT) related matters.

In a nutshell, the I.T manager has to be familiar with and work in a manner that is congruent with the organization's articulated mission and vision. The IT managers must all know their own roles in the strategic plan, and not solely in terms of what the plan entails. IT Managers actually help shape the plan because goals need to be identified and objectives delineated. The strategic plan articulates a sense of direction for the managers, one that can be used to effectively encourage staff to meet expectations.

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