This report entails the business uses of Google products. Each of the system's features and functionality is described with the probable situation in which these systems might come in handy for the corporate users.

Main Content

A) Google Desktop and Google Toolbar

Google Desktop

Google Desktop is a desktop searching software. The program allows Text searches from a user's mails, PC files, photos, music, etc. It also helps find information from the web and stay organized with the Google gadgets and sidebar added in a PC's desktop.

Google desktop features and its functionality are explained below:

1. File Indexing

  • Indexes all the available files, emails, web histories, multimedia, etc. of a user's computer.
  • Indexing of files results in better, faster and accurate search results.
  • Makes sure the index stays up to date by adding new email as received, files as updated and web pages as viewed.
  • Very useful for users who cannot afford to lose time looking for a specific file i.e. corporate users of any organization.

2. Quick Find Box

  • Provides the fastest way to search an item from a computer or the web.
  • The search results starts to pop-up simultaneously to the typed text.
  • Saves time for busy business users and suitable for any organization with loads of files and data.

3. Google Gadgets

  • Mini-applications that can be placed anywhere in the desktop
  • Each gadget performs distinct functions such as alerting for new mails, forecasting weather, and many more.
  • Gadgets can be chosen according to user preferences.
  • This feature is useful for any corporate user who is most of the time in front of a PC and needs reminder to certain events or watches out for new business mails, certain meetings, schedule, etc.

4. Locking Search

  • Google searching can be locked for privacy control.
  • The owner can unlock it by entering the password that was used to lock searching.
  • Very useful feature for any computer where business critical files reside.

Google Toolbar

Google Toolbar is an Internet browser toolbar available for certain browsers. It exists over the Tab bar of a browser and provides numerous functions to the user.

Its features and functionality is explained below:

1. Custom Buttons

  • Allows making of custom buttons out of bookmarks, searching sites and even Google Gadgets to appear on the toolbar for faster, quicker access.
  • Beneficial to any corporate user who wants to saves time as much as he/she can for visiting favourite sites with other functions.

2. Tab Page

  • With a new tab the toolbar will show all the recent and most visited web sites along with a thumbnail screenshot for better recognition and faster navigation.
  • Time saving because time is money to any organization, usually big ones.

3. Remote Access to the toolbar

  • Makes it possibe for an individual to update the toolbar remotely.
  • The user will have to sign-in into the Google Toolbar from any other computer and any changes made to it will be saved.
  • Useful to the business users who are on the move most of the time or does field work.

4. Autofill

  • Users can keep several different profiles to serve business and personal needs and store credit card information with password protection.
  • When a user starts filling in a form online, they can select the AutoFill icon to fill it in.
  • Users can also start typing in the form and AutoFill will prompt them to choose the profile that they would like to use.
  • Useful to any user of small to big organization for saving effort and time.

B) Google Chrome

Google Chrome is a Web Browser which is used to view web documents(Web Pages). There are many known browsers but Googles's newest invention has some good features of its own.

The features and functionalities are explained below:

1. Task Manager

  • Features its own Task Manager that shows CPU usage of each tab and additional plug-ins that are being used.
  • Seperates each tab as individual process so if an error occurs in any of the tab it can be shutdown without disrupting the whole browsing session.
  • Very useful for business users who has a important browsing session continuing with multiple tabs and cannot afford to lose all the tabs due to one faulty tab.

2. One Box

  • Contains integration of the address, history and search address bar.
  • Search any term in the ‘Open Box' instantly shows a drop down which displays all the visited sites and search results matched with the typed string.
  • Helpful to corporate users of big organizations who requires faster search results from all sources.

3. Support for Web Applications

  • Easier integration of applications like Google Doc, Outlook Web Access and
  • Gives the advantage to the business users to use online applications more comfortably.
  • Usually big organizations will require such apllications for better presentation and in a short time of period and remote access to the documents.

4. Incognito Mode

  • ‘Incognito' mode conceals a users browsing session by not saving any cookies, history or form fields.
  • This feature is very useful and any organization with important information should use this feature if they are to view sensetive data that cannot be traced back to its source and to maintain the security of the system.

C) Gmail/Googlemail

Gmail is a free web-mail service provided by Google. It is highly advanced and competitive with other legendary web-mail services. It is quite different than the others.

The features will be explained below:

1. Storage

  • Currently provides more than 7400 MB of free storage and extendable from 20 GB to 16 TB.
  • Very useful to only large or multi-national organizations who are in constant communication with deligates of other countries through Emails and have large attachments of documents or other items needed to be stored securely.

2. Gmail Mobile

  • Allows the users to check their mails, compose one, reply to a message and trash recieved mails from a cell phone or a smartphone and designed effectively for smaller screens.
  • Effectively useful for corporate users who do not like to carry a laptop and always on the move or up for field work.

3. Search attachments

  • Allows the users to even search through attachments i.e. PDF or DOCs.
  • Very useful for any user who to wants to find a specific Email attachment with required string among hundred others.

4. Auto-save

  • Autosaves any ongoing Email at particular intervals.
  • Relieves the users of worrying about saving the Email in case of power or other kinds of failure.
  • Therefore, any kind of user should use this feature preventing the loss of their important documents.

D) Google Docs

Google Docs is a free, Web-based word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, and form application offered by Google. It allows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating in real-time with other users.

The features Google Docs provide are as follows:

1. File formats

  • Allows users to save their documents in formats of ODF, HTML, PDF, RTF, Text and Word.
  • Business users may want to save their documents in other formats as the recipient/client demands or as they individually want it.

2. Saving Options

  • Users are given with choices of saving their documents in their computers or in the Google servers by default.
  • Offers users with option of safe keeping their own documents or keep their documents in Google servers for better protection.
  • Suitable options for big organizations with important information to protect.

3. Automatic Save

  • Saves open documents automatically to prevent data loss.
  • Business users cannot afford to lose their important documents so, very helpful for any user who is working on a very important document.
  • 4. Translates document
  • Allows translation of a document to over 40 languages.
  • Helpful for multi-national companies who has to send and recieve documents in diverse range of languages.

E) Google AdWords

Google AdWords aims to provide the most effective advertising available for businesses of any size. The AdWords program includes local, national, and international distribution.

Its features will be discussed below:

1. Pay Per Click Advertisements

  • Users crearting the Ad can pay from 1 cent to $100 (depending on the bids) to Google according to clicks made to the advertisement.
  • They appear when Google search engine users search for a string which matches with the ad's keywords.
  • Organizations which are looking to promote themselves require this function which are usually small companies.

2. Placement targeted advertisements

  • Users can enter keywords or domain names and Google AdWords will place the Ads to related web pages according to the keywords and give options for matched domains for domain name targeting.
  • Allows the users to place their ads in specific web sites and pages.
  • Suitable for low-budget advertisers.

3. Cost Per Impression

  • Users can choose this option if they want to only pay by the viewing of the Ads by specific web pages.
  • Users can choose this option to save themselves money.
  • Suitable for only high budget users.

4. Click To Call

  • A service which allows users to call advertisers from Google search results pages.
  • Google calls the customers and connects to the advertiser.
  • Calling charges are paid by Google.
  • Users can contact their clients directly and has better chances for convincing them to accept their services.
  • Most suitable for small companies desperately looking for popularity.


This report concludes that the use of Google's product are actually enchanced for business uses more that they are made for normal uses. The contents are extracted from many trusted sites as a reference which includes the Google Web site itself. The report was also based on many user reviews which represents the usefulness of these systems by real business users and in real life situations.


Google is a very trusted online organization and a very protected one. Relinquishing sensetive data to them is very reliable and therefore, it is suggested that Google Systems be used to make the work of a business man easier and comfortable.


Secure Socket Layers (SSL)

  • Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet.
  • SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data − a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. The SSL establishes a private communication channel enabling encryption of the data during transmission. Encryption scrambles the data, essentially creating an envelope for message privacy. The public key is used to encrypt information and the private key is used to decrypt it.
  • Encrypting and decrypting communications is noticeably more CPU-intensive than unencrypted communications. This problem can be overcomed if higher CPU performance can be added to the server then there will be enough SSL to take place.
  • Using SSL is not very easy because it requires additional extensions to be installed which might not be available all the time. Required SSL extensions should have to be bought along with its sevice from the vendors.
  • SSL requires both parties of the communication to do extra work in exchanging handshakes and encrypting and decrypting the messages, making it time consuming. It should be evaluated whether there are other alternatives to this form of security and then adhere to SSL if its really required.

Proxy Servers

  • Proxy servers has three objectives: security, Filtering and Caching. For Security uses, Proxy server can act as a Firewall only providing access to one kind of service. The access to the Proxy can also be controlled by denying access to any unknown node. They can also filter data, providing access to only certain web sites and can also look into the content for suspicious materials. Caching stores frequently accessed documents which greatly improves performance and the next time users access a page, the server does not have to fetch the page from a distant web server rather from its own, saving time for the user and bandwidth of the ISP.
  • Proxy software is available for older services like FTP but not for newer ones like SSL. This makes it difficult for a site to offer new services immediately as they become available. The only solution to this problem can be to cease proxying until suitable software for it is available.
  • There might be needed a different proxy server for each protocol. Collecting, installing, and configuring all these various servers can be a lot of work. Proxying should only be done for specific services which require controlling.
  • Except for a few services designed for proxying, proxy servers require modifications to clients and/or procedures. Either kind of modification has drawbacks; users cannot always use the readily available tools with their normal instructions. Users need to be trained before implementing proxying.

Web Robots

  • A Web robot is a program that automatically and recursively traverses a Web site retrieving document content and information. These robots visit Web sites and follow the links to add more information to the search engine database.
  • Most Web robots are written to obey certain rules set down in a specific text file on a site. This file is the robots.txt file. It tells them which areas of the site they can and cannot traverse.
  • Robots can span relatively large portions of Web-space over short periods. Bottlenecks can arise locally though high bandwidth consumption, particularly if the robot is in frequent or permanent use, or if it is used during network peak times. The problem is sustained by constant regulation of the requests for resource.
  • Successive HTTP requests to a single server without delays have been shown to be very resource consuming for a server under current HTTP implementations. Here again, an unregulated robot can cause problems. Suitable delays and an ethical traversal algorithm can help resolve this problem.
  • The skewing of server logs is another issue that causes concern. A robot that indexes an entire site will distort logs if a recognised "user-agent" is not supplied. These may be hard to distinguish from regular users. Use of robots only if a web site goes through intensive searching.

DNS (Domain Name Servers)

  • The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participants.
  • When a user types in a domain name in the browser the following things happen:
  • Browser contacts a name server(often a DNS) for converting domain name to IP address.
  • If the name server does not know the IP address then it contacts the root name servers which contains the names of each types of domain(.com, .org, etc.)
  • If that root server is not the one to handle .com domains then it provides the name server with an IP address which does.
  • The name server then asks the second root name server for the IP address of the typed Domain name.
  • The second root name server then returns the IP address to the name server which returns the IP address to the browser.

6. At last, the browser can show a web page relevant to the domain name typed in the address bar.

  • There are Microsoft and Unix based DNS. So a unix system adminstrator may need to be trained before they can start using Microsoft based DNS and vice versa.
  • Even if a required content is nearby, a DNS will ask the root servers very far away for domain name lookup which is time consuming. But there are no solution to these problems because there are no alternatives to this technology.


  • A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of both.
  • Firewalls use one or more of three methods to control traffic flowing in and out of the network:

1. Packet filtering

Packets (small chunks of data) are analyzed against a set of filters. Packets that make it through the filters are sent to the requesting system and all others are discarded.

2. Proxy service

Information from the Internet is retrieved by the firewall and then sent to the requesting system and vice versa.

3. Stateful inspection

A method that doesnot examine the contents of each packet but instead compares certain key parts of the packet to a database of trusted information. If the comparison yields a reasonable match, the information is allowed through. Otherwise it is discarded.

  • Firewalls are difficult to configure so, incorrectly configured firewalls may block users from performing certain actions on the Internet, until the firewall configured correctly. System admins has to be trained before they can start configuring.
  • Hardware firewalls tend to be more expensive than software firewalls. Purchasing a hardware firewall is worthless until software firewall cannot provide sufficient security.
  • Firewalls concentrate security in one spot, aggravating the single point of failure phenomenon. The alternatives, however are either no Internet access, or no security, neither of which are acceptable in most organizations. Other security measures should be implemented along with firewall if firewall is to block certain services.

Internet Protocol Version 4(IPv4)

IPv4 is a connection-less protocol to be used on packet-switched Link Layer networks (e.g. Ethernet) which has an addressing scheme of 32 bits arranged in a four byte decimal notation. It is used to provide a node on the Internet Network a unique address for identification.

The address has a host and a network part for allocation. IPs can also be divided into classes for defining their limits of use and ranges.

IPv4 addresses are coming to an end and in the future will not be able to support increasing networks and nodes. IPv6 solves this main problem of IPv4.

IPv4 must be configured, either manually or through the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). IPv6 can be used which has automatic configuration.

Security for IPv4 is specified by the use of Internet Protocol security (IPsec). An application cannot rely on IPsec being present to secure traffic because the application might resort to other security standards or a proprietary security scheme. IPv6 provides better security by supporting IPSec headers.

Mobility is a new requirement for Internet-connected devices, in which a node can change its address as it changes its physical attachment to the Internet and still maintain existing connections. Although there is a specification for IPv4 mobility, due to a lack of infrastructure, communications with an IPv4 mobile node are inefficient. IPv6 supports better mobility than IPv4.

Internet Protocol Version 6

IPv6 is the successor of the IPv4 which has an six addressing scheme of a 128 bits arranged in eight hexadecimal four digit integers delimited with colons. It is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks.

Its larger headers require more space in buffers and tables. The extension approach to headers can be an issue in hardware implementations because, except for the first header, information is not located at a fixed offset from the start of the packet. So, the extensions must be scanned sequentially to determine their contents and the location and type of the next extension header which will require more resource adn time. There are no alternatives to IPv6 so, no solution to this problem.

Currently there are no support to LVS in the Linux Kernel. It has not been that available among pulic therefore, it requires tunnels when working with IPv4 machines. When IPv6 will be widely available it will solve these problems.


f) When a HTML form is written its purpose becomes transaction of the data that has been inserted inside the form tags e.g.

<form name="form1" method="post" action="../../cgi-bin/perlscripts/">. As shown in the example, there should be a method which the prgramming language i.e. HTML will follow to manage the data. Two main of those methods are POST and GET.

Post Method

POST method is usually used to send the data to the server for further processing. It enters the the data into the Entity Body of the HTTP request. While GET method can be used to send and retrieve data to and from the server but does not insert the data into the Entity Body . But there are some disadvantages and advantages of both method which will be discussed below:

POST Method

GET Method

1. Conceals data sent by not showing it in the URL.

Data are visible in the URL and seperated by determinable parameters.

2. Form data cannot be extracted from the web server logs.

Form data can be extracted from the web server logs.

3. There is no limit for data transmission.

There is a limit to how much data can be sent.

4. No history is stored for the data sent by POST method.

History of the data sent is stored in the local host.

5. Web pages with POST method cannot be bookmarked.

Web pages with GET method can be bookmarked.

6. Not efficient for debugging.

Useful for debugging.

7. Not revertible once data submitted.

Can be returned to if data submitted.

8. Takes data exactly the same as it is inserted.

Replaces specific characters and symbols to other prarmeters.


  • When using POST method, data inserted in the form is sent in the Entity Body of the HTTP request thus, the data cannot be viewed when they are sent but for GET method, the data is visible in the URL in the address bar of a browser seperated by ‘?' or '/' which can be refined to see the real data inserted therefore, pose many security threats.
  • Since, using POST method data is only sent through entity body, it is not contained in the server logs but URLs used through GET methods can be stored in the web server logs and thus, have privacy implications.
  • There is a limit to how much character a address bar can handle and for that reason there is a data limitation for GET method though this limitation varies depending upon the operating system of the web server. POST method has no limitation because its data is contained with the HTTP request and has unlimited capacity.
  • If data sent using GET can be stored in the web server so can it be in the local machine under cookies or web browsing history but POST method keeps no history to backtrack from.
  • Since, the data sent or retrieved using GET appears in the URL and every URL has its web page in the web browser therefore, it can saved/bookmarked with the data in it but for POST none of it is applicable. Can be an advantage for POST if sensetive information is passed but disadvantage for GET and advantage for GET if URL needs to be stored according to user preference.
  • When debugging or when doing some web server related work GET can be used to find out what data is being passed to the server and where an error is occuring by looking at the URL or defining the parameters but not possible for POST since it hides the data which is a drawback of POST.
  • Sometimes after submitting a registration form online a user might think that there was some mistake in data entry and may want to revert back to correct the mistake which is not possble if the data is sent using POST but if it was GET then the user might be able to ‘Go Back' to the page or even ‘Reload' it.
  • When data is sent or retrieved using GET it changes few symbols to its own parameters e.g. ‘space' in texts are converted to other pre-defined symbols. For the same reason, files in a web server are usually named with underscores(_) or without no spaces. But POST sends data as it was entered, totally intact.

g) The report for this task is as follows:

Executive Summary

The report contains how the tasks from (a) to (e) has been done with relevant screenshots and description using the local host as the web server. Discussions from Task-3(f) will be included to support the assertations made in (f) and to show a real example of the differences between GET and POST method.


The report is done in order to prove the differences between two well-known methods POST and GET. In addition, to show the work needed for a CGI script to run in association with a HTML page which is a very vital aspect of a System Administrator's job.

Main Content

The local machine where the coding for the tasks has been done was used as the web server to pulish the web pages and run the CGI script. Local web server behaves same as any web server would and proves work done fulfills the requirements mentioned.

Description: The coding was done in Notepad built-in program of Windows and the coding copied from the assignment paper. The coding is based on HTML syntax which is common for any HTML standard. The file was saved as ‘index.html' in the ‘htdocs' folder of the Apache Web Server. The location of the file: C:\xampp\htdocs\perl_assignment\index.html .

Description: The HTML page was put in the location as stated above so that, the page can be opened in a web browser as if it was pulished in a web server. As shown in the screenshot, the URL of the page is consistent with the location of the HTML file which was saved earlier. The ‘localhost' represents that the local machine is now acting as the web server for publishing the files under its ‘htdocs' directory.

Description: The general syntax of a perl was followed to write the code. The first line represents the location of the perl compiler which reads CGI scripts embedded in web pages therefore, its location was to be defined. The second line explains that the content of the page linked to this is a HTML file and should follow the coding standards of HTML e.g. form tags. The same displaying text as the ‘index.html' file was written to be displayed in the ‘' file which is ‘This is a simple HTML page'.

Coding of the HTML Form:



<title>Internet Systems Adminstration, Task 3</title>



<form name="form1" method=" " action=" ">

<table width="38%" border="0">


<th width="49%" scope="row">First Name: </th>

<td width="51%"><input type="text" name="first_name" id="textfield"></td>



<th scope="row">Last Name: </th>

<td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="textfield2"></td>



<th scope="row">Phone Number:</th>

<td><input type="text" name="phone_no" id="textfield3"></td>



<th scope="row">&nbsp;</th>

<td><input type="submit" name="button" id="button" value="Submit" /></td>





Description: First, a HTML page was created and coded for a table and inside the columns of the table, texts, text fields and a button was inserted to make it like a simple online registration form. Then the coding of the whole table was nested inside form tags so that, any data inside the text fields will have an action when the ‘Submit' button will be clicked.

Modified coding of the form for POST Method



<title>Internet Systems Adminstration, Task 3</title>



<form name="form1" method="POST" action="../../cgi-bin/">

<table width="38%" border="0">

<tr> <th width="49%" scope="row">First Name: </th>

<td width="51%"><input type="text" name="first_name" id="textfield"></td> </tr>

<tr> <th scope="row">Last Name: </th>

<td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="textfield2"></td>

</tr> <tr>

<th scope="row">Phone Number:</th>

<td><input type="text" name="phone_no" id="textfield3"></td>


<tr> <th scope="row">&nbsp;</th>

<td><input type="submit" name="button" id="button" value="Submit" /></td>





Description: The highlited area with red colour has been only changed from the previous form. ‘method' attribute which was blank before but now has been altered to contain ‘POST' which determines how the data inserted can be sent to the web server for processing and after that the attribute ‘action' represents the location where a defined coding for the syntax of transmittal will be contained which in this case, is the ‘' file which was required to be called by the form.

Observation in the address bar of the browser proves that the ‘' file was redirected to from the form after submission of the data but the data cannot be seen. This is one main characteristics of POST method where data sent are not visible in the URL and also not saved as Cookies or History in the local machine nor the web server.

Modified coding of the form for GET Method



<title>Internet Systems Adminstration, Task 3</title>



<form name="form1" method="GET" action="../../cgi-bin/">

<table width="38%" border="0">

<tr> <th width="49%" scope="row">First Name: </th>

<td width="51%"><input type="text" name="first_name" id="textfield"></td>


<tr> <th scope="row">Last Name: </th>

<td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="textfield2"></td>



<th scope="row">Phone Number:</th>

<td><input type="text" name="phone_no" id="textfield3"></td>


<tr> <th scope="row">&nbsp;</th>

<td><input type="submit" name="button" id="button" value="Submit" /></td>






The only change made from the previous coding is marked with red which is the ‘method' type and changed to ‘GET'. The location of the CGI script stays the same because to change the ‘method' type the location of the ‘action' script is not necessary. As shown above, with ‘GET' method the data inserted is shown as URL and very easily understandable which can have many advantages as well as disadvantages.


The work was done in a local machine with web sever daemon i.e. Apache. The process described above will be a bit different compared to the process which will be followed for real web server. But that does not make the process invalid since, the basic concept will remian the same.


It is recommended that for the real flavour of this task, a web server should be used with associated services such as FTP Client, making directory for the files, uploading them properly, etc. With purpose of overcoming the task, other relevant work will also be done under which circumstances a System Administrator should fall.


A) Peer-To-Peer (P2P)

Peer-To-Peer (P2P) is a networking architecture where all nodes have equal responsibilities and capabilities which means that each node can perform as a server or a client; responsing to requests from other clients or requesting resources from other clients. First biggest P2P implementation was Napster, an application used to share music among users. From then on, file sharing networks like Gnutella and FastTrack were built and became insanely popular for its bandwidth harnessing abilities, not to forget the all popular Torrents that also makes use of P2P architecture for downloading.


Client -Server is also a networking architecture where the clients(who requests ONLY) are connected to a servers(provides ONLY). Server is a special computer which is configured to fullfil the clients requests. Server based networks provide centralized control over the resources and clients can request the resources directly from the server. Clients can send datarequeststo one or more connectedservers. In turn, the servers can accept these requests, process them, and return the requested information to the client. The client-server model has become one of the central ideas of network computing. Business applications are also being written based on this model. Broadband Internet services in most countries are also being given through the use of Client-server model and the Internet isteslf has expanded from client-server model.

B) Client-Server

  1. Web Servers and Web Browsers

  2. Web Browser running in a computer is technically a client application and the web server has another application called daemon which awaits clients requests. So, many client(s) can request to one server and it responses to the requests.For example, aweb browseris a client program running on a user's computer that may access information stored on a web server on the Internet which is provided by the server.

  3. DNS Servers and Web Browsers

  4. DNS networking is based on theclient-serverarchitecture. Web browser functions as a DNS client and issues requests to Internet provider's(ISP) DNS servers when browsing Web sites.

    When a DNS server receives a request not in its database the server automatically passes that request to another DNS server if it does not have the required data to response. Eventually the request arrives at a server that has the matching name and IP address in its database, and the response flows back through the chain(backwards) of DNS servers to the client, the web browser (Mitchell).

Peer-To-Peer (P2P)

  1. Communication and collaboration

  2. P2P is not only popular among home users but many small business have come to rely on this cost-effective solution for sharing files with co-workers and clients. Through P2P users can search and share resources among themselves as easily as possible. P2P prevents any legal issues regarding downloading and also keeps bandwidth usage to a minimum.

  3. File Sharing

  4. Users not even physically connected to a P2P network can gain the advantages of a P2P file sharing. It is done through P2P client softwares such as Limewire and uTorrent. These P2P application can be used to search through specific files from the network and download files.

  5. Platform

  6. One very common form of P2P networking is Instant Messaging (IM) where software applications, such as MSN Messenger or AOL Instant Messenger, for example, allow users to chat via text messages in real-time and applications like Skype and Net-2-Phone allows the users to converse and video chat in real-time.

  7. Distributed Computing

  8. In distributed computing, it combines the idle or unused CPU processing power and/or free disk space of many computers in the network. The computers in the network can be used to produce an output such as certain amount of disk space or CPU power for a specific purpose.

C) Comparison of P2P and Client-Server

  • P2P is inexpensive to operate and maintain than client-server networks because P2P can be formed through use of wires but client-server will require servers, routers and many other devices.
  • P2P requires not much of an expertise to maintain the system because it is not consisted of complex devices compared to client-server which has servers and requires System Adminstrators to manage it.
  • Client-server networking is more suitable for wide area services because under too much load P2P provides inconsistent performance.
  • P2P preserves security than client-server because P2P are usually under user premises but client-servers are distributed and anyone outside or inside the network can cause malicous activity.
  • P2P cannot handle expansion of more than 50 nodes sometimes even less but client-server can be expanded to any amount with right requirements and the best example is Internet itself.
  • P2P and client-server are on par in case of technologies because different types of applications uses any of the two. It depends upon the use, for example, heavy downloaders use P2P but for programmers client-server or some business models it is a requirement.
  • Traffic congestion mostly occurs in client-server networks if the server cannot keep up with the requests of the clients but for P2P it is often congestion free and also saves bandwidth usage.
  • P2P is the more robust system because it makes use of the clients disk space and processor but in client-server network, clients are fully dependent on the server and its disk space and processor. Failure in client nodes will affect the P2P more because some resources will become unavilable but in client-server, server will contain all the resources. If it is the server node failure, then it can render the whole client-server network inoperable but will not affect P2P much compared to client-server.
  • Computer resource sharing is more advantageous in P2P because each user can have diverse range of resources while in client-server only resource sharable will be the ones that are uplaoded to the server by the adminstrator.
  • It depends upon the purpose for designing the network which will define the best use of the network. For example, if the purpose is only communication between employees than P2P would be suitable but if it is for mailing, having centralized control, etc. than client-server would be applicable.



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