In the previous chapter, the researcher has developed a theoretical framework to identify the key research questions and important variables, and to assist in formulating the hypotheses for this study. This chapter explains a design of research methodology that constitutes the best way of gathering data and testing the hypotheses formulated for this study in order to test the hypotheses. The research design, the sample, and the method for selecting the sample are identified in this chapter. The survey instruments, pilot testing, and collection procedures used in this study are also explained. The statistical methodology used in analyzing each research question and hypothesis is presented.
5.1 Research Design
This research intends to explain the definition research design and its type. In addition, research design is a broad plan of a piece of empirical research specifying the manner in which data are to be collected and analyzed in order to test research design derived from theory, or to develop insights into the problem being investigated (Sociology Guide,2009).
The research design is involves a series of rational decision making choices by which the data collect answers the research question (sekeran, 2003).
Also, the research design depends on the nature of study that depends on the stage to which knowledge about the research topic has advanced. In addition, the research purpose is to what should be accomplished by conducting research and how the results from the research can be used.
Therefore, Malhostra and Birks (2007) mentioned that a study can be conducted through exploratory, descriptive, or inferential analysis. In the same line, a widely used method identifies them broadly as: exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. While, Sekaran (2003) mentioned that there is three type of research design as exploratory, descriptive, hypothesis testing. Therefore, the current researcher elaborates each method in order to differentiate one to another to understand what method is dominantly used in this study.
i) Exploratory study
Exploratory study is undertaken when little is known about the situation at hand, when no information is available previous research's have been resolved (sekeran, 2003). furthermore, Saunders et al., (2000) declare that exploratory research are the valuable means to find out what is happening, seek new insights, ask questions and assess phenomena in a new light. It should be noted that, an exploratory research is conducted in an area that is relatively new. As a complementary to this, the researcher agrees that further study should be undertook in order to find out more empirical evidences to what has been explored.
This is in the line with Zikmund (2003) further stated that the main purpose of the exploratory study process is a progressive narrowing of the scope of the research topic and a transformation of the discovered problems into defined ones, incorporating specific research objectives In addition, Yin (2003) stated that the purpose of an exploratory research is to gather as much information as possible about a specific subject. Therefore, it is helpful to the researcher to understand what is never been discovered in the previous studies.
ii) Descriptive study
A descriptive study focuses on certain factors in a certain phenomena, as Salkind (2000) clarifies that a descriptive study describes a phenomenon without any attempt to determine what causes the phenomenon. The descriptive study aims to portray an accurate profile of persons and evens of situations (Saunders et al., 2000). Furthermore, it is often used to ascertain and able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interested in a situation. Moreover, it is often used when a problem is well structured and there is no intention to investigate cause-effect relationship (Sekaran, 2000).
iii) Explanatory study (Hypothesis Testing)
Aaker and Day (1990) stated that the approach of the explanatory research should be used when it is necessary to show that one variable is caused or determined the value of another variable. in the same line, sekeran (2003) mentioned that hypothesis testing usually explain nature of certain relationship, to explain the variance in the dependent variable, and establish the differences among group of two or more factors in situation.
The objective of explanatory research is to analyze the cause-effect relationship, and explain which cause produces which effect (Yin, 2003). Commonly, the goals of this method can be accomplished through laboratory and field experiments.
However, obviously a more in-depth study is required to study on the relationships of certain variables that are being hypothesized and to answer the research questions. Cavana et al. (2001, p. 457) mentioned that inferential analysis helps to establish relationship among the variables. After carried-out the analysis particularly on the correlation and regression, conclusions will be drawn from the relationships established.
Correlation analysis is the analysis on the linear relationship between two or more variables without any hint of attributing the effect of one variable to another (Salkind, 2000). While Cavana et al. (2001) explained that regression analysis develops an equation that relates a dependent variable to independent variables.
There are two types of research approaches, qualitative and quantitative, based on the data types. The qualitative research is characterized by the opportunity to explore a subject in a manner as real as possible(Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007).
Furthermore, states that qualitative methods are often related to case studies, where the aim is to receive thorough information and thereby obtain a deep understanding of the research problem(Yin, 1994). The quantitative research involves numerical data or contains data that usually can be quantified(Saunders et al., 2007). Also is often formalized and well structured. Quantitative research is concerned with measurement of numbers, such as the number of people who would buy a particular product, the percentage of people who agree with a certain statement, or the satisfaction levels of your customers. Online research is well suited to this kind of work (sekaran, 1992). Usually depending on the purpose of the study and the research questions, one of the two approaches is chosen (Aaker & Day, 1990). According to Saunders et al. (2000), there are some differences between qualitative and quantitative data as summarized in table 2:
Table 3-1: Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Based on meanings expressed through words
Based on meanings derived from numbers
Involves non-standardized data requiring classifications into categories
Involves numerical and standardized data
Deals with analysis that is conducted through the use of conceptualizations
Deals with analysis that is conducted through the use of diagrams and statistics
Researcher is interested in knowing more about how different factors relate to a student perception about of m-learning service quality; for example: if different service or technique to adding student satisfaction and loyalty intention to the university m-learning services ‘make any difference'. These ambitions may indicate that we should use quantitative methods and address a student population in order to compare similarities and differences across different student groups in different faculties. In fact, many research projects start with quantities, and then dig a little deeper by deploying a bit of quality. It is quite usual for a single study to combine quantitative and qualitative methods and to use primary and secondary data (sekaran, 1992). There are two major advantages to employing multi-methods in the same study. First, different methods can be used for different purposes in a study. Second, multi-methods enable triangulation to take place. Triangulation refers to the use of different data collection methods within one study in order to ensure that the data are telling you what you think they are telling you in order to help us gain a deeper understanding of m-learning service quality perception phenomenon, quantitative approach as well as qualitative approach may be adopted throughout the research process.
5.2 Data Collection
Personally administering questionnaires will be for data collect, because this survey will confined to a few local areas and the organizations is willing and able to assemble groups of employees to respond to the questionnaires at the work place.
The first act will be by the researcher that the questionnaires by originally prepared in English and then will translated into Arabic. The researcher had taken into consideration of the translation method. The translation will be by an expert.
Furthermore, the researcher will invited some hospitals in Jordan that have implementation of EMRs to participate, and participations will strictly volunteered they will informed of their ability to withdraw at any time. After that the researcher will applied the application to get permission to distribute the questionnaires to the respondents. In addition, each hospital will determines assistance to guide the researcher to distribute the questionnaires.
The way of choice for collecting data for this study will be the questionnaire. Questionnaire will be will be divided into two sections as follows:
* Section 1 - demographics
* Section 2 - factors that effecting EMR system implementation adoption
In order to make the questionnaire anonymous and respect the participant's right to privacy, Section 1 will not contain any personally identifiable questions. Section 2 will be directed at identifying those factors which are considered to be a barrier for the implementation or use of EMR systems in Jordan. A few of these questions were modeled on a survey done by Sultan Sultan (2006) and Mary (2008), also a few of the questions in this section were modeled on questions used by Dr David Bomba for his survey(Bomba, 1998), with the rest of the questionnaire being designed by the researcher.
There are three such scales having different than each other will use in this research such as:
· Nominal scale: Scale of measurement in which only categories are produced as scores. Variables measured using a nominal scale is also known as "qualitative" variables. Examples are ethnic group membership, your college major, your sex (female/male), religious affiliation, eye color, political affiliation, nationality (sekaran, 1992).
· Ordinal scale: measurement scale in which objects or attributes are ordered but in which the intervals between points are not equal. are 1st 2nd and 3rd place finishers in a race, birth order, rank order of your 5 favorite movies from all time, rank your top 3 friends(sekaran, 1992).
· Interval scale: of measurement in which the distance between any two adjacent scores is the same as the distance between any other two adjacent scores, but there is no true zero point. Example is temperature (centigrade or Fahrenheit) (sekaran, 1992).
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Strongly Disagree Neutral or Agree Strongly
Undecided Undecided Agree
5.3 Demographics of Study Population
Therefore, for get a better sample for data analysis, this research we chooses seven different hospitals of the largest and famous hospitals in Jordan each of this one under a different administrative body. Also, some of these hospitals already have full implementation and partial implementation of EMRs. This variety and diversification adds to the stability of the sample will used for this research. In Jordan, all hospitals under the administration fall of one of the following entities:
o Government Hospitals
o Ministry of Defiance
o Private Sector
The biggest hospital from each of the above entities will chosen as a target for the questionnaire, all of the following hospitals are in different place for Jordan (North , South, East , West and Middle), This variety and diversification add to the stability of the sample that will used for this research they are a clear representation of all hospitals in Jordan owned by each entity since the systems deployed by these entities are the same across all of their hospitals.
The hospitals are:
1- The King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)
2-Al-Hussein Medical City for National Guard for Ministry of Defiance
3-Jordan Hospital the Private
6-Hope for Cancer Hospital
7- University of Jordan Hospital
5.4 Study Population
The questionnaire was formulated in such a way so as to collect information regarding the hypotheses described in last of second chapter. The questionnaire will targeted six groups of persons who work in healthcare for some Jordan's hospitals:
* Lab Technicians
* Medical Records Staff
* Administrative staff
Every group of them has to deal with a different part of EMR systems, since each group gets to work mostly with just one specific part of an EMR system. This will help to better understand which groups are more inclined to resist use of EMR systems and what the reasons for such resistance are considered to be predominant within each group.
5.5 Pilot Study
Pilot study in order to test the techniques and instrument in advance before running the actual or full-scale study too significant to conduct it(Miles & Huberman, 1994; sekaran, 1992).
However, pointed that a pilot test should be carried out using a smaller group of subjects or respondents who have similar characteristics to those of the subjects who will be used in the actual study and data collection. To test the realism of obtaining data under real situation, a pilot study will be undertaken by distributing the questionnaires to a number of selected medical staff that represents different levels of participation. The objective of the pilot study is to ensure that respondents understand the instructions, the questions asked, and that the instrument used is reliable and appropriate to the area being researched. As soon as all the respondents return the questionnaire, their input, comments, views and ideas will be used to improve and upgrade the level of reliability of the instrument(Miles & Huberman, 1994).
5.5.1 Calculation of Sample Size and Response Rate
Quota sampling is a form of proportionate "stratified sampling, in which a predetermined proportion of people are sampled from different groups, but on a convenience basis, also subjects are conveniently chosen from targeted groups to some predetermined number or quota(sekaran, 1992).
In this research will chose quota sample, and the responds will be some of the them from physicians, nurses, pharmacists, lab technicians, medical records staff and administrative staff at different hospitals in different rate depend on the among of every group.
But quota sampling is not generalizable like stratified random sampling but does offer some basis for further investigation. Sometimes, it is possible that the first stage of research will use a no probability design, and when more information is obtained; a probability design will be resorted to. Also, quota sampling very useful where minority group's participation in study is critical, not easily generalizable and quick and cheap to organize(sekaran, 1992).
Total of population size 8000 for all the staff at the seven hospitals. Sample of this research will be 376 responds according to Sekaran. The table 3 shows how accounts the sample by details (sekaran, 1992).
Table 3-2: Summary of Sampling Size with quota sample
Name Of Hospital
P = 2064
P = 2270
P = 178
P = 313
Medical Records Staff
P = 493
P = 2682
1.The King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)
N = 500
*S = 23
N = 600
S = 28
N = 20
S = 1
N = 50
S = 2
N = 100
S = 5
N = 730
S = 33
2. Hussein Medical City for National Guard for Ministry of Defense
N = 650
S = 30
N = 800
S = 37
N = 120
S = 0
N = 180
S = 8
N = 200
S = 9
N = 1000
S = 46
3. Jordan Private Hospital
N = 46
S = 2
N = 30
S = 1
N = 4
S = 0
N = 6
S = 0
N = 10
S = 1
N = 54
S = 3
4. Hospital Specialist
N = 68
S = 3
N = 40
S = 2
N = 5
S = 0
N = 8
S = 0
N = 20
S = 1
N = 59
5. Khalidy Hospital
N = 200
S = 9
N = 80
S = 4
N = 7
S = 0
N = 12
S = 1
N = 45
S = 2
N = 355
S = 16
6. Hope for Cancer Hospital
N = 200
S = 9
N = 170
S = 8
N = 7
S = 1
N = 12
S = 1
N = 37
S = 2
N = 74
S = 3
7. University of Jordan Hospital
N = 400
S = 18
N = 550
S = 25
N = 15
S = 1
N = 45
S = 2
N = 80
S = 4
N = 410
S = 19
TOTAL OF SAMPLE
Total of Population = 8000
Total of the Sample Size = 367(according to Sekaran )
Rate = Total of Population of any group / Total of Population for all groups
= 25.8% Rate for the group of physicians
Amount of physicians = Rate*367 (according to Sekaran )
= 25.8%*367= 95 Amount all physicians who will be respondents
* Number of sample(physicians) for every group
= 500 /2064*95
= 23 physician
5.6 Data Analysis
The collected data will entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) package to get the outcome of the results. The data will analyzed using the descriptive statistics and inferential analysis. The descriptive analysis takes into account the means, standard deviations and percentages. Salkind (2000) mentioned that mean is the sum of all the scores in a distribution divided by the number of observations while standard deviation is the average distance of each score in a distribution from the mean. Interpretation these methods are used to measure the variance in frequency and percentage. The descriptive analysis measures the percentage of returned questionnaires; numbers of respondents by gender ect. . Hypotheses will test and analysis using SPSS The initials ‘SPSS' stands. It is a powerful computer program which is capable of a wide variety of statistical analysis. SPSS is the standard statistical package used by governments, business and academia (Norušis, 1993).
A variety of statistical analyses will be conducted to analyze the data. The responses made to each statement and question in the questionnaire will be coded and the data will be entered into (SPSS) Version 16.0 for data analysis.
5.6.1 Determination of the Data
Determination of the data in this research by analyses included descriptive analysis. Analysis of differences including chi square, T-test, and analysis of relations including correlation to know or to measurement effects every independent variable alone on dependent variable, multiple regression to measurement the effects in depends variable together on depended variable .
In team of regression, Salkind (2000) explained that regression is the tendency for extreme scorers to move towards more typical levels of performance when retested. While Hair et al. (1998) discussed that regression coefficient are the numerical values of the parameter estimates directly associated with an independent variable. Multiple regression analysis is a regression model with two or more independent variables (Hair et at., 1998). In this study, the multiple regressions are used to identify the relationship between the dependent and independent variables from the aspect of level, direction and the strength of the relationship as to achieve the objective. The multiple regressions are also used to decide on the most important independent variable in order to explain the relationship to dependent variable (Kleinbaum, Kupper & Muller 1988). Bailan (1988) and Kerlinger (1986) stated that multiple regressions analysis is a powerful, practical, and realistic approach in many researches especially in the behavioral science researches.