Relativism theory

ABSTRACT

This essay clearly focused on ethical models which are derived from this CCTV such as Relativism, Deontology. Relativism is a theory in which the point of ethics that are brought out. Regarding that for every different culture there will are different codes. Deontology is a basic principal that states that one should make decisions based upon what would be the best for an entire group of people. Some ethical issues of CCTV have been discussed in essay which is related to Relativism and Deontology.

INTRODUCTION

The closed circuit telivison (CCTV) has become familiar in developed countries. The governments of the developed countries have begun the surveillance technology as a magic bullet to fight crime. In Britain only there are millions of cameras that are installed in lot of towns, cities and over 500 being added for every week. The privacy rights are difficult to define and certain amount of personal privacy that we are found. The CCTV surveillance represents the rights of law and the issue of the regulation and control.

Now-a-days the usage of CCTV has grown very exponentially. According to UK, millions of CCTV surveillance that are ranging from shopping areas, car parks, motors way even in houses. In 1990s CCTV surveillance technology has become as more important instrument in addressing the issues like visible part of crime and controlling nuisance prevention measures in town and city centres throughout the UK. Like this many countries are following. Britain has gone one step further by recording private conversations by mounting hidden microphones on CCTV cameras. The privacy rights are difficult to define and certain amount of personal privacy that we are found. The CCTV surveilliance represents the rights of law and the issue of the regulation and control. Some ways it is good advantage and have helped in decreasing crime levels, but this type of hidden microphones are lead to organized and concern the usage and data protection. The Information Commisioner (ICO) bans CCTV voice recording under the new codes of practice because it is severe breach to the civil liberties. The new code that introduced has strong support from both government and from the civil liberties compaigners.

ABOUT CCTV

CCTV cameras are used to observe the parts of closed rooms and operate continuously and required to monitor. CCTV's are mainly used in areas like banks, casinos, airports and different convenience stores. CCTV is not a new thing to believe, the surveillance has started from Elizabeth II by photographic surveillance in 1960. According to ISO report, the fact that Britain is often referred as surveillance society and has 4.2 million CCTV's on average of one CCTV per 14 people. Generally CCTV's are intended to protect against terrorism and criminal detection in different places. Now the hidden microphones are mounted on CCTV cameras and have been no privacy for the people. With this, someone is agreed and someone may not.

Function creep occurs when personal data collected and used for one purpose and to fulfil one function, migrate to other ones that intensify surveillance and privacy invasions beyond what was originally understood, and considered socially, ethically and legally acceptable. The purpose of using CCTV may be easily extended from identifying criminals and missing persons to include other purposes are increasingly required in police inquiries. ICO argues that unacceptable function creep is a common problem with all new technologies. According to me, I have some views about the idea of microphones on CCTV's and there are lot of views about the hidden microphones that are mounted on CCTV and we can discuss an argument of those views.

Facts about CCTV
  • Home office has finally withdrawn the usage of microphones on CCTV, but they are in some places, where the government feels there is a chance of terrorist attack.
  • CCTV's originally intended to protect against terrorism and in criminal deter and detection has gone to installation of CCTV in scholl toilets, to prevent bullying and vandalism as scholl claims.
  • Home office says that cctv survellaince have brought the criminal offences to substantially low percentage
One View:

United Kingdom is one of the richest nation and leading country in the world. It has undergone a terrorist attack in London underground system. To prevent those activities, it is need to increase the surveillance to protect the country. For example, usage of CCTV in schools, there are many laws to protect school children, which prevents made acquisitions on teachers. The parents often resist the fact that their children misbehaviour is being able to show the reduce number of times the children misbehaved in the classroom. And some one drop litter on the streets, with that council have introduced interactive CCTV in town centres to prevent this they placed CCTV's in the streets and it is really good. So that everyone can swear and keep the streets from rubbish and vandalism.

Microphones on CCTV will assist in deterring offenders and shows to public and criminals that government and public are taking the issue so seriously. There is need to development of present CCTV and things like voice recording face recognition cameras will further help in detecting crime. The globalized trends of late modernity have forced to increase the number of capacity of surveillance. The globalization has transformed the society that we live in, so there is no need of restructuring the society system. With the increased perception of risk reciprocates than increased levels of surveillance, especially voice recording is growing to provide more security. As far as privacy is concerned it is never a problem, for law abiding people this is a problem. CCTV's are almost the part of our lives, in fact many minority old vulnerable people feel that voice recording will further enhance the security and represents the case strongly. As per legality and conditional rights are concerned, there isn't any written constitutional laws, but there is some voluntarily set rules that data should be used and protected carefully and its completely legal to use CCTV's.

Another view:

Despite that, the highly surveillance society couldn't prevent the terrorists attack. Spying on conversations is morally wrong and it is intrusion of individual privacy. Usage of CCTV doesn't increase respect towards from the parents and a society we have to behave responsibly, so that we don't require moral policing. Microphones on CCTV will not assist in deterring offenders and shows to public and criminals that the government and public are taking the issue so seriously.

Globalization has transformed the society we live in, so there is need to educate society about the threats and to inform the police. Voice recording is a serious breach of privacy which is ethically wrong. As per legality and constitutional rights are concerned there isn't any written constitutional laws, hence there is urgent requirement of amendments.

The ICO believes that the majority of systems did not reduce crime, and where there was a reduction, it was likely not due to CCTV.Some safest places and circumstances also monitored by people which are objectives of many CCTV systems were undefined. Information Commissioner's found that 70 per cent of people opposed the idea of CCTV cameras recording conversations.

ETHICS OF PRIVACY

The concept of ethics of privacy is to prove the moral quality of privacy and there are two difficulties. One of the difficulty is, the privacy debate is too expensive and the second one is the ethics of the concept is more complex. The philosophy of the ethics has discussed mainly by ancient Greeks. The principles that represent the ethics of privacy is both good and bad. When based on the individuals, it is often described as a healthy personal development. Respecting privacy is the respect of others and the autonomy of others. Privacy not only allows developing healthy relationships and it is also required to the accepted procedure of secret ballots.

There are many ethics that related to the privacy. By that way there are two ethical theories that are discussed in this module, that are Relativism and Deontology.

RELATIVISM

Moral relativism is not a prominent topic in philosophy or elsewhere until twentieth century. But in classic Greek world, both the historian Herodotus and sophist Protagoras appeared to endorse some form of relativism. It should also be noted that the ancient Chinese Daoist philosopher Zhuangze put forward a nonobjectivist view that is sometimes interpreted as a kind of relativism.

Moral subjectivism

Morality is not independent on society, it depends only on individual

  • Reduces social co-ordination to struggle
  • Incoherent ethics must be grounded.
Ethical relativism:

The theory that there are no universally valid moral principles binding all people at all times, but rather all are valid relative to culture or individual choice.

  • Cultural relativism: Empirical observation of that diversity exists among cultures in moral principle and practice. (A response to ethnocentrism: Customs of all others seen through lenses of own culture's beliefs and values.)
  • Dependency thesis: All moral principles derive their validity from cultural acceptance
Consequences:

There is no independent basis for criticizing the morality of any culture but one's own.

Any actual morality is as valid as every other, and more valid that ideal moralities (since they have no adherents).

Reformers are wrong since they oppose cultural standards.

Civil disobedience is morally wrong so long as the society agrees on the relevant law.

Laws have no basis - particular subcultures may not agree with certain laws.

Moral objectivism:

It holds the moral principles are valid roles of action that generally be adhered to, but may be overbidden by other moral principles in cases of conflict.

Not as same as moral objectivism, the idea that there exists just one principle and it never be violated.

The principles are not arbitrary as the relativist holds, beacause of the reasons they are neccesary to social cohension and human flourishing in the face of human needs.

Forms of Relativism

Generally relativism refers to many different ideas. In moral philosophy relativism is usally an emphirical, Meta ethical. As a matter of emphirical fact, there are deep widespread moral disagreements across different societies and moreover when compared to hidden microphones that are mounted on CCTV. As the Meta ethical position usually concerns the moral judgements in different definitions. It generally relates to fundamental moral disagreements on the basis of argument that moral objectivists usually contended.

The relativism sometimes associated with normative person concerning and think about persons with whom we morally disagree. In particular it is known that not to interfere with actions of persons that based on moral judgements. This is thought that it is need to apply relationships between society and the socities with which we have significant moral disagreements. According to the theory of relativism, it says that what is ethically right or wrong depends on what the culture says is right or wrong, depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced. The same action may be morally right in one society but be morally wrong in another. In the case of CCTV same ethical problem is being done.

Relativism and Tolerance

Relativism is associated with normative position usually showing how people ought to behave towards those with whom they are morally disagreeing. The most prominent normative position in this concern is the tolerance. In the most recent years, the idea is that the tolerant has been increasingly accepted in some ways and at the same time others have understood and justify that tolerance has become less obvious. It is having a policy of not interfering with actions of persons that are based on moral judgements. The context of discussion is often, but not always moral disagreements between two societies.

DEONTOLOGY THEORY

The word deontology derives from the Greek word duty and science. The moral philosophy of deontology is one of the kinds of normative theories regarding which choices are morally required. This ethical theory is fully based on the concept of CCTV with hidden microphones that are legally acceptable or morally acceptable and the laws that are behind the surviellence. Deontology mainly falls in the domain of moral theories that guide and access the choice of what kind of person we are and should be.

The deontology theories are understood in certain consequentialist and different problems that rised in the survey and provide helpful to take the deontological theories. The deontological theories explain the potential of certain people have moral undertstanding and hold the moral duties. The moral duties are thought to be deontological and regarding the environment duties to particular people and has an individual right to realize. The compelling arguments for its introduction into public spaces as means of ensuring public safety have led to CCTV cameras perched high above every street corner within towns and cities. According to some mixed theories, those who are ready to hold the deontology have the reasons that to cover the morality and lot of advantages are there to expand the relative reasons. Everyone needs to expand the coverage of different consequentialist reasons like positive duties. Deontologists' talent need to the content that allows the outcomes of consequentialism. This requires morality of the individual privacy in a detailed content and looks like consequentialist of norms with extreme roles and clauses.

Some agree that deontological duties are the duty to obey law and some depends upon the law on practical authority. Everyone has the law of moral functions that are taught and depends upon the failures of co-ordination and decision making costs.

The laws also obey the moral function by performing the legal roles and determine the capability of guiding and co-ordinating conduct. There are many moral objects that in turns easily determine the facts. The roles that perform the moral function by ignoring the facts and those are normally significant. The rules that prescribe for those who violate are morally compel through legal reasons. For moral good consequences, law mandates the act of blameless in violating it and as a result of troubling deontologist. The hidden cameras that are mounted on CCTV as per deontology ethical theories one of the outcome on legal obligation. The non consequentialist obligations are crucial of any strips; the structure of such type of obligations has been in terms of exclusionary reasons. All the views and reasons for that are competing and rather exclude for different purposes. There is lot of gap between the officials that are on their roles and also ordinary citizens.

One view of this, there is many reasons that to enforce laws and several reasons are fail to obligate those against and the laws will be enforced to obey. On every point of view, several reasons are there for the privacy and security purposes and some will agree with that and one and some may not agree.

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