Window and Linux

1. X Window System

The X Window System or also known as “X” is actually an open source system that been developed in the early 1980s by Stanford University and MIT that been aided by IBM itself. This system supports multiplatform operating system although it usually has been used in UNIX environment. The X Window System implements the client/server method for managing a graphical user interface between computers that interconnected by a network. In this system, it separates the function of the graphical user interfaces where computers runs the program while the other computer displays the graphics. In this implementation, X Server responsible to display the graphic while the X Client act as a program that prompt the X Server on how to display the graphic therefore its reversible from the usual client/server perspectives. The X Windows System allow the client to independently customize how they would like the graphical user interface displayed therefore this system is flexible to be used in many ways and that one of the reason why it still been used after 30 years it been developed.

2. History of Open Source and Linux

Open source software actually has already been introduced in the late 1960s where IBM releases their free software that come with the bundle of its commercial computers. The software can be share among all the users without cost and it come with the source code itself that can be modified and improved. After that the introduction of retails software have dominate the software market which means the users have no rights to redistribute it and no source code been given. In the early 1980s, the open source software movement have been active again, where Richard Stallman the former programmer at MIT introduced and launched the GNU Project where the ultimate goal is to develop a free open source operating system. Until early 1990s, many open source operating system that been developed that day using a UNIX as a kernel and during that time, the creator of Linux, Linus Torvalds come with an idea to create an independent operating system therefore he write a new operating system kernel as a hobby and didn't expected that his creation made a major effects on the operating system development during that time. The development of Linux after that is been heavily focused by all the famous programmer and thus become more and more popular till today, where majority of open source operating system using a Linux kernel.

3. Summary of Linux Operating System

Linux actually is a kernel that been embedded inside operating system that act as the core for the operating system. Kernel is like a brain for operating system where it interacts with the hardware while running the operating system and it is the first program to get loaded when the system starts and runs until the session terminated. Unlike bios where it is hardware dependent, the kernel itself is software dependent. Linux kernel is using monolithic type of kernel which means all operating system related code are stuffed in a single module and available, executable as a single file which will provide better functioning and faster processes. Because of the free open source of the Linux kernel itself, there are many distribution company developed an operating system using the kernel such as Redhat, Fedora, Debian, Novell's SUSE Linux, Ubuntu and Mandrake. As for this lab activity, I personally choose a Fedora 12 as a Linux operating system because this operating system is suitable for new Linux user where all the commands and instructions are easy to understand therefore suitable for beginner Linux user.

4. The Differences between Linux and Windows

Function

Linux

Windows

Managing Program

Allows a single user to work on two or more programs at the same time.

Supports two or more processors running programs at the same time. This function will increase processor speed.

It can run on different processor whether it is Intel or AMD. Developed with source code that can perform in different platform.

Enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously.

Allows a single user to work on two or more programs at the same time.

Supports two or more processors running programs at the same time. This function will increase processor speed.

It can run on different processor whether it is Intel or AMD. Developed with source code that can perform in different platform.

Managing Memory

Allows different parts of a single program to run separately.

Support multiple control process within a single process memory space.

Has memory protection between processes. If one of the programs is not responding, the others still can be use.

Only load the used program. The others will be sent to hard disk portion. Letting user run larger applications and support more users.

Multiple processes can use the same memory to execute programs.

Use virtual memory in hard drive to optimize the used of RAM.

Allocates a portion in the hard disk to function as additional RAM.

The area of the hard disk for virtual memory is called swap file.

The technique of swapping item items between memory and storage is called paging.

Slower than usual RAM.

Administrating Security

Have a password. Users are not allowed to set an easily guessable password.

User must have root password, so that user can recover the machine without trouble.

Multiple users can switch between accounts without having to restart the computer.

Allows user to store the different user names and passwords that users uses to access resources on a network.

Has an administrator account to control the computer. This account can't be deleted, disabled, removed, or modified.

Provide hint-log on to ease the user if they forgot the password.

5. Print Screen of your Linux

6. The Strength and Weakness of Linux

Strength

Weakness

High stability

Linux kernel is much more stable compared to other kernel such as Windows that user always been caught by the blue screen and system crash.

Fewer desktop software title

Many applications and games nowadays come with Windows compatibility and only certain of it come with the Linux compatibility.

Low cost

Linux is open source operating system that can be installed without need to pay to anyone, which means it is free.

Less user-friendly

The Linux operating system is less user friendly because the targeted user are mostly the intermediate user who has been familiarised with the common operating system functions.

High availability of server software

Many server using Linux platform nowadays therefore the software that meant to be used in server is always easy to be obtained and most of it free.

Rapid development

Because of the open source, the source code can be easily improvised by anyone under GNU license and the people who contributed for this operating system are a lot and most of it are expertise user.

Advanced networking capabilities

Linux network capabilities scale is by default larger than any other operating system which can integrate with many network features such as IP masquerading.

7. A List of Linux Commands

accept

access

aclocal

aconnect

acpi

acpi_available

acpid

addr2line

addresses

agetty

alsactl

amidi

amixer

anacron

aplay

aplaymidi

apm

apmd

apropos

apt

ar

arch

arecord

arecordmidi

arp

as

at

atd

atq

atrm

audiosend

aumix

autoconf

autoheader

automake

autoreconf

autoscan

autoupdate

badblocks

banner

basename

bash

batch

bc

biff

bison

bzcmp

bzdiff

bzgrep

bzip2

bzless

bzmore

c++

c++filt

cal

cardctl

cardmgr

cat

cc

cdda2wav

cdparanoia

cdrdao

cdrecord

cfdisk

chage

chattr

chfn

chgrp

chkconfig

chmod

chown

chpasswd

chroot

chrt

chsh

chvt

cksum

clear

cmp

col

colcrt

colrm

column

comm

compress

cp

cpio

cpp

crond

crontab

csplit

ctags

cupsd

cut

cvs

date

dd

deallocvt

debugfs

depmod

devdump

df

diff

diff3

dig

dir

dircolors

dirname

disable

dlpsh

dmesg

dnsdomainname

dnssec-keygen

dnssec-makekeyset

dnssec-signkey

dnssec-signzone

doexec

domainname

dosfsck

du

dump

dumpe2fs

dumpkeys

e2fsck

e2image

e2label

echo

edquota

egrep

eject

elvtune

emacs

enable

env

envsubst

esd

esd-config

esdcat

esdctl

esddsp

esdmon

esdplay

esdrec

esdsample

etags

ex

expand

expr

factor

false

fc-cache

fc-list

fdformat

fdisk

fetchmail

fgconsole

fgrep

file

find

finger

fingerd

flex

fmt

fold

formail

free

fsck

ftp

ftpd

fuser

g++

gawk

gcc

gdb

getent

getkeycodes

gpasswd

gpg

gpgsplit

gpgv

gpm

gprof

grep

groff

groffer

groupadd

groupdel

groupmod

groups

grpck

grpconv

gs

gunzip

gzexe

gzip

halt

hdparm

head

hexdump

host

hostid

hostname

htdigest

hwclock

iconv

id

ifconfig

imapd

inetd

info

init

insmod

install

ipcrm

ipcs

iptables

iptables-restore

iptables-save

isodump

isoinfo

isosize

isovfy

ispell

join

kbd_mode

kbdrate

kernelversion

kill

killall

killall5

klogd

kudzu

last

lastb

lastlog

ld

ldconfig

ldd

less

lesskey

lftp

lftpget

link

ln

loadkeys

locale

locate

lockfile

logger

login

logname

logrotate

look

losetup

lpadmin

lpinfo

lpmove

lpq

lpr

lprm

lpstat

ls

lsattr

lspci

lsmod

lsusb

m4

mail

mailq

mailstats

mailto

make

makedbm

makemap

man

manpath

mattrib

mbadblocks

mcat

mcd

mcopy

md5sum

mdel, mdeltree

mdir

mdu

merge

mesg

metamail

metasend

mformat

mimencode

minfo

mkdir

mkdosfs

mke2fs

mkfifo

mkfs

mkfs.ext3

mkisofs

mklost+found

mkmanifest

mknod

mkraid

mkswap

mktemp

mlabel

mmd

mmount

mmove

modinfo

modprobe

more

mount

mountd

mpartition

mpg123

mpg321

mrd

mren

mshowfat

mt

mtools

mtoolstest

mtype

mv

mzip

named

namei

nameif

netstat

newaliases

newgrp

newusers

nfsd

nfsstat

nice

nm

nohup

nslookup

nsupdate

objcopy

objdump

od

openvt

passwd

paste

patch

pathchk

perl

pidof

ping

pinky

pmap

portmap

poweroff

pppd

pr

praliases

printenv

printf

ps

ptx

pwck

pwconv

pwd

python

quota

quotacheck

quotaon

quotaoff

quotastats

raidstart

ramsize

ranlib

rarpd

rcp

rdate

rdev

rdist

rdistd

readcd

readelf

readlink

reboot

reject

rename

renice

repquota

reset

resize2fs

restore

rev

rexec

rexecd

richtext

rlogin

rlogind

rm

rmail

rmdir

rmmod

rndc

rootflags

route

routed

rpcgen

rpcinfo

rpm

rsh

rshd

rsync

runlevel

rup

ruptime

rusers

rusersd

rwall

rwho

rwhod

sane-find-scanner

scanadf

scanimage

scp

screen

script

sdiff

sed

sendmail

sensors

seq

setfdprm

setkeycodes

setleds

setmetamode

setquota

setsid

setterm

sftp

sh

sha1sum

showkey

showmount

shred

shutdown

size

skill

slabtop

slattach

sleep

slocate

snice

sort

split

ssh

ssh-add

ssh-agent

ssh-keygen

ssh-keyscan

sshd

stat

statd

strace

strfile

strings

strip

stty

su

sudo

sum

swapoff

swapon

sync

sysctl

sysklogd

syslogd

tac

tail

tailf

talk

talkd

tar

taskset

tcpd

tcpdump

tcpslice

tee

telinit

telnet

telnetd

test

tftp

tftpd

time

tload

tmpwatch

top

touch

tr

tracepath

traceroute

troff

true

tset

tsort

tty

tune2fs

tunelp

ul

umount

uname

uncompress

unexpand

unicode_start

unicode_stop

uniq

uptime

useradd

userdel

usermod

users

usleep

uudecode

uuencode

uuidgen

vdir

vi

vidmode

vim

vmstat

volname

w

wall

warnquota

watch

wc

wget

whatis

whereis

which

who

whoami

whois

write

xargs

xinetd

yacc

yes

ypbind

ypcat

ypinit

ypmatch

yppasswd

yppasswdd

yppoll

yppush

ypserv

ypset

yptest

ypwhich

ypxfr

zcat

zcmp

zdiff

zdump

zforce

zgrep

zic

zless

zmore

znew

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