CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
A research methodology presents in detail the methods used in conducting the research. The process of the research began with the development of the research framework. This framework consists of the structure of independent variables (consumer expectations, consumer attitude, consumer innovativeness, consumer perceived usefulness and consumer involvement) and dependent variable (effectiveness of internet advertising). Next, hypotheses will be developed to determine the relationship among variables. Hypothesis development is an assumption justification of correlated relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. Besides, this research is done based on the data gathered from primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consist of questionnaires while the secondary data consist of data that are obtained from journals and articles. Furthermore, method of data collection and data analysis will be explained. This methodology helps to implement the study of consumer characteristics that influence the effectiveness of internet advertising.
3.2 Research Framework
Research framework is the foundation on which entire research project is based. The research framework elaborates the relationships among the variables, explains the theory underlying these relations, and describes the nature and direction of the relationship. This study will examine and investigate consumer expectations, consumer attitude, consumer innovativeness, consumer perceived usefulness and consumer involvement (independent variable) influence on effectiveness of internet advertising (dependent variable). The methodology of this study is developed based on this research framework shown below.
Adapted From: Palanisamy and Wong (2003). Impact of Online Consumer
Characteristics and Web-based Banner Advertising Effectiveness.
3.3 Hypothesis of Study
Hypotheses are set after identification of the significant variables and established the relationships among both dependent and independent variables through the logical reasoning in the research framework as well as refer to previous study done by the researchers. Therefore, once we have identified the significant variables and established the relationships among them through reasoning in the research framework, we need to test these relationships through this systematic approach.
Prior study addressed that intention for the consumers to click for further viewing the advertisement is influenced by expectation of the consumers after screening the advertisement (Li and Bukovac, 1999). Consequently, the effectiveness of advertising is facilitated by consumer expectation (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003). The above discussion provides the basis for Hypothesis 1.
H1: Consumer expectations have a significant influence on the effectiveness of internet advertising.
Base on the research conducted by Zhou (2002); Chen and Wells (1999), effectiveness of websites, systems and advertising is determined by consumer attitude. In addition, there is a positive relationship between consumer attitude toward the advertisement and the brand as well as purchase intention (Bruner and Kumar, 2000). This discussion is leading to Hypothesis 2.
H2: Consumer attitude has a significant influence on the effectiveness of internet advertising.
There is empirical results explained that relationship between need for stimulation and innovativeness is positive and significant. Diffusion of innovation is accelerated by consumers' innovativeness as the effectiveness of the new product marketing efforts such as promotion and advertising is enhanced (Kumar and Krishnan, 2002; Garber, Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2004). Therefore it is posited to Hypothesis 3.
H3: Consumer innovativeness has a significant influence on the effectiveness of internet advertising.
According to the previous research, Gentry and Calatone (2002); Koufaris (2002) claimed that perceived usefulness an essential predictor of consumer intention to use a new technology as well as in other setting including consumer adoption to online tools such as internet advertising and consumer intention to shop online. Besides that, consumers perceived usefulness may influenced by the popularity, attractiveness, and relevance message of the advertising (Bhat, Bevans and Sengupta, 2002). Thus based on this discussion, the study derives Hypothesis 4.
H4: Consumer perceived usefulness have a significant influence on the effectiveness of internet advertising
In the advertising processing context, high accessibility of the internet advertising is accomplished by high involvement consumers and their memories of an advertising message are increased (Garner, Mitchell and Russo, 1985). Similarly, Cho and Leckenby (2000) indicated high involvement rates will contribute to high click through rates which represent the effectiveness of internet advertising. Hence, Hypothesis 5 is proposed.
H5: Consumer involvements have a significant influence on the effectiveness of internet advertising.
3.4 Sampling Procedures
In this section, sampling procedures begins with specifying and defining the target respondents. The target respondents will be discussed as well as identified the sample size and the sampling method. In addition, it begins with focus on who are the respondents, how many of the respondents will be involved in this research and what are the sampling methods used in the sampling procedures.
3.4.1 Sample size and target respondents
The target respondents of this research are the Generation Y age between 15-32 years old who engaged in internet surfing. Generation Y include secondary school students, university students, fresh graduates and working community between 15-32 years old but most of the Generation Y who engaged in surfing internet is the university students in Malaysia. Since this study will take in place in Multimedia University (Melaka Campus) so mostly the target respondents are recruited from the MMU students. The targets respondents will be randomly selected from the students appear from different gender, races, faculties, and nationalities. The sample size for the study is determined by a rule of thumb by Roscoe (1975). Following the rule of thumb, sample sizes between 30 and 500 are sufficient for most research (Roscoe, 1975). Hence, the sample size of the target respondents for this research is 200 students.
3.4.2 Sampling Method
In this study, nonprobability sampling techniques was employed which is not based on the theory of probability. Nonprobability sampling is defined as sampling techniques that do not use chance selection procedures, but that instead rely on the researcher's personal judgment and convenient (Malhotra, 2009). The respondents were selected based on convenient sampling. This is a nonprobability sampling technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements (Malhotra, 2009). The reason this survey method was employed because it was easier to develop and time saving. Besides that, accessible, easy to measure and cooperative are also the advantages.
3.5 Sources of Data
The information and data gathered for this research was obtained from primary data and various sources of secondary data. Primary data is the original resources which directly collect for the research from the respondents. On the other hands, secondary data is the existing data which have already been collected and compiled by other researcher for some purposes.
3.5.1 Primary data
Primary data is originally source collect by researcher for specific reason and to addressing the problem. The primary data of this research is obtained through distribution of questionnaires to the target audience which is the MMU students who engaged in surfing the internet. There were several ways to collect the primary data such as structured interview and self-completion questionnaire. However, in this research self-completion questionnaire is employed to collect the required information since this method is easier and simple.
3.5.2 Secondary data
Secondary data is gathered from the existing sources like journals, articles, books and internet databases. Most of the sources are acquired by browsing digital library and online database websites like Emerald, Science Direct, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), and EBSCO Host. From these online database websites, secondary data in the form of journals and articles is available for the research. These journals and articles are part of the secondary data which used as the resources which is important for the research. Besides that, information and data also gathered from the Internet such as Google and Yahoo search engines and online book. Furthermore, other references also sought from compiled resources from the university library and books
3.6 Data Collection
Structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions will be used in this study to collect data from the respondent. It means the questions have a list of possible options or answers from which the respondents must choose. It is easy to obtain answers, enhance the comparability of answers, making it easier to show the relationship between variables and to make comparisons between respondents and it is also easy for respondents to complete the survey.
The questionnaire comprises two sections which are Part A designed to capture the demographic profile and data related to the respondents' background as well as preferences of the respondents exposure to different types of internet advertising, Part B measured the independent variables of the study by using Five Likert Scale. It ranges from "1" Strongly Disagree, "2" Disagree, "3" Neutral, "4" Agree and "5" for Strongly Disagree. There are six sections: effectiveness of internet advertising, consumer expectations, consumer attitudes, consumer innovativeness, consumer perceived usefulness and finally consumer involvement.
3.6.1 Measure Dimension
Effectiveness of Internet Advertising
Numerous forms such as attitude formation, familiarity, recall and recognition can be used to measured effectiveness of internet advertising (Palanisamy and Wong 2003). Similarly, recall and recognition of components of the advertisement is used to measure effectiveness of advertising (Keng and Lin, 2006). For instance, these measurements are included in this study. The respondents will be asked to about attitude formation, familiarity, recall and recognition to internet advertising.
Measurement of consumer expectations will focus on price, quality of service and quality of interaction (Beisel and Kenneth, 1995). The questionnaire is constructed to examine on respondent's expectation focus price of the product, quality of the service being promoted, quality of the interaction by the business being promoted through the advertising (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003). In this study, consumer expectations are measured focus on the above aspect.
The measurement model for consumer attitude is adapted from Korgoankar and Wolin (2002). In this research, consumer attitude is measured in term of goodness, likeability, essentialness and contribution to product.
To measure consumer innovativeness, the constructs include desire for unique product (Lynn and Harris, 1996), consumer novelty seeking (Manning, Bearden and Madden, 1995) and consumer independent judgment making (Manning et al., 1995).
Consumer Perceive Usefulness
The measurement model for consumer perceived usefulness is adapted from Davis (1989) with appropriate modifications to make them relevant to the present study. Perceived usefulness is determined by productivity and insight in decision making (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003). The respondents are test in term of productivity, insight and ability to make further decision.
Consumer involvement comprises three antecedents which are characteristic of consumer, the stimulus and the situation. Consumer involvement is determined by the personal involvement inventory (PII) developed by Zaichkowsky (1994). It focuses on importance, interest, relevance and appeal. Importance is significant attached to the advertisement; interest is the intellectual or emotional involvement with the advertisement; relevance is related to what someone is seeking and appeal is a pleasing or enjoyable emotion that is evoked by advertising (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003).
3.7 Data Analysis
After collected all the data from the selected sample of the population, data analysis and hypothesis testing will be carried out. In this research, the Cronbach's alpha () or inter-item consistency reliability method was selected to determine the reliability of the scales. Coefficients of the five independent and dependent variables are obtained by Cronbach's alpha reliability. Cronbach's alpha is computed in terms of the average intercorrelations among the items measuring the concept. The closer Cronbach's alpha is to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability.
Besides, descriptive statistics will be used to obtain mean, median, mode, standard deviations and variance of the profile respondent in order to measure central tendencies and dispersion. These descriptive statistics are obtained for the interval-scaled independent and dependent variables. Moreover, inferential statistics is used to make inference or conclusions from the analysis of data. Correlation analysis will be used to validate the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. Additionally, the strength and variation of the relationship will be test using the regression analysis. The data analysis method used was shown in the table.