Data Collection, Snap Short and Design
First of all I want to give thanks NCC to give me such of Assignment named Internet System Asministrator. It was so important and interesting to me. At the starting our module leader Mr Md Ashik Mahmud gave this Assignment. When this Assignment stated a lot of problem I was faced such as Data collection, Snap short and Design etc. But nothing can stop me because of my hard work and the help of our Module leader Mr Md Ashik Mahmud and friends also. I have finished my Assignment properly.
Problem statement- Write a brief (approximately 600 words) report comprising of the following features of service- oriented Architecture.
a) Define the following terms used on service-oriented architectures:
- Web service
- Web service description (WSD)
b) Briefly describe
- How does a web service distinguish itself from a web application?
- What are web services platform elements?
- The features which distinguish WSDL (Web Services Description Language) form UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration).
- Hoe UDDI Services are used inside an organization?
- How UDDI Services can be managed?
- What is SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)?
1) Web service- Web services, usually including some combination of programming and data, are made available from a business's web server for web users and other web connected programs. Web services are the next logical step for web-based computing and will have a profound impact on the way in which business is conducted on the web in the future. As they involve many different systems communicating with each other, they are particularly important following the proliferation in the range of computing devices like PDA's, mobile telephones, hand held computers etc.
2) Provider- The provider or service provider creates a web service and possibly publishes its interface and access information to the service registry. Each provider must decide which services to expose, how to make trade-offs between security and easy availability, how to price the services, or how to exploit them for other value. The provider also has to decide what category the service should be listed in for a given broker service and what sort of trading partner agreements are required to use the service. It registers what services are available within it, and lists all the potential service recipients.
3) Requester- The service consumer or web service client or requester locates entries in the broker registry using various find operations and then binds to the service provider in order to invoke one of its web services. Whichever service the service-consumers need, they have to take it into the brokers, then bind it with respective service and then use it. They can access multiple services if the service provides multiple services.
4) Web service description (WSD) - The mechanics of the message exchange is documented in a Web service description (WSD). The WSD is a machine process able specification of the Web service's interface written in WSDL. It defines the message formats, data types, transport protocols, and transport serialization formats that should be used between the requester agent and the provider agent. It also specifies one or more network locations at which a provider agent can be invoked, and may provide some information about the message exchange pattern that is expected. In essence, the service description represents an agreement governing the mechanics of interacting with that service.
5) Semantics- The semantics of a Web service is the shared expectation about the behavior of the service in particular in response to messages that are sent to it. In effect this is the contract between the requester entity and the provider entity regarding the purpose and consequences of the interaction. Although this contract represents the overall agreement between the requester entity and the provider entity on how and why their respective agents will interact. It is not necessarily written or explicitly negotiated. It may be explicit or implicit, oral or written, human oriented and it may be a legal agreement or an informal agreement.
b) Briefly describing-
1. Distinguish between web service and web application-
Web service is a programmable unit of software that can be accessed over the Internet and used remotely. It can be used internally by a single application or exposed externally over the Internet for use by multiple applications. Web Services are services with standard interfaces that just expose a behavior.
Where as Web Applications can be defined as all the Web pages (.aspx, .jsp, and HTML files), handlers, modules, executable code, and other files (such as images and configuration files) that can be invoked from a Web server.
2. What are web services platform elements-?
Web Services have three basic platform elements: SOAP, WSDL and UDDI.
SOAP- SOAP is an XML-based protocol to let applications exchange information over HTTP or SOAP is a protocol for accessing a Web Service.
- SOAP is a communication protocol
- SOAP is platform independent
- SOAP is simple and extensible
WSDL- WSDL is an XML-based language for locating and describing Web services.
- WSDL stands for Web Services Description Language
- WSDL is a W3C standard
- WSDL is used to locate Web services
UDDI- UDDI is a directory service where companies can register and search for Web services.
- UDDI stands for Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
- UDDI communicates via SOAP
- UDDI is built into the Microsoft .NET platform
3. Features which distinguish WSDL and UDDI- Web Services Description Language or WSDL an XML-based language for defining Web services. WSDL developed by Microsoft and IBM. WSDL describes the protocols and formats used by the service. WSDL descriptions can be housed in a UDDI directory, and the combination of WSDL and UDDI is expected to promote the use of Web services worldwide.
Universal Description, Discovery and Integration an industry initiative for a universal business registry of Web services turned over to the stewardship of OASIS in 2002. UDDI originally developed by Ariba, IBM, Microsoft and others. UDDI is designed to enable software to automatically discover and integrate with services on the Web. Using a UDDI browser, humans can also review the information contained in the registry, which is a network of servers on the Internet similar to the Domain Name System (DNS).
4. How UDDI services are used- Web Services are designed to provide easier business to business (B2B) integration among enterprises. UDDI defines a standard way for businesses to list their services and discover each other on the Internet. Due to security concerns organizations prefer to build their own private UDDI registries in their corporate network which are only accessible by invited business partners. Since an organization may only want the right business partners to see only the right service information they have permission to see access control mechanisms inside the private registry are desirable.
5. How UDDI Services can be managed- UDDI services can be managed via the MMC snap-in. Any one can view the Properties dialog and view or modify a number of parameters from this dialog including viewing the site key. Modifying group permissions like Administrator, Coordinator, Publisher, and User with selecting various security options.
6. What is SOAP ( Simple Object Access Protocol)- SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on extensible Markup Language (XML) as its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols most notably Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and HTTP for message negotiation and transmission.
Problem statement- On a computer having Microsoft windows XP environment, open the Microsoft Management console and the open the Computer Management snap-in. Show how you can perform the following activates. Write a brief report (approximately 800 words) providing evidence (relevant screen shorts, explanation band comments on result) of having performed these activities.
a) Manage services
b) Monitor your system
c) Manage storage
d) Manage hardware setting
e) Monitor utilization of operating system resource.
f) Manage user and group
g) Configure data counter logs, trace logs and alert logs.
h) Show that IIS is installed on your machine. If not do so.
i) Ping your server by IP address as well as by name.
j) Show that "Start" and "Stop" works for IIS.
Microsoft Management Console snap-in- To perform the given activates, first of all I open Run program and type mmc and press OK button. Then a consol box will come.
a) Manage service- Then open service and application window. After that there will a service window will show in the right side. There some service item will show. Give stop and restart condition.
b) Monitor your system- Then go to control panel and open Administrative tools. There will be a performance tool for monitoring system.
c) Manage storage- Then go to storage in console. Click 1 time and there will show the three type disk information.
d) Manage hardware setting- Then goes to the Device manager for manage hardware setting
e) Monitor utilization of operating system resource- Click start button and go accessories. Then go to system tool and open system information tool.
f) Manage user and group- For manage the user and group click Local user and group and there show two kind of folder. These are Uses and Groups. Click user and group and then will show the group account and user accountof the system.
g) Configure data counter logs, trace logs and alert logs: Then goes to Performance Logs and Alerts. Click and there will three logs. They are counter logs, trace logs, alert logs.
h) Show that IIS is installed on your machine. If not do so- Now I will install Internet Information Service (IIS) for my default web browser. At first go to add or remove program and click add/ remove windows component. Click IIS and then inter a bootable XP operating CD for install.
i) Ping your server by IP address as wall as by name- For ping my serve, go to run program and click CMD. Then ping first in numeric IP and then by name.
- Pinging by IP
- Then ping by name
j) Show that "Start" and "Stop" works for IIS: Now it shows to how the website will work. First create a webpage and open from IIS in console1. click IIS and there will show the default web site. Then add the webpage in the website folder and brows. If the connections are right, then the webpage will show. Click for start the website and then stop it .
Problem statement: Prepare a brief (approximately 1000 words) report based on the following:
a) Briefly describe the following:
- Domain Name System (DNS)
- Internet protocol (IP) address
- IP version 4 addresses
- DNS name server
- DNS Infrastructure
- Fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
- Network ID
- Subnet mask
b) Briefly discuss the common vulnerabilities of DNS
c) What measures can be taken to secure DNS
d) Carry out the following activities:
- Identify the class of IP address that will be used for an organization having a network of between 1000 to 1500 computer. Explain your reasons for arriving at this solution.
- Using http:// www.4domains.com (or a similar website), check that the domain name you desire is available ( assuming that it would be registered)
- Design a subnetting system for the same organization described in part (d) 1. Each subnet should contain no more than 100 computers. Show the overall network diagram. Support your proposal with sound technical arguments.
- Describe the range of IP addresses in at least two of the subnets.
a) Briefly describing-
1) Domain Name System (DNS) - DNS or Domain Name System is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. Domain Name System (DNS) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard name service that allows computers to register and resolve domain names. The DNS makes it possible to assign domain names to organizations independent of the routing of the numerical IP address. In other words, DNS is a system that translates domain names into IP addresses. This is necessary because computers only make use of IP addresses yet we use only human readable names since the names are easier to remember than IP addresses. Without this DNS resolution, the internet would be a very inconvenient place.
2) Internet Protocol (IP) addresses- Internet protocol address are identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol to route the messages based on the IP address of the destination. The designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number with 4 numbers separated by periods and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 or IPv4 is still in use today. Each number can be 0 to 255. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the resulting depletion of available addresses, a new addressing system called IPv6 using 128 bits for the address developed in 1995. Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are usually displayed in human-readable notations, such as 126.96.36.199 for IPv4 and 2201:db8:0:5612:0:789:2:1 for IPv6.
3) IP version 4 addresses- Internet Protocol version 4 or IPv4 is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. IPv4 is still by far the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol. IPv4 is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched Link Layer networks like Ethernet. IPv4 uses 32-bit 4byte per an addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique addresses. However, some are reserved for special purposes such as private networks minimum 18 million addresses or multicast addresses minimum 270 million addresses. This reduces the number of addresses that can potentially be allocated for routing on the public Internet. As addresses are being incrementally delegated to end users, an IPv4 address shortage has been developing, however network addressing architecture redesign via class full network design. Classless Inter-Domain Routing, and network address translation (NAT) has significantly delayed the inevitable exhaustion.
4) DNS Server Name: A DNS server is any computer registered to join the Domain Name System. A DNS server runs special-purpose networking software, features a public IP address, and contains a database of network names and addresses for other Internet hosts. The DNS is a distributed system, meaning that only the 13 root servers contain the complete database of domain names and IP addresses. All other DNS servers are installed at lower levels of the hierarchy and maintain only certain pieces of the overall database.
Lower level DNS servers are owned by businesses or Internet Service Providers (ISPs). For example, Google maintains various DNS servers around the world that manage the google.com, google.co.uk, and other domains. Your ISP also maintains DNS servers as part of your Internet connection setup.
5) Resolver: The term resolver can be used both as a generic term to describe any software entity that resolves names to IPs or more specifically to define a set of functions supplied as part of the standard network or supplied as part of a package. These functions are used by applications to answer questions such as 'what is the IP address of this host'. The most common method to invoke such resolver services, used by your browser among many other applications, is to use the POSIX socket functions 'gethostbyname' for name to IP and 'gethostbyaddr' for IP to name.
Resolvers are quite complicated and are defined to be capable of following referrals. However almost all resolvers are stub resolvers. A stub resolver is a minimal resolver which will only work with a DNS that does support recursive queries, specifically stub-resolvers cannot follow referrals. Some newer Windows systems like Windows 2K and XP provide what is called a caching resolver. This resolver is a stub resolver but does maintain a cache of responses to minimize network access and increase performance.
6) DNS Infrastructure: The Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure consists of DNS servers that run the DNS Server service and DNS clients that run the DNS Client service.
DNS is a system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS naming is used in TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, to locate computers and services with user-friendly names. When a user enters a DNS name in an application, DNS services can resolve the name to other information that is associated with the name, such as an IP address.
7) Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) - A FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. A FQDN is a complete DNS name. For example, if a server named myhost existed of the example.com the FQDN of that server might be myhost.example.com. Technically, a FQDN must end in a period. This rule is almost always ignored. A FQDN is limited to a maximum length of 255 characters. In addition, the FQDN is also limited by the rules which limit each of its component sections. Each section must be made up only of letters, numbers, and the hyphen character. The characters are not case-sensitive. Each section of an FQDN can be up to 63 characters long.
8) Network ID- The network ID is the network portion of an IP address. For a class A network, the network address is the first byte of the IP address. For a class B network, the network address is the first two bytes of the IP address. For a class C network, the network address is the first three bytes of the IP address. In each case, the remainder is the host address.
9) Subnet musk- An IP address has two components, the network address and the host address. A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses. Subnetting further divides the host part of an IP address into a subnet and host address. It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by performing bitwise and operation on the netmask.
b) Briefly discuss the common vulnerabilities of DNS- There are common vulnerabilities in Domain Name Servers (DNS) that are documented in the CERT Advisories. They are-
- A remote intruder can gain root-level access to name server.
- A remote intruder is able to disrupt normal operation of name server.
- The DNS protocol in BIND 8 and 9 before 9.5.0-P1, 9.4.2-P1, and 9.3.5-P1 allow remote attackers to spoof DNS traffic via cache poisoning techniques.
- A cryptographic weakness in the generation of DNS query IDs could expose the DNS server to a cache poisoning attack. This bug only affects outgoing queries, generated by BIND 9 to answer questions as a resolver, or when it is looking up data for internal uses, such as when sending NOTIFYs to slave name servers.
c) What measures can be taken to secure DNS-
- To protect DNS servers from spoofing of DNS records it should be used the only secure dynamic updates option for dynamic update.
- Use internal firewall to block all unused ports to prevent exploitation of remote vulnerabilities (for example RPC vulnerabilities, although generally RPC services should not run on DNS server).
- If an organization has an intranet, it should be providing separate views of DNS for internal users and external customers.
1. I have to establish a network within 1000-1500 PCs. So I have choused Class B IP address. Because Class B IPs supports 65000 hosts over 16000 networks. The IP list given bellow-
2. For domain registration fist I go to the site name www.4domains.com. Then input my propose domain name. The name is "dnetworld" and the domain is not booked. It is now free in.Net root domain. So I can use the domain www.dnetworld.net .The charge per domain is $9.95 /year.
- Go to 4domains.com and select a domain name
- Press check button and then display the root domains names.
- The domain added in shopping chart
3. Design of Subnets
4. Here describing the rang of TWO subnet IP address-
Describing subnet IP address 188.8.131.52- This is first subnet IP of this network or first Network ID. It is a class B IP address. Here Host IP starts from 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11. Here 62 PCs can establish a sub network. This network has a broad cast address and its IP is 18.104.22.168.
Describing Subnet IP address 128.168.64- This is second Subnet IP of this Network of second Network ID. It is a class B IP address. Its host IP starts from 22.214.171.124 to 128.168.126. Here 62 PCs can establish a Sub network. This network has broad cast address and its IP is 126.96.36.199.
Problem statement: Write a report (approximately 1000 words) covering the following:
a) Briefly describe the following:
- Automation (of server administration tasks)
- Search engine
- WWW robot
- Uses of robot and search engine
b) Interpret the following "/ robots.txt" file
c) Interpret the following "/ robots.txt" file
d) Most servers provide mechanism to automate common administration tasks. Schedule three task that can be harmlessly run immediately and verify that they run on schedule providing appropriate evidence.
e) Remove the tasks you have scheduled during the performances ot the current task.
f) List the tasks that are currently automatic on your server.
g) Show that your web server is scheduled to start running at login time.
h) Demonstrate the use of three Windows server Tools for administrative tasks.
1. Automation- Automation for administration task is one kind of process where some tools are used in system administration part. System administrators have to check things on the server at regular intervals. Make sure there is plenty of disk space, check for errors in the log file, generate reports and so forth. Here knowledge of a good scripting language like Perl or a shell scripting language is essential.
2. Search Engine- A web search engine is designed to search for information over the World Wide Web. The search results are usually presented in a list of results and are commonly called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also has mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike Web directories which are maintained by human editors search engines operate algorithmically or a mixture of algorithmic and human input.
3. WWW robot- WWW robot also known as web robot and Internet bots or simply bots are software applications that run automated tasks over the Internet. Typically bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. The largest use of bots is in web spidering in which an automated script fetches, analyzes and files information from web servers at many times the speed of a human. Each server can have a file called robots.txt, containing rules for the spidering of that server that the bot is supposed to obey.
4. Uses of robots and search engine- Search engine and robot works together at a time. Search engines and other sites send robots to read and index pages. This page reverses that process and indexes to the robots. When a search engine bots arrives at a website the bots are supposed to check to see if there has any robots.txt file. This file is used to tell robots which areas of this site are off-limits to them. Typically these may be directories containing files the robot doesn't need to concern itself with. Some bots will ignore these files. However all search engine bots do look for the file.
b) Interpret the following "/robots.txt" file
User-agent: * is a user- agent directive. The * means all robots. So the following Disallow directives apply to any robots or spider. Then there are two Disallow directives. These are the directories that we don't want the robot to look at. The cgi-bin directories contain CGI script. We don't want those to be indexed since they are dynamic. And the Naj directory is a folder where the page will disallow for display.
c) Interpret the following "/ roots.txt" file
User-agent: * is a user- agent directive. The * means all robots. So the following Disallow directive applies to any robots or spider. This directory indicates that all URLs can be retrieved. At least one Disallow field needs to be present in a record without the / as shown above.
d) The three tasks are adding in Schedule task
- Avro Keyboard adding in schedule task
- Download Accelerator Plus adding in schedule task
- Netscape Navigator browser adding in schedule task
- These three kinds program running in schedule task
e) Removing tasks during the performances of the current tasks
Two program are removed from schedule task
f) Lists that the tasks are currently automated in server.
The tree tasks currently automated on server
g) Login time-
- Avro keyboard scheduled to start running at login time
- Download Accelerator Plus scheduled to start running at login time
- Netscape Navigator scheduled to start running at login time
h) Three Windows server tools for administrative tasks- The windows server tools for administrative task are given below-
Systeminfo- Systeminfo is a tool for the operating system. It gives the whole information of system which is currently running.
- Go to run program and write 'systeminfo" and press
- Then the whole system will show.
IPconfig- IPconfig is a command for windows server that shows the IP configuration information of these PCs in Local Area Network. It also shows the Subnet Mask and Default Gateway address of Network.
- Go to run program and write ipconfig
- Then the IP address will show
Cacls: Cacls is Microsoft windows native command line utility capable for displaying and modifying Access Control List on folder and files.It has some newer utilities as xcacls.exe, xcacls.vbs etc.
Go to run program and write "cacls" then the whole information will which are access control related.
http://www.t1shopper.com/tools/calculate/ip-subnet/ ..... Access date- 24/04/2010
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-s/library/cc732575%28WS.10%29.aspx ...... Accessdate- 24/04/2010
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WWW_robot ..... Access date- 27/04/2010