Network is combine with the physical topologies Network topologies are recognized the four basic topologies. This are-
* Bus topology
* Star topology
* Ring topology
* Mesh topology
A bus configuration can be likened to a single carriageway road, which can be shared by many vehicles by ensuring that a minimum spacing is maintained between them. The most common application is usually a Local Area Network (LAN) serving the communication needs on a user's site.
Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. This topology is easy to understand, establish, and navigate. The isolation and centralization allow simplify fault detection, as each link or device can be probed individually. The star topology prevents the passing of data packets through an excessive number of nodes.
A ring configuration is one where the links or bearers are looped in and out of each node. The usual benefit is that if any part of the ring gets broken, the network will continue to operate. This type of configuration is most often used where high reliability is needed, for example in the central core of a network.
A mesh network whose nodes are all connected to each other is a fully connected network. The network may act as an independent router, regardless of whether it is connected to another network or not. It allows for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths by “hopping” from node to node until the destination is reached. A mesh network with redundant connections is an example of a redundant topology. The level of redundancy can be measured by network connectivity.
The advantages and disadvantages of each medium
» Cost and size of media, relative to augmented category 6 and STP
» Installed base – currently the dominant UTP cabling standard
» Installation – widely accepted
» Limited distance for 10GBASE-T
» External noise suppression at 100 m, relative to shielded systems or augmented category 6
Shielded Twisted pair wire
» Distance – supports 10GBASE-T for 100 meters
» Internal noise suppression (S/FTP)
» External noise suppression (S/FTP and F/UTP)
» Backwards compatibility – supports 10/100/1000BASE-T
» Market share within North America
» Installation, relative to UTP
» Attenuation, relative to UTP where smaller conductors are used
» Size and cost of media, relative to UTP
» Size of media, relative to copper solutions
» Security – impervious to EMI, extremely difficult to tap or monitor without detection
» Bandwidth – future protocols beyond 10 gigabit will be supported by fiber
» Electronics cost
» Inability to carry substantial power on the cable
» Installation – optical fiber today is more difficult to field terminate than UTP copper
» Ease of deployment
» Coverage–limited to type and number of access points
We use the Star topology for this assignment. Because of the problems in troubleshooting and managing a physical bus or ring network, and because a single cable failure can bring down the entire network. One benefit of physical star topologies is its inherent centralization of resources and another benefit is the relative ease of troubleshooting. So, we chose the Star topology for Police Department.
All of media are suitable for police department. But we choose Cat6, Fiber and Wireless media for this assignment.
Virtual private network (VPN)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) or Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) are installed on computer which access resources on a network by connecting to a remote access server through the Internet or other network. The use of both private and public networks to create a network connection is called a virtual private network (VPN).
In the first example, the VPN connection first makes a call to an ISP. The connection is established and it makes another call to the remote access server that establishes the PPTP or L2TP tunnel
VPN connection by using an ISP
In the second example, a user who is already connected to the Internet uses a VPN connection to dial the number for the remote access server
VPN connection by using an existing Internet connection
Voice over IP (VoIP)
VoIP services are being employed as an alternative method of delivering voice calls. It refers to calls that traverse networks using Internet protocol (IP).
In VoIP the analogue voice stream is first digitized and then broken down into packets, which are compressed. These are sent toward their final destination by various routes.
Advantages of VoIP
* Voice and data can be transported over the same lines.
* Lower operating costs are reduced hardware requirement and a more efficient network infrastructure.
Disadvantages of VoIP
* Some VoIP services don't work during power outages and the service provider may not offer backup power.
* Not all VoIP services connect directly to emergency services.
* VoIP providers may or may not offer directory assistance/white page listings.
E-mail is one of the most heavily used and most popular internet tools. The objective of email is to send message from one person to another using the Internet as the delivery mechanism.
Email relies on the use of address for the delivery of mail. An Internet email address is made up of two parts:
* The domain name, such as ncceducation.co.uk
* The user name, such as joe.
The user name and the domain name separated by an @ sign.
A message consists of the message text, the recipient address and the address of the sender.
B) Internet Speed
Currently the following Internet connection speeds are being used for Internet services: 128 Kbs (home), 256 Kbs (office); 512 Kbs (business); 1 Mbs (only available in Rangoon and heavily restricted). The speed of the Internet connection for the whole of Burma is 7.8 Gps and 25 percent of users are domestic. In Naypyitaw, all ministries are using fiber cables and VOIP is available for connections between Rangoon and Naypyitaw.
C) Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
* 2002 – Bagan Cyber Tech, a private Internet service, is the first and only Internet service provider in Burma. Although Myanmar Post and Telecommunication sells not only dial-up but also broadband connections. Bagan Cyber Tech manufactures and sells three kinds of prepaid cards (15 hours, 30 hours and 60 hours) called Access Kid, which use dial-up system.
* 2004 – MPT introduces ADSL service. Soon after, ADSL is also available from Bagan Cyber Tech, with an installation price tag of 250,000 kyat.
* 2007 – there are several failures of the Internet, as providers MPT and Myanmar Teleport ban a number of websites. Additionally, Burma Yadanarbon Teleport commences operations as a publicly owned Internet service provider.
* 2008 – MPT announces that ADSL service is available in 36 cities across Burma. Red-Link Group becomes Burma's second privately owned Internet service and introduces a new broadband product called Wi-max in Rangoon and Mandalay. Although Myanmar Teleport and MPT sell the Wi-max connection, most people buy and use Wi-max from Red-Link. Installation cost is $1,800 and monthly payments range from $35 to $50 according to services.
Red-Link arranges for a pre-paid Wi-Fi network to be in service in eight locations in Rangoon. Installation of MPT and Myanmar Teleport costs over $2,000, Wi-max and IP-Star $1,800 and 5,000,000 kyat, respectively.
MPT fiber cable connection costs $2,500 to install and carries a monthly payment of $500. Most people, except large business, cannot afford this connection.
I will use VPN (Virtual Private Network),VoIP (Voice over IP) and Email for Internet application. VPN use the internet for the encrypted data transform from one to another place. So, Data is more secure and reliability. VoIP Service is the best service of the internet application. VoIP use the Internet Protocol (IP) .The benefit of VoIP are Voice and data can be transported over the same lines and Lower operating costs are reduced hardware requirement.
And then, we use Red-Link group for ISP. Because Wi-Max internet services are no need telephone line and latest service of the Burma ISP. Installation cost is $1,800 and monthly payments range from $35 to $50 according to services.
Two –Way Voice Communication
Mobile communication is the best suitable implement for two-way voice communications. Mobile communications networks enable people within a certain geographical area to stay in touch with other mobile people, or other people based at fixed sites. The size of the area of coverage varies between networks.
A two way voice communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.
There are methods of voice communication:
* Public Trunked Mobile Radio (PTMR)
* Private Mobile Radio (PMR)
* Mobile Public Data Networks (MPDN)
* Group Special Mobile (GSM)
* General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and etc.
Public Trunked Mobile Radio (PTMR)
The PTMR service evolved from the Private Mobile Radio (PMR) systems that have been available in the UK since 1947. PTMR was originally designed for voice communications but it can also support data. Communications are half duplex, leading to the use of phrases such as ‘over and out' to control the conversation flow. These networks are of most benefit to those who do not need to access public fixed telephone or data networks or to incur the associated costs. Their business requires communication between a fixed set of users (a closed user group). It provides an inexpensive, practical system for fleet communications.
The early cell phone services were based on analogue transmission. Current technology is based on a digital transmission standard, termed Group Special Mobile (GSM) after the committee that set the technical standard for it. GSM is rapidly replacing the older analogue services; these will be gradually phased out.
GSM has a number of advantages over analogue cell phone technology:
* The quality of speech transmission is much improved.
* Data, Short Messaging Services (SMS) and fax transmission services are providing. SMS allows short text message to be transmitted between GSM subscribers.
* The network capacity is much improved.
* The standard now has extensive coverage worldwide. Users traveling through Europe, much of the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific Rim are now able to stay in touch using a single mobile phone. However, in the USA, GSM services are based on a different version of the GSM standard, requiring dual standard handsets in order to provide full roaming coverage.
* So-called roaming agreements allow travelers overseas to log into a local network and charge their calls back to their home service provider.
Two-way radio frequencies
Two-way radios can operate on many different frequencies, and these frequencies are differently
assigned in different countries. Typically channeled operations are used, so that operators need not tune equipment to a particular frequency but instead can use one or more pre-selected frequencies, easily chosen by a pushbutton or other means. For example, in the United States, there is a block of 22 channels (pre-selected radio frequencies) assigned, collectively, to the General Mobile Radio Service and Family Radio Service.
A channel number is a s notation for a frequency. "Channel 1" is use "26.965 MHz" (CB Channel 1) or FRS/GMRS channel 1 is use for "462.5625 MHz", or Marine channel 1 is use for "156.05 MHz" . When specifying a frequency by its channel number, It is necessary to identify which radio service is under discussion. Organizations, such as electric power utilities or police departments, may have several assigned frequencies in use with arbitrarily assigned channel numbers. Public service agencies have an interest in maintaining some common frequencies for inter-area coordination in emergencies
Duplex systems are employed in many communications networks, either to allow for a communication "two-way street" between two connected parties or to provide a "reverse path" for the monitoring and remote adjustment of equipment in the field. There are two kind of duplex:
A simple illustration of a half-duplex communication system.
A half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying.
An example of a half-duplex system is walkie-talkie style two-way radio.
A full-duplex, or sometimes double-duplex system, allows communication in both directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows this to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road with one lane for each direction.
Examples: Telephone, Mobile Phone, etc.
Operating a radio communications network in most countries is subject to licensing by national telecommunications regulators, both for its type of use and the radio frequency spectrum it utilizes, especially as radio frequency spectrum is a scarce resource and needs to be used efficiently.
Operating a commercial mobile radio network practically always requires a specific operating license. In case of private radio networks, i.e. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR), the interpretation of the licensing requirements is country specific and the opinion of the national regulator should thus always be consulted before setting up a radio communication network. In most cases a private radio system requires only a frequency license.
Radio Frequency license
Usage of radio frequencies is practically always controlled either by the national radio communications regulator, which is Ministry of Defense, Myanmar. In the Application, we must clearly mention about
(1) Model and type of Radio communication devices.
(2) Frequency range
(3) Number of units and
(4) Purpose of Radio communication network.
The national radio communications regulator will review the application. Upon successful application, the regulator will grant right to use specific radio frequencies for a specified purpose within a specified region. Radio frequency licenses are not normally issued free of charge and the cost of the license can vary greatly depending on country and type of usage. For details of the procedures and fees regarding a radio frequency license the national regulator should be consulted. For police department, it will not charge fees radio frequency license.
Two-Way Radio Power
One of the most important Limitations of a two-way radio is its power output. This power output is measured in “watts.” An FM radio station says they are broadcasting at 50,000 or 100,000 watts. Well, a handheld two-way radio usually broadcasts at 1-5 watts. A vehicle mobile radio may broadcast anywhere from 5 to 100 watts. The more watts a radio has, the farther it can transmit.
Two-Way Radio Range
A range of two-way radio is 14 miles, 22 miles, or something like that. One of the biggest factors to reducing range is the obstacles in the path of transmission. These obstacles absorb and reflect the radio waves so while a radio advertised to go 22 miles may actually do that if both users are standing on peaks of a mountain with nothing in between, the same radio can't go a half mile through a forest. Two-way radios communicate “line of sight”. The key to getting more range is either to raise the height of the antenna, increase the power of the radio, or both.
Two-way Radio Frequencies
There are two-way radios system of frequencies is affected, in part, by:
* government regulations and licensing.
* local congestion or availability of frequencies.
* terrain, since radio signals travel differently in forests and urban view sheds.
* the presence of noise, interference, or intermodulation.
* sky wave interference below 50-60 MHz and troposhperic bending at VHF.
* in the US, some frequencies require approval of a frequency coordination committee.
We choose for the mobile communication for the two-way voice communication. Because many reason for mobile network.
* It is easier to stay in contact.
* Access to timely and accurate information is available while away from a home base.
* Productivity and efficiency are improved.
* It is possible for companies to accommodate different working styles.
In Mobile communication, Two-way radios are available. It is stationary base and hand-held portable configurations. Hand-held radios are often called walkie-talkies or handier-talkies. And cell phone communication is one of the mobile communication or two-way voice communication. So, we use these two communication for set up the voice communication of Police department.
The Townsville Police department covers and area of 100 square kilometers. We use the range of radio is minimum 14 miles and maximum 22 miles. So, we use the access point for the increased the length of voice communication.
For police department, it will not charge fees radio frequency license that is suitable for operation and setup.
Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) is the telecommunications equipment, which is installed on premises belonging to the telecommunications user, usually to take advantage of public telecommunications network capability.
This equipment will be:
* Telephone instruments
* Private Branch Exchanges (PBXs)
* Key Telephone Systems (KTSs)
* Automatic Call Distribution (ACD) systems
* Voice Processing System
* Telephone Answering Machines
* Telephone Call Information Loggers (CIL)
* Facsimile Machines
* Local Area Network (LAN) Bridges
* Local Area Network (LAN) Routers
When more than two lines are needed it is usual to connect them via an ancillary system capable of switching the calls to various internal extension lines. The systems for doing this are given the generic name Call Routing Apparatus (CRA). The smallest type of CRA is usual a Key Telephone System (KTS) and the largest a Private Branch Exchange (PBX).
A private Branch Exchange linked to the PSTN. Technical correct definition of what most people call the company switchboard. PBXs make connections among the internal telephones of a private organization usually a business and also connect them to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) via trunk lines. Because they incorporate telephones, fax machines, modems, and more, the general term "extension" is used to refer to any end point on the branch.
The Different between Key Telephone Systems and PBXs
Although KTSs and PBXs are in most functional terms the same, their respective designs are different.
* In a key Telephone System the control and switching functions for calls is built into the telephone handsets themselves.
* All KTS station users can be allowed to gain access to, and answer, any specific external lines.
* There is no central control unit (switchboard) and no need for a dedicated switchboard operator to control and manage calls.
* A PBX system uses a central call processor to handle the routing of incoming, outgoing and inter-extension calls.
* PBXs can be either manual, requiring the use of an operator, or automatic with no staff intervention required for the routing of calls.
* Generally, PBXs are suited to larger organizations involving hundreds or even thousands of telephone extensions.
Principle of a Key Telephone System
Principle of a Private Branch Exchange
The features of the earliest PBXs were somewhat limited and basically consisted of the following capabilities.
* To dial other extensions
* To dial outside lines
* To make an enquiry call to another extension
* To transfer the external call to the extension
All modern PBXs still have these four main features. Almost all of these have come about because business life has become increasingly demanding on staff time. As a result staff is very often away from their desks and therefore not available to make or receive telephone calls. The multiplicity of features has become very confusing to the telephone user.
Call diversion is available in three forms:
* Call diversion of all calls
* Call diversion on receiving no reply
* Call diversion on receiving a busy signal
Call diversion works as follows:
All calls : In this case when anyone tries to dial the extension, the call will be automatically diverted to another pre-arranged extension.
No reply : The extension which has arranged for the division will ring for a predetermined period, typically 10 to 15 seconds and if it is not answered, the caller is diverted to another pre-arranged extension.
Busy : This is similar to diversion of all calls except the caller is only diverted if the required extension is busy.
While involved in another call, either internal or external, this allows an extension user to make an enquiry call to another extension. The extension user making the enquiry call can “shuttle” between the two parties.
Saved Number Dialed
This allows an extension user, whilst engaged on a call that they have originated, to save the number for later re-dialing.
By using the enquiry feature an extension user can set up a call involving either two other extensions, or one other extension and an outside caller. The procedure can be repeated until a maximum of six arties are connected. The switchboard operator can also set up conference calls.
When an extension is granted automatic answer, call to it is answered automatically, usually after a single ring. The use of this facility is not recommended for areas where confidential information is likely to be the subject of open discussion.
Last number Re-Dial
This is similar to saved number dialed, but it lonely applies to the last number dialed i.e. when anther number is dialed this overwrites the previous one. As most telephone instruments have this as a standard feature the system version is rarely used.
Type Of Hardware
ICC 6P4C Flat Entry Stranded RJ11 Plugs (100 Pack)
ICC 6P4C Flat Entry Stranded RJ11 Plugs (100 Pack)
6-position and 4-conductor plug are ideal for voice and speed transmission. This type of plug is the most common plug used for almost every analog telephony application.
Used with ICACSCT460 or ICACSCT860 crimping tool to installation for telephone.
ICC Crimping Tool for 4 & 6 Position Plugs (ICACSCT460)
Coleman Cable Cat3 24AWG/4 Pair Solid Gray 1000' Pull Box
Coleman Cable Cat3 24AWG/4 Pair Solid Gray 1000' Pull Box
* pair Category 3 cable, suitable for telephone wiring.
* 24 AWG solid bare copper conductors
* PVC jacket
* 4 Mbps Token Ring (IEEE 802.5)
* 10Mbps 10 Base-T Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
* Residential and Office Phone/Fax/Internet Systems
Telephone Operation System
TalkSwitch Attendant Console
TalkSwitch Attendant Console
Talk Switch application
TalkSwitch Attendant Console gives the power to see and control calls right on PC. It's a whole new set of superpowers for phone.
Not your mild-mannered, garden-variety attendant console :
TalkSwitch Attendant Console is like the standard old telephone hardware consoles that receptionists have been using for years, but it's software, which gives it a distinct advantage. One license per site covers all users, so everybody in office gets the full application. What hardware console can do that?
* See the calls: get caller ID, number, duration and status and whether a call is internal, inbound or outbound.
* Manage queues and parked calls: see the calls lined up, answer the important ones first and transfer the rest to someone else. View and grab calls from a list of parked calls on the system.
* Touch the calls: now this is power — drag and drop calls directly to other extensions, remote extensions or ring groups, or send a call to voicemail, all without even touching the phone.
* See the lines: Need to monitor the lines or VoIP trunks? Choose to view line status and you'll see which are in use or ringing, and whether you're wasting money on under-used lines.
* Unobtrusive: Attendant Console can be cond to be always on top, or simply pop up at the bottom corner on screen when a call comes in, so you can keep working and not worry about real estate on screen.
* Got an important call waiting for someone who's on the phone? TalkSwitch Attendant Console includes instant messaging, so can let them know another call is waiting. Co-workers get better information to choose how to handle calls, so callers get better service.
Now, if any business can operate without the availability of a telephone. If the business is small then a single telephone line may suffice. It is rare nowadays for any business to manage without at least two lines, one for telephone calls and the other for use with a facsimile machine, or personal computer.
So, the telephone system is necessary for the Police department. We choose the Public Branch Exchanges (PBX) equipment for telecommunication. Naturally PBX was the first branch systems to be adopted by business. Most large companies recognized the need to be able to communicate externally, using the telephone.
And then, Public exchanges progressed from using analogue technology to digital, so did PBX, so that today almost all PBX use digital technology to control microprocessor components. Up until about 20 years ago the features of PBX were very much the same as their public exchange counterparts. As the PBX became the standard for telecommunication and more feature because business became more demanding.
We use Cisco Ip phone, Wi fi phone and conference phone for the telephone communication. And then, another type of phone are analogue phone (desktop phone), digital phone(desktop & wireless) mobile phone(wireless phone).
We use the central device (the processor) which Public Branch Exchanges system. So, we need to communicate the telephone with the central device and control inbound and outbound telephone communication. So, we need to management with TalkSwitch Attendant Consol telephone application as Telephone Operation System. This operation system has the good feature. There are
See the calls, Manage queues and parked calls, Touch the calls, See the lines and est. Therefore, we choose the TalkSwitch for Telephone Operation System.
We use the Star topology for Police Department. Star topology is managed with the central device. And easier for the control and troubleshooting of the network. So, we chose the Star topology for Police Department.
We choose Cat6 for Client computer, Fiber for Admin and Wireless media for Outbound communication.
We use Red-Link group for ISP. Because Wi-Max internet services are no need telephone line and latest service of the Burma ISP. And, the information of the Police department is important for the secure, reliability and more speed communication with other. Therefore, we use the VPN service for the transportation. VoIP service and Email service for communication.
In Mobile communication, we use walkie-talkies or handier-talkies and cell phone communication .
The Townsville Police department covers and area of 100 square kilometers. We use the range of radio is minimum 14 miles and maximum 22 miles. So, we use the access point for the increased the length of voice communication. In other place which is out of radio service, we use the cell phone communication.
The telephone system is necessary for the Police department. We choose the Public Branch Exchanges (PBX) equipment for telecommunication. We use the central device (the processor) which Public Branch Exchanges system. So, we need to communicate the telephone with the central device and control inbound and outbound telephone communication. So, we can control the important information for investigation in police department and other call (not important) will be denied.