Implementing a data base management system


Every organisation however small it is will need to have a database and manage them. The database can be in the form of hard copy like files and other paper materials and so on. This form of database is very difficult to manage and sharing is not possible. The other form of database would be the soft copy, by storing information in an electronic medium like computers which is easy to organise and manage. It is also easy to share and access the information.

As a database designer of the retail store Sports Direct Inc, the company's database for all its operations has been designed. Now the next step is to analyze a suitable Data Base Management System (DBMS) which will serve the organisation in an effective manner. The DBMS in discussion are going to be

  • Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
  • Object Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)
  • Object Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS)

So the evaluating of these different DBMSs is carried out by understanding the concept and by researching the pros and cons of these three DBMS. And then decide to purchase a suitable DBMS to implement the database.


Sports Direct International established in 1982 is now one of the UK's leading Sports retailers through a number of retail subsidiaries and sports equipment brands. The company owns a large number of recognised sports and leisure brands. In 1982, the company was founded by former county squash coach Mike Ashley and had a single store in Maidenhead trading under the name of Mike Ashley Sports. In 2007, Ashley bought stake in Newcastle United F.C. and became its Owner for the widely popular English Premier League.

Now there is over 470 stores within the Retail group which was previously called Sports World until 2008), this includes, Sports World, Field & Trek, Hargreaves Sports, Gilesports and Donnay International, as well as stores in Ireland, Belgium, Holland and Slovenia. The company has acquired a number of sports shops over the past few years. Most of these stores still trade under the same fascias. An example is Lillywhites located in Piccadilly Circus in London is considered to be a famous landmark which was acquired by the company in the year 1992. The company aims to change most of the stores under Sports Direct over time.

The company is licensed in Umbro and third party brands such as Adidas, Nike, Reebok and Puma. And also owns a number of sports and leisure brands that includes Antigua, Dunlop, Everlast, Karrimor, Kangol, Lonsdale and Slazenger. The group employs around 11,000 people. In 2006 it overtook JJB Sports as the UK's largest sportswear retailer.

Although the company has many retail outlets, the website allows provides online shopping and also you can have them delivered to your home. The main objective of Sports Direct International is to offer the best service and range of clothing, footwear and equipment possible. ( and

The Actual Discussion/ Content / Body

A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enables the users to create and maintain a database. It is a general-purpose software system that will facilitate the processes of defining, constructing, manipulating, and sharing databases between the users and different applications.

Defining a database is the process of specifying the data types, structures, and constraints of the data to be stored in the database.

Constructing the database involve storing the data on a storage medium that will be controlled by the DBMS.

Manipulating a database combines functions such as querying the database to retrieve specific information, modifying and updating the database and generating reports from the database.

Sharing a database will permit multiple users and programs to access the database at the same time.

A DBMS will provide a conceptual representation of data that will not have details of how the data is stored or how the operations are implemented.

The DBMS has concurrency control software which is to ensure used to update the same data in a controlled manner so that the result of the updates is correct.


  1. Redundancy is controlled.
  2. Unauthorized Access to database can be prevented
  3. Backup and Recovery of the data is possible
  4. Provide different views of data for different Users.
  5. Complex Relationships between the Data can be represented.
  6. Integrity Constraints can be invoked.


Pg 17 . (Pg 21,22) (Pg 23 & 24) (pg 39)- The DBMS not only holds the data structures in a centralized location, but it also stores the relationships between the database components. The DBMS is just one of most important components of a database system.


The DBMS can be classified depending on the number of users, the database site location(s) and its expected type and extent of use.

Based on the number of users the DBMS can be either single-user or multi-user. A single-user DBMS will supports only one user at a given point of time. If this database runs on a personal computer, it is also referred as a desktop database.

The multi-user DBMS can handle many users at the same time. If the multi-user database has small number of users or if it contains a specific department within the organization, it is known as a workgroup database. If the database is used by the complete organization and supports multiple users based on various departments, then the database is referred as an enterprise database.

The location of database is also used to classify the DBMS. For example, centralized DBMS supports a database located at a single site. Distributed DBMS supports a database distributed across various multiple sites.


There are many important functions of DBMS to provide consistency and integrity of the data present in the database. Many of these functions can only be attained only by the use of a DBMS. Some of the functions are Data Storage Management, Data Dictionary Management, Security Management, Data Transformation and Presentation, Backup & Recovery Management and so on.

Types of DBMS :- (all 3) Characteristic & how data is represented

  1. RDBMS


Basic Structure: ROB

The relational database model is implemented through a very sophisticated Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The RDBMS performs the same basic functions provided by the hierarchical and network DBMS systems plus a host of other functions that make the relational database model easier to understand and to implement.

The relational model is one of the commercial and open source databases currently available. RDBMS can be defined as a DBMS to store the data and its relationship in form of tables.

Immediate execution of triggers is currently implemented by RDBMS. If additional processing is done, we can have deferred execution of triggers.

Today, the Relational Database Management System is the most commonly used database format.

Relational Database Management System (asp free)

The relational model depends on the database's structure. The database is formed of one or more relations or tables with columns and rows.

There are few elements of RDBMS. They are based upon Ted Codd's 13 rules for arelational system, normalization and the concept of relational integrity. The three fundamentals of a relational database are information must be stored in a table, with the data described using data values. Secondly, each value in the table columns does not reappear, i.e. there should not be any duplicates. The last fundamental is the use of Standard Query Language (SQL).


The RDBMS lets the user or the designer to operate in a human logical environment.

All of the complex physical details can be managed.

These ones with t yellow background are for my reference

/// if u plan to have a table figure. Refer this pg 39. It has a simple table //


The major advantage of RDBMS is that the system is simple, flexible, and productive. Since the database is simple, understanding and communication becomes easier.

Due to flexibility, the database users do not have to use predefined method for the purpose of input. Finally as the SQL is easy to learn, productivity is also achieved. This saves lots of time spent on learning & understand, instead it can used for inputting information.

Another mainadvantage is the ease of use. Database users cancreate new data, access and extend it as they wish to. So this allows adding new data fields without modifying the existing application, even after the database is designed.


The same RDBMS that hides most of the system's complexity is also the cause of its need for substantial hardware and operating system overhead. It simple takes a more powerful computer to perform all the RDBMS-assigned tasks.


There are quite a few drawbacks to the relational database management system. Firstly, they do not provide storage to handle information like images, digital and audio/video. The RDBMS was initially developed to store the integration of media, traditional fielded data, and templates. Another disadvantage is it cannot operate with languages other than SQL. After its development, new languages like C++ and JavaScript were formed. But, relational databases could not work in an effective manner with the new languages. Also the requirement that information must be in tables where relationships between entities are defined by values.

Object-Oriented Database Management Systems (asp)

Object-Oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMS) provides consistent, data independent, secure, controlled and extensible data management services to provide support for the object-oriented model.

To overcome the drawbacks of RDBMS and which could not meet the demands of developments in the field of Internet and the Web in 1980's, when object-oriented databases started being developed. The OODBMS could hold big and complex data that relational databases could not store.

Object-oriented programming has 4 major characteristics. They aredata encapsulation, inheritances, object identity, and polymorphism. Data encapsulation or simply encapsulation allows the hiding of the internal state of the objects. Inheritance allows one to develop solutions to complex problems incrementally by defining new objects in terms of previously defined objects. Object identity allows objects of the database to be independent of each other. Polymorphism and dynamic binding allow one to define operations for one object and then to share the specification of the operation with other objects. This allows users and/or programmers to compose objects to provide solutions without having to write code that is specific to each object.

The important language to OODBMS is DDML which is referred as Data Definition and Manipulation Language. DDML is used for creating, altering, and dropping tables and establishing constraints in the database. DDML allows updating, inserting, modifying, and querying data in the database.

The OODBMSabstracts a new data type for the uninterpreted objects and provides the methods for comparing, displaying and selecting the objects.

Since the OODBMS will allow users to create new data types, and also a type includes both structure and its operations, an OODBMS is said to have an extensible type system. We also can create new libraries for defining the structures, operations, and including complex types.

OODBMS provides storage options for complex objects to cluster the component objects together in order to make it efficient. The object structure will be saved on certain disk pages in some uninterpreted manner.

Overview - wiki

OODBMS is ideal for OO programmers since it allows developing the product and storing them as objects. , The existing objects can be replicated or modified to derive new objects. Complex data types such as video, audio, graphs, and photos have become important day to day information. RDBMS could not support these complex data types.

As people started to rely more heavily on web-based services like intranets, many organizations used OODBMS to portray their complex information

OODBMS (Google)

An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) is also referred to as ODBMS for object database management system). It is a database management system that will allow creation of data as objects. Currently there is no common standard for constituting an OODBMS, and are considered to be infancy.

The Object Data Management Group (ODMG) is currently developing an object-oriented database interface standard.


The major advantage is object-oriented is a natural way of thinking. The data types of object-oriented databases can support complex data like pictures, digital and audio/video and much more multi-media information.

Other importance of OODBMS will be reliability, reusability and stability. Another advantage is that relationships can be view explicitly. The OODBMS has explored into new fields that are not known by the RDBMS such as Medicine, multimedia, and high-energy physics.


Like the RDBMS, an object-oriented database also has few drawbacks. Since OODBMS is in the development stages, it lacks a common data model, and there is no current standard.



Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is like a relational database. It is also referred as object-relational database (ORD). The system has a front end in the form object oriented on a relational database (RDBMS). Since it is an object-oriented database model, it allows objects, classes and inheritance to be implemented in database schemas and also in the query language. It also permits new user-defined data-types and methods.

The ORDBMS is the middle ground RDBMS and OODBMS. Here in the object relational database, the data will be stored in the database and then will be queried by the use of query language.

The main objective of Object-relational was to bring closer the relational databases and the object-oriented modeling techniques that was used in programming languages like Java, C++, Visual Basic .NET or C#.

Object-Relational DBMS provides software-developers to build new types and the methods and then use the DBMS.

(not edited) Many SQL ORDBMSs on the market today are extensible with user-defined types (UDT) and custom-written functions (e.g. stored procedures). Some (e.g. Microsoft SQL Server) allow such functions to be written in object-oriented programming languages, but this by itself doesn't make them object-oriented databases; in an object-oriented database, object orientation is a feature of the data model.

If needed, the ORDBMS should integrate the user-defined function in its address space during run-time. The ORDBMSs has number of functions and operates upon two- or three-dimensional spatial data, text, images, etc.

Efficient storage and retrieval of the information was very vital, because of the different data types in an ORDBMS. New storage structures like grid files, R-trees or quad trees, For data types like multidimensional or spatial data, new storage structures such as R-trees, quad trees, or grid files may be used.

Object-Relational database management systems . asp

ORDBMS extends the relational database systems to support a more applications in different ways to reduce the gap between the relational and object-oriented models.

ORDBMS supports new types for holding images, audio and video files that the RDBMS were not able to store. Because object-oriented programming languages were highly used, there happened to be a mismatch with the DBMS software, this lead to the concept of ORDBMS.


One major advantage of ORDBMS is that it provide flexibility as the organizations can use their existing systems without making major changes. Secondly the programmers and other users can simultaneously use the object-oriented systems.


There are some drawbacks in the implementation of ORDBMS. One of them is the storage and retrieval methods. Secondly disadvantage is query processing and finally query optimization.


ORDBMS Definition

the ORDBMS converts the object into data tables formed of rows and colums and then process them like as a relational database.

Performance Constraints

Speed and Performance is minimal since additional conversion has to be carried out as the ORDBMS has to convert data from an object oriented format and RDBMS format.

ORDBMS Benefits

The biggest advantage is the conversion of the Object data between RDBMS and object database is provided by the software. So it avoids additional time spent on coding by the programmers to perform conversion


Relational and object-oriented database systems have their own pros & cons. The drawback of one DBMS will become an advantage of the other type of system.

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