Internetworking is a group of single networks, connected to a network with the help of intermediate devices that function as single large network. Different types of network are interconnected with the help of routers and various networking devices. The common internetworks protocols, routing tables and related network devices are used to communicate in internetworking. The standard model of internetworking is OSI (open systems interconnection).the open system is consists of seven different layers.
This paper is to explain the concept of internetworking and how to secure the organisation and its assets.
As days are passing, the people living in other parts of world getting closer and closer, it's all due to the human quest for making this world a better place for living. Thanks to those people who spend their precious time for technological advancement. Computer communication is the basic tool by which global shrinking is possible. An outstanding contribution accelerates the growth of information technology and a helped person to come closer in terms of collaborative activities is internet.
Now-a-days internetworking infrastructure is become an important part of business, because of following point:-
Data access: - In the last two decade data transfer was very slow and have distributed databases. In businesses and organizations they had different departments and might have customer records and employee's records, but they had distributed database due to which they had stored same information in different locations. Every time the customer or employees change his information they had to update database in multiple locations and central planner restricted access to remote location. Now it is practical to store all data in one location and access a single record from anywhere in the world.
Data transfer :- Information stored in multiple databases and computers with multiple formats, many computer cannot understand and read the information stored in databases because of multiple format but internetworking not only helps us in fast data transfer but it also helps in international standard for the format of data that is HTTP and XML are universal standards. Due to which information transferred from different makes of computers can be displayed clearly.
Data sharing: - it is vital part of businesses to share there information across long distances and transferred them quickly, it's all due to internetworking.
Data accuracy/speed:- With the e-commerce the business are able to know instantly when an order is made by a customer and when an item has been taken out of inventory, managers can respond more quickly to fluctuations in business. One of important effect of that is they have to hold some inventories. This reduces costs, while keeping production at levels according to market demand
1.1 Assess and critically explain the evolution of the internetworking infrastructure
The first networks were based on time sharing networks that was used by mainframes and attached terminals. These networks were implemented by IBM's system network architecture (SNA) and digital's networks architecture.
This internetworking evolution brings with its benefits
. Local-area networks (LANs) evolved around the PC revolution. As the name implies ,that are physically closed LANs enabled multiple users in a relatively small geographical area to exchange files and messages, as well as access shared resources Such as file servers and printers.
Wide-area networks (WANs) interconnect LANs with geographically dispersed users to create connectivity. Some of the technologies used for connecting LANs include T1, T3, ATM, ISDN, ADSL, Frame Relay, radio links, and others. New methods of connecting dispersed LANs are appearing everyday.
Today, high-speed LANs and switched internetworks are becoming widely used, largely because they operate at very high speeds and support such high-bandwidth applications as multimedia and videoconferencing. Internetworking evolved as a solution to three key problems: isolated LANs, duplication of resources, and a lack of network management. Isolated LANs made electronic communication between different offices or departments impossible. Duplication of resources meant that the same hardware and software had to be supplied to each office or department, as did separate support staff. This lack of network management meant that no centralized method of managing and troubleshooting networks existed.
1.2identify and critically asses the components of internetworking, hardware and software infrastructure of college
The main component of internetworking is divided into three categories:
2. Processing systems
1. NETWORKS:- are the medium and technologies by which will allow us to share information between processing units and organizations. The most important part of internetworking infrastructures. Networks components are fiber optics, cable systems, dsl, wireless internetworking hardware like routers, switches.
2. Processing systems:- it's the contain the hardware and software that together provide an organization ability to handle business transactions. They are very interesting in this age of internetworking because they are always upgraded for the betterment Transactions software like SAP and ORACLE
3.facilities:-the physical system that are in building ,protect computing and network devices are growing importance as their demand is increasing due to high level of availability, reliability and security.
The Hardware and Software which are used in our college lab:-
a. Hardware devices which are Used in our college lab are:-
Two Rackable servers, two wireless DLINK G ADSL 2+ wifi modem routers, two 24 port net gear switch 10/100 mbs speed, cables, forty eight desktop
Rack able servers:-the rack able server configuration is 250GB hardisk, 4 GB RAM, Two inbuilt lancards, six pci slots, one connector, two USB port, one com port, two PS/2 Connector for mouse and keyboard.
Switch:-the switch is manufacture by NET Gear; it has 24 ports for connections. Its model is prosafe 24 port 10/100 switch.
MODEM:-the adsl modem router is used in our lab is manufactured by DLINK and its model is DLINK GADSL 2+.
CABLES:-the cables which are use in our lab are category 5e standard cable which is referred by EIA/TIA Standard
DESKTOP PC:-desktop pc are manufacture by IBM ,its configuration is 512 MB RAM,80 GB harddisk,processor is Intel Pentium4 2.79 GHZ., with floppy drive ,one compact disc drive ,15 inch TFT monitors, Optical mouse and keyboard.
B. SOFTWARE WHICH IS USED IN OUR LABS ARE:-
OPERATING SYSTEM:-operating systems which are installed in our lab is “WINDOWS XP PROFESSIONAL “Developed by Microsoft.
APPLICATION SOFTWARE: -application software which are used in our college system are:-Microsoft office 2007, acrobat reader 9.0, macafee antivirus.
1.1 Critically evaluate the business implications of internetworking discriminating availability, reliability and redundancy in terms of effective information security management
Defining availability, reliability and redundancy
Availability:-consists of proactive methods of ensuring system up time and resolving system outages. This functionality requires monitoring and planning of all the components of the systems and for further refinement process. Availability is also defined as the system is in working condition when authorized user needs it.
Reliability:-reliability is important issue in information technology, it is state of the system is in working condition and to do your complete job without any problem and when data is needed it retrieve without any corruption or modification.
Redundancy:- to decrease the probability of data loss ,where one component failure could result in the loss of important data or process ,redundancy may backup data or processes .
Business implication of internetworking in terms of availability
Internetworking in business help businesses to increase their productivity and profit. The implication that affects the availability, reliability and redundancy in terms of information security are:-
“The Rise of Internetworking: Business Implications
1. The Emergence of Real-Time Infrastructures
2. Broader Exposure to Operational Threats
3. New Models of Service Delivery
4. Managing Legacies” 
The emergence of real-time infrastructure: - real time infrastructure of internetworking is helping business in making their decision and in maintains data. Converting business perspective from make-and-sell to sense-and-respond. Improving process visibility and efficiency, which help business to produce according to demand.
Broader exposure to operational threats:- in the business information security management numbers of countermeasure are taken to avoid threats .internetworking helps in decrease the probability of risk by providing disaster recovery plans, backups and remote assistance.
New models of service delivery:- internetworking provide programming models for
Communication between workstation and servers without any risk.
e.g.:-active server pages (asp).
Managing legacies: - all the organization is implementing internetworking because it is important part of all business even if they are related with IT. Internetworking helps them to communicate easily, availability of resources and information easily.
1.1 Critically appraise the role of IS auditor in auditing internetworking infrastructure.
The IS auditor in an organization has very significant role, his job is to maintain the system, securing information assets, designing and proper implementation of policies ,backup and plans for disaster recovery. The various roles of IS auditor in auditing in internetworking infrastructure is as follow:-
a) Defining mission and objectives:- every organization has its mission and objective which they take into consideration when they implement internetworking infrastructure. According to which they have to do their jobs, what is the requirement of internetworking in that organization, internetworking is used for what purposes and how organization wants to make use of information and resources.
b) Develop the strategic planning for IS security auditing: - information is very sensitive for every organization and organization spend lot of money every year to protect it from corruption, data loss and data theft. Auditor main role is to protect and make a strategic planning when system is attacked by some hackers or by some virus.
c) Access is security observation:- observation is very essential in every type of business ,organization or corporate. After implementation of system successfully, IS auditor job is to observe that all components are working properly without any problem .he has check the system periodically on monthly or weekly bases.
d) Identify security risks and reporting issues:- IS auditor has the responsibility Is to identify the threats ,risk and loop hole in the organization and make a report on these threats. This detail must includes countermeasure to avoid this threats and some proactive method or techniques to avoid them in future.
1.5 Evaluate and describe the processes to secure the organizations infrastructure against malicious threat.
Securing the organization‘s infrastructure:-
* Use of security policy
* Use of antivirus
* Use of firewalls
Use of security policy :-
1. Understanding Interworking Infrastructure http://business.usi.edu/aforough/Fall2006/cis601f2006/OutlineChapter%205.doc Accessed on 09 March, 2010