Lack effective design of service


Hures being the leading service provider in the human resources, in order to keep up with the ever growing demands in the business environment, in 1987 the information system has been implemented which was first of its kind. In order to implement this information system, it required Hures to purchase a mainframe computer whose purpose was to serve Altos terminals on the desktops of the user.

In the year of 1999, in order to keep the pace with changes in both the business and the Information systems environment, and also with an intention to meet the demands of the Y2K, the company ported the application to a client/server network. This resulted in an increase of 30% in the efficiency and by the end of the second year the profit increased by 18%. The main reason for this drastic improvement is due to the reduced cost involved in the maintenance of the network and also the improvement of the data handling capabilities as provided by the Client/Server system.

Though the company continued its growth, it noticed that there were certain problems in the network such as the difficulty involved in scaling the servers in order to respond to the load that is increased due to the distributed environment and a requirement of powerful desktops continuously to handle this.

The main problem of the company was the difficulty involved in configuring the required applications in to the client server modules and also by modifying the configuration according to the feedback of the user. The internal IS staff of Hures's blame the architecture of the Client/Server for these current problems, however according to the management this problem has aroused due to the lack of an effective design of the service.


  1. Do you think the problems faced by Hures, both past and present, are unique? Why or why not?
  2. Suggest alternative architectures that could be used to overcome the problems faced by Hures' current Client/Server technology
  3. One of the suggestions proposed by Hures' IS department is the use of intranet web technology. Examine the pros and cons of such an idea.
  4. Do you think the popularity of intranet software and the Internet pose threats to traditional Client/Server systems?

Yes, the problems faced by hures, both past and present are indeed unique, because the problems in the past were due to the low performance of the mainframe architecture. As all the processing is done in the mainframe, the time taken to process is high according to the mainframe architecture.

However, currently the problems are due to the use of low end computer systems and the improper configuration of the client/server scenario.

This problem is in relation to the maintenance and improvement of the system continuously. As the technology currently changes overnight, some software, applications and the systems that are currently applicable to the business industry may not be suitable after a month. Hence, the responsibility lies in the IT department of a company to conduct a thorough research and development in the changing technologies and choosing the best technology for the company. It is also important to focus on the suitability of the system in the current operations and flows of information inside and out the organization. Above all, it is important to focus on always giving room for future improvement or enhancement in order for the system to adapt new technologies and innovations.

The Client-server problem that Hures has encountered is not unique to them. Yes, Client-server computing had a positive impact on organizations, but, as with all new technologies, there are many challenges and questions with hard-to-find answers Primarily, the problem pertains on the readiness of the system to handle the future demands or needs of the business. Based on this, the company or the developer or creator of the system did not focus on the future enhancement or the adjustment of the system, in order to ensure that the system will cater for the future needs and demands, due to the different changes in the both internal and external environment which change or alter the overall flow of information in the company.

The problem faced by Hures regarding the Client/Server is not unique to them.. The Client/Server computing had a highly positive impact on various organizations. However, due to the rise of many new technologies, there are many challenges and questions for which answers were hard to find. The primary problem lies in the readiness of the system that handles the future demands of a business. Based on this, the company or the developer or creator of the system did not focus on the future enhancement or the adjustment of the system, in order to ensure that the system will cater for the future needs and demands, due to the different changes in the both internal and external environment which change or alter the overall flow of information in the company.

The Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF), which is a standard organization has been found in the year 1992, creates the highly important set of standards for the network and systems management since the release of the first version of the Simple Networks Management Protocol (SNMP) in 1988. The problems involved in managing both the hardware and the software of PC desktops and servers is tackled by DMTF. The specs of DMTF are more than enough so that the users now require conformance from the vendors so as to look for particular applications in management that incorporate the specifications in the architecture.

Vendors that have supported DMTF since it was launched in 1992 are Intel, Microsoft, Novell, Digital, Hewlett Packard, IBM, SunSoft and SynOptics. Since then many others have joined, including AST Research, Compaq, Dell, Symantec and Apple, and hundreds of hardware and software vendors have pledged to implement the DMTF specifications.

It may seem strange that this large group of vendors have decided to work together to make your life easier; historically, the opposite has been true. But the DMTF members aren't altruistic--they're cooperating because they believe that by easing the management burden, customers will move toward client-server computing faster.

In order for the smooth run of the Client/Server network, we will need to manage the desktop. The members of the DMTF develop the MIFs which help the developers incorporate the DMI into the products through publications and workshops. The work of the DMTF should make it become possible to manage desktops in a cohesive and simplified manner. Will the DMTF be a success? Absolutely

The Client/Server technology is the alternative architecture that can be used to overcome the problem currently faced by Hures. This makes use of a passive queue that allows the client instances to directly communicate with each other and hence can refine the request from the services (Exforsys Inc n.d.). This can be of much help to the Hures because it can prevent and support any server related problems. In order to track the various number of client connections, the Client queue can be used. This facilitates the server with an ability to trace the resources obtained by the client and hence the server can release the resources soon after the client connection breaks down (Chang and Leong, 2003).

The major barrier for the wide spread of the client-server computing is the lack of effective remote management for desktops. The ultimate open system is the Personal Computer. The complexity of the problem increases at the workgroup and at the enterprise levels. Workgroups often contain workstations from multiple vendors, some of which have attached printers, others have CDROM drives and each has a different hard-drive capacity and runs different software.

In order to manage these environments, a separate arsenal of vendor-developed utilities is required which cannot be invoked remotely for the major part. A highly standardized management agent is required so that the various components can share a uniform and extended way in order to format the management information and commands.

The specs of the DMTF will save both money and the time. This will help maintain a high amount of consistency throughout the network which will free the managers to work on the kinds of activities that push the users in the forward motion rather than holding them back with tedious housekeeping tasks.

The DMTF addressed a problem that has not been defined by the SNMP which is: a set of particular open APIs in order to access a common agent. The agent of the DMTF is known as the Desktop Management Interface and it defines how the management applications request services from a particular agent through Management Interface (MI). It also defines how component providers can provide routines that integrate into the DMI agent structure through the Component Interface (CI). These definitions result in an open agent platform that allows vendors to share a common management interface for PCs or workstations.

The DMI operates independent of the operating systems and the protocols. Thinking of the DMI as an interpreter, the requests are taken from the management applications and these are translated through the DMVs Service Layer in order for the component to provide the required information for the application. With the use of Service layer, the DMI allows the components to send notifications to any application that has been registered to receive this particular type of information.

The component specific agent modules are enabled by the DMI which are executed in response to the pertaining management commands which come through the DMI interface. It will then be possible to invoke the disk diagnostics remotely or to run the test routines on the specific boards in a particular standardizes way in a machine.

The definitions of the management data in the DTMF specification are called the Management Information Files (MIFs), and these resemble the SNMPs Management Information Bases (MIBs). The text file containing the information about the component, its configuration, its manufacturer and any information that helps managing the device is called the MIF.

In order to assure the information stored in the MIF remains the same, regardless the manufacturer of the product, the DMTF publishes standard structures of the MIF for different components. Having a standard way to specify desktop and server configuration information is a key breakthrough, and it will enable us to automatically collect a full inventory of all hardware and software. The same impact occurs on the systems management that the SNMPs auto-topology and the discovery capabilities had on the network management.

The work of the DMTFs is carried out in working groups which are organized around specific types of devices. Every group establishes a definition and structure for the MIF information that needs to be stored on its components.

The PC MIF contains information on the CPU, operating system, motherboard, audio, video, BIOS, I/Os, co-processor, power source and expansion slots.

In order to provide ease of access, forced upgrades, lower the maintenance and increase the performance the Intranet can be made of use. The alternative way for this would be to purchase high end powerful computers if the company can afford the expenses. If the alternative way has been implemented, the powerful systems when implemented, reduce the security risks and increase the performance while avoiding the intranet configurations.

Putting in simple terms, intranet can be described as the Internet and the World Wide Web technology in an Internal Network (Grimes, 1995). According to Lowe (2009), it is a network built with the use of similar tools and protocols used by the global Internet, however applied to the internal network in an organization. It is just like a closed-circuit television system that can only be viewed by those people that are included or member of the organization that owns the system. Therefore, it will be applicable solution to the internal communication of organization, because it enables the employees to be connected to the system, anywhere that they can be connected to the Internet.

The main advantage of the Intranet as mentioned earlier can offer a great way of offering the information to the internal user. Users can connect to the Intranet in spite of their location. This is one of the main advantages of the Intranet as compared to the Wireless and the Wired Network such as the WAN and the LAN. With the use of Intranet the company can publish the frequently asked questions by the customers, employees, government, students, and suppliers who have interest towards the company. Hence the main use of the Intranet is to disseminate the information in a faster and an effective way.

On the other hand, Intranet also has several disadvantages such as the expenses included to build the entire system, and things such as an organized culture and the togetherness of various talents need to be acquired in order to implement such a system.

The Intranet is built with the same tools and protocols used by the global internet. However, Intranet is applied to the internal network of the organization. In short, an Intranet can be described as a closed circuit television system that can only be viewed by people within the organization who own the system (Lowe, 2009). Intranet is a website that can only be viewed by people within the network of the organization. Even though based on the same protocols as the World Wide Web, an intranet is protected from the outside world either by not being connected to the outside or through a series of hardware and software obstacles known as a firewall.

The internal users are provided with a great way to share information across the organization with ease with the help of Intranet. Application used for newsletters, price lists, policy manuals etc. can be published. It can also help to transact application by gathering information that are related on expense and programs (Lowe 2009). Because intranet enables to create a private place in the Internet, the place will be safer and secured, because only those individuals with authority can access the website over the Internet. The Intranet helps disseminating the information to various users effectively, fast and easily.

Though of its advantages, the disadvantages of the Intranet also needs to be considered such as the Intranet being highly expensive to setup and maintain and also the need to hire a special team to handle the process of managing the resources involved in the website.

[4] The intranet is considered as one of the most advantageous networking technology in the current business world without any doubt. This is due to certain advantages that cannot be gained by the use of peer-to-peer or client-server architecture. The organizations can take advantage of the wireless and the Internet technology and also the advantage of security and privacy as offered by the traditional client-server system. Hence, the rise in popularity of both the intranet software and the internet become a threat to the client-server systems. However, the point that needs to be considered is that even though the intranet and the internet are being used worldwide, parts or certain aspects of a company still exist which are in need of the traditional client-server system.

There is no need for every organization to implement intranet just because it has become widely acceptable or just because their competitor has implemented it. The Information Technology departments need to discuss with the senior management of their organization and discuss the key issues that affect their business as these are the points that are required to develop the organization and not the IT issues. Unless this point is fully understood, businesses run the risk of failing to exploit the strategic and competitive advantages which are potentially available to them through investing in intranet technologies.

Yes, there are certain risks involved when working online, no matter how secured the network might be. The fact is that the risk of security of running an application over the internet is more significant than running the application on a standalone desktop computer. Some applications might require more security than the others. Playing a game on a web application is of potentially a less concern than dealing with highly sensitive corporate formulas or details regarding the accounts in a web environment which can be highly risky in some cases.


All the businesses today make use of the internet, not taking in to consideration how harsh the security implications are. Despite, the ever growing number and nature of the threats in the security, organizations can implement various security policies so that they can operate with a relative confidence. SMEs may gravitate towards using the UTMs or any other solution that covers the multiple security threats. Larger organizations which have more expertise generally have the choice of using the current options or adopting individual security solutions of their own or from any third party.


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