Making decisions information technology age


This paper will present and evaluate the differences of several decision models, based on mostly academic and business models on the Information Technology age. The articles will show the similarities that exist in all the models, which mainly will be the human factor or in other words the decision maker in most models. The traditional models will come under question as most will make reference to past actions routinely shaping the course of future decisions. This concept is believed to limit creativity in a environment of unforeseen growth that IT will take in the 21st century.

Alongside with technologies for handling data and information, lately much attention has been given to knowledge management models, their relevance to decision activities (Choo 1997) and relations between data, information and knowledge.

  • Improving decision making by reducing information overload, augmenting the cognitive limitations and rationality bounds of decision makers (El-Najdawi, Stylianou 1993).
  • Various kinds of support technologies and systems have been proposed such as computerized cognitive support aids (Thomassin Singh 1998).
  • Biased nature of some decision maker, leads to biased search for a decision (Jacobs 1990)
  • Advances in interfaces and presentation modals may soon be viable medium for intuitive perception and action (Kuo 1998)
  • Brainstorming
  • Extra dimensions- introduction of addition actors; also easy switch between action courses in decision development.
  • Raghavan (1991) models with flexible relation between variables which help develop group and synthesize ideas.
  • Some authors (ex., Hamscher 1995) considers qualities reasoning for creativity stimulation, but also admit more research needs to be done to develop decision-making tools.

Specific Problem Solving (Mind Tools, 2010)

  • Extracting maximum information from facts- appreciation of all data
  • Quickly getting to the root of a problem using a model by the Toyota corporation called 5 whys- (asking 5 why question to solve problems)
  • Cause and effect diagrams- using brainstorming and concept map
  • Cause and effect diagram- identifying likely causes of problems.
  • Affinity diagrams- Organizing ideas into common themes
  • Appreciative inquiry- Organizing ideas into common themes
  • Appreciative inquiry-Solving problems by looking at what's going right.
  • Flow charts- Understanding process flows
  • Risk Analysis and risk management
  • SWOT- Analyzing your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

This section will look at ethics and moral development in IT

  1. Internet ethics issues and concerns.
    • Respect for Property
    • Respect for Territory and Privacy
    • Respect for others and common courtesy.
    • Respect for Institution
    • Respect self
  2. The four key factors, according to, Willard N., that has an influence on behavior in the use of information technologies and the Internet.
    • Lack of affective feedback and remoteness from harm
    • Reduced fear of risk of detection and punishment.
    • New environment means new rules.
    • Perceptions of social injustice and corruption
  3. The following is an analysis of moral development research which has been developed to serve as a preliminary framework inquiry into information technology ethics issues.
  4. Moral Reasoning
    • Cognitive-moral development- Kohlberg's (1984) studied cognitive moral development, following Piaget (1965).
    • Youth moral abilities are define by cognitive development and environment factors.
    • Less industrial countries is not depended on high cognitive abilities base on cultural needs.
    • The Domain Theory- Internal moral orientation; Hoffman (1991) He believed that lack of empathy are more likely to have conflicts with morality and ethics.
    • Hoffman research was strongly supported by the work of Baumrind (1989)

How to Make Good Decisions

  1. Decision problems or decision opportunities- When mangers are negative they create a negative environment.
  2. Turning a problem into an opportunity is a result of many little actions taken on one problem at a time.
  • Every problem, properly perceived becomes opportunity.
  • Search process approach by diagramming-using past experiences and some strategic thinking.
  • Subjective and Objective decision making- a really hard question may need both.
  • The decision making process- deciding goals, values, note; every good decision is not permanent for another decision is waiting.
  • Retrospective decision making and reflection before action can be key to a good decision.

There are many decision making techniques that are being evaluated for the future in business and Information Technology.


  • Arsham, Hossein , (2009). Leadership Decision Making. Retrieved February 13, 2010 From Url:
  • Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognition theory of moral thought and action. In Kurtines, W. M. & Gewirtz, J. L. , Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development, Vol I. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ.
  • Kohlberg, L. (1984). The Philosophy of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Retrieved Feb, 14, 2010. From Url;
  • Hamscher W., Kiang M.Y., Lang R. (1995). Qualitative reasoning in business, finance And economics, Introduction Decision Support Systems, 15, 19-103
  • Piaget, J. (1965). The Moral Judgment of the Child. New York: The Free Press. Retrieved Feb 14, 2010 From Url
  • Shambach, Stephen LTC , (1996) Strategic Decision making in the Information Retrieved Feb 14, 2010 From Url:
  • Willard, N (1997). Research Associate center for Advanced in Education, University Oregon College of Education. Retrieved Feb 14, 2010 From Url:

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