Managing information system
An incorporated management system is managing systems that integrate all data of an organization system and processes in one complete structure, for organization to work as a one unit with basic goal.
In integrated system business work as one unit, with each function united at the back a particular goal humanizing the show of the total business. As an alternative of "silos", you have a co-ordinate system one that's larger that the calculation of its parts, and be able to get well again results. An integrated system can give a clear, r picture of all elements of organization, how they affect each other, what will be benefits and risks when they interconnect each other. There is less duplication, and it becomes easier to apply the fresh systems in this prospect.
The included managing system allows an organization to create one business that can help to get organizational goals more easily and in easy way. From coping with employee's needs, to observe competitor actions, from encouraging best practice, the reduce risks and maximize possessions, the integrated come within reach of be able to help business to achieve their goals.
"MIS is the blend of human and computer based resources that results in the collection ,storage, retrievals, communication and use of data for the purpose of efficient management of operation and business planning'' (By Terry Lucey 1995)
Research evidence shows that management information system may indeed add to the improvement of organizational performance (Brynjolfsson and Hitt 1996; Kohli and Devaraj 2003; Mukhopadhyay et al. 1995).
However, the dimensions and extent of information system business value depend on a variety of factors, including the type of information system, management practices, and organizational structure, as well as the competitive and macro environment.
The research also suggests that organizations do not correct all of the value they generate from IT, value may be captured by trading partners or competed away and captured by end customers in the form of lower prices and better quality.
"Information system are the means by which organization and people, using information technologies, gather process, store ,use and distribute information ,briefly a business information system can be described as a system that provide information needed by the managers, to support their plans in achieving the objectives of business or organization''.
The assignment will also try to found the linking of MIS across various appropriate departments of Tesco group. The essay will primary assesses how the Management Information System tool works and relates the sharing of the data among other departments and system. To understand MIS we should know about the followings.
Information reporting systems:IRS
"The most common form of MIS, provide managers and decision makers with reports that support day-to-day decision making needs" (Gary Loveman 2003)
Decision support systems (DSSs)
DSS are interactive, computer based information systems that rely on decision models and specialized databases to support decision makings. With electronic spreadsheets and other decision support software, users can pose a series of what if questions to test alternatives they are considering. Based on the assumptions used in the software or specified by the users, managers can explore various alternatives and receive tentative information to help them choose the alternative with the best outcome.
Executive information systems (ESIs)
ESI is management information systems to facilitate strategic decision making at the highest level of management. These systems are typically based on software that provides easy access to large amounts of complex data and can analyses and present the data in a timely fashion. ESIs provide top management with quick access to relevant internal and external information and, if designed properly, can help the diagnose problems as well as develop solutions.
A business performance control panel
It uses software to present key business information in graphical, easy-to-interpret form, and can alert managers to any deviations or unusual patterns in the data. Dashboard pull data from a variety of organizational systems and databases, gauge the data against key performance metrics, and pull out the right nuggets of information to deliver to top managers for analysis and action.
It is software that works on a computer network or via the Internet to link people or workgroups across a room or around the globe. The software enable the mangers or team members to communicate, share information, and work simultaneously on the same document, chart, or diagram and see changes and comments as they are made by others.
Integrated Management is related to any business, regardless of size or division that has been look to join together two or more of their managing systems into one organized structure with a holistic set of documents, policies, measures and processes has been taking. Normally, organizations most accessible to this product will be individuals they have a mature management system and who want to introduce other management systems to their business with the profit that they bring.
To understand how MIS function consider MIS system of Tesco superstores.
MIS of Organization like Tesco:
They upgrade its chain management systems to create a common framework across all countries and support its motion into the US market.
Tesco's personalized Continuous replacement application supervises and controls the in-store record but it is updating it for rollout in its US data centre.
Tesco is looking to launch first US shop in California by the end of this year and the retailer wish to future proof its supply chain applications.
Tesco has a common operating model for businesses worldwide, enabling it to organize and support key systems like supply chain and replenishment applications when it expands into new countries.
The modernized application will be deployed in all of Tesco's data centers across the world and create cost savings as Tesco will be able to use existing servers.
Micro Focus will update and extend Tesco's constant refill (CR) function to jog on the most modern IBM System p servers, which run AIX Unix. It will as well run on its IBM Systemz central processing unit running z/OS.
Micro Focus software will be used to produce a port for the Cobol-based CR purpose to AIX. Which will consent to Tesco to keep up a single supply stream for mutually the processor and UNIX versions of the function?
Freeform Dynamics analyst Martin Atherton says Tesco is readying its infrastructure for global expansion and enable it to address changes more efficiently as they happen.
'Tesco has seen the value in facilitating its broader, global systems first, which will make the job of extracting and using information easier and more efficient.
'Tesco is working harder to get its house in order before it gets to grips with dealing with information at a local level. Being able to control a common model across multiple countries will allow Tesco to 'think globally and act locally'.
The major aims of MIS are as follow
- To collect and propagate information on new and advanced developments in the field of applied information systems;
- To provide stuff for training and education in administrative data systems;
- To persuade further progress in information systems methodology and applications;
- To cover the range of information system development and practice in their use of managerial policies, strategies, and actions for business, public administration, and international organizations.'
Importance Of Decision Making In MIS:
"Decision making viewed as the centre for all of the managerial activities''. (Laudon 1996) but exactly now decision making is not just a central activity by the management rather it is one of the most vital challenge in relation to the corporate objectives. Information systems remains as the part of the decision making process as IS provides the communication, information flow, and distribute the data it is the main support to help making the conclusion.
In an organizational level decisions are made in different departments and in different manner. According to ( Anthony 1965) "decisions are made in three prime categories by an organization. The categories are: strategic (developed in 1980), management control (developed in 1970) and operational control (developed in 1950)''. Later knowledge level decision making was added because prominent role played by the knowledge work in organization.( Laudon 1996)
The tactical stage of the organization deals with the long term visions and long term planning for the organization. These levels include the policy makers and planners of the organization.
The management level controls and monitor the work process development, creating and implementing the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). They continuously monitor the efficiency and effective ways of doing things to improve the performance.
The operational level only carries out the selected task and related to the different other level of the organization.
The knowledge level decision making is often named as the mind-sharing innovate ideas of operation, new ways of communication, identifying the efficient channel of distributions and effective means of operation. Set and help apply the SOPs within the organization.
"Classified organizational decisions divided into three main groups. Such as: Structured, semi-structured and unstructured. And related these groups into the different level of the organization.'' (Simon 1960)
"According to Simon (1960) structured decisions have a procedure to implement and they are often repetitive and routine. Semi structured decisions have a clear cut answer of the half part of the problem but not the whole. Where as the unstructured decisions provides judgment, estimation and imminent to the problem.''
Data base management system DBMS enables root for the fast expanding field of MIS. Integrated MIS system is an electronic system for providing information to maintain operations, management, analysis, and decision making role in an organization. This uses hardware and software, instruction manual measures, models for analysis, scenery up, control, and choice make and data base.
All managers of organization operating at different level in organization share similar data for their requirements. Operating managers need data which is 100% accurate, detailed, internal and historic. Top level managers required aggregated external and internal data which can be save for long time. Majority organizations use DBMS technology for them until two decades before. For an effective and efficient organization a successful MIS is essential and for a successful MIS, effective data source.
The responsibility of the Database in an Organization:
Any organization is characteristically view as a three stage pyramid-operational procedures at the foundation, organization preparation and control events in the central point and planned and procedure making in top administration. The business database contains data concerning to the business, its operation, its stand and its environment.
The status of Data base Management In business or organization:-
The requirements of an organization or business and management are not fixed, diverse and often indistinct, up till now they should be met. Added to these are outside demands from central taxing the system, federal securities agency and legislators making the retreat laws. Both inside and outside services persist that organizations or business exercise control over their data reserves.
Decisions and actions in the business depend upon the reflection with this in the business database. Managerial decisions through the actions at the operational level and make plans and prospect which are previously captured and stored in the business database. Transactions trace definite results of managerial activities and environmental changes and inform the database to maintain a current picture.
Employees in business ask about the database for information to perform the daily operations. The middle supervision calculates approximately actual results to in the past recorded plan and potential. The business databases provide the data of modeling the forecasting which help top management requirements. The business database provides all levels of information's and is very important for operations, decision making and the management procedures.
While management learns to control data resources, computer applications developed. When a corporation achieves full maintain of its operation, for example, computer applications commence to enter into senior management levels. With complete database help for operations, an MIS can become as a tool for planning, be in command of and decision creation.
While an organization's progress toward the database approach can be accelerated by having of a DBMS. Most commercially available DBMS's fall significantly little of perfect capability, making their achievement an short-term measure a move to help the organization or business learn how to work in a managed data location. In looking for DBMS capability, building one's own system is impractical except for large organizations with special requirements, they as a very large database or huge volume of well-known connections wants fast online reply.
Importance Of Data
Data is a fundamental resource in a business and should be managed. The organizational database is a vital part in a management information system. Taking a database approach requires a business to focus on data as an esteemed source. Different programs and applications have different data for their usage.
Application of MIS
There are three sectors of business where we can execute MIS for development and quick results. They are as follow
- Manufacturing sectors
- Services sectors
- Cross functional enterprise systems
This sector includes sales, Marketing, Manufacturing, finance, accounting and human resource.
In this section Managerial task taken for organization. Managers basically perform decision making, planning and controlling. For all these things MIS is developed.
In this sector for the progress of business many departments coordinates each other.
They share information for launching of new products, future planning for the business and fulfilling customer's requirements.
Business process within a function Area:
They performing following tasks
- Performing research
- Improve the function
- Launch new product
Sales & Marketing:
They perform following tasks
- They identify potential customers
- Identify customer requirements
- Performing sales transactions
- Develop understanding features of new product
- Financial transaction
- Financial operations and developments
- Tax information
- Sort out requirements for business and recruit new staff
- Employees benefits
- Disciplinary actions to be taken
- Paging employee
Introduction of e-business:
E-business supports the following functions of business in which data is involved.
- Management of all operation in business
- Human Resource management
Functional e-business system:
Marketing info systems
Interactive Marketing system focuses on marketing process for the customers. It helps to maintain double entry system in business, thus encouraging customer to take part in development of product .It provide discussion rooms for the customer through internet technology.
It provides advertising of product and customer reviews.
Sales force automation:
Foster capture and analysis of sales data from the field of main data.
Computer integrated manufacturing
It simplify production process, product design and factory organization.
Integrate all production and support processes by computers and telecommunications technologies.
Documents necessary for personal management (PM) are as follow
- attendance of employee
- strength of employee
- leave record
- pay increment and pay roll of employee
- employee family information's
It covers attendance, PF, income tax and accident report.
They contain information about employee strength, transfers and salary.
These report deals with daily attendance and work done.
They cover job skills, training, and safety.
It includes information's about additional man power and transfer.
Deals documents, e-mail messages, forms and joint content like valuable assets. This Tech Center is intended to assist you take control of content with suggestion on the top management trend and combination approach. One time content is managed, use progressive text analytics to improve understand customers, business opportunities and risk. Examine on to make the most of information
Big business Process Management
T giants are also trade business process management (BPM) wholesalers or increasing the presented BPM capacity. Business astuteness merchant are partner with BPM vendor, as are suppliers of the business progress checking .Majority of businesses are using this technology.
An ordinary misunderstanding about BPM includes the main difference among the workflow systems of the 1990s and today's BPMS. Older, proprietary workflow systems managed document-based process wherever people performed the workflow steps of the process. Today's BPM systems manage processes that include person-to-person employment ladder, system-to-system communications or combinations of both. In addition, BPM systems consist of included feature such as improved (and portable) evolution modeling, activity, process implementation, process monitoring ,modify able industry exact templates and UI (user interface) parts, and out-of-box integration abilities to maintain web-service-based addition.
All of these elements understand to increased interest today in BPM set for the reason that they bring businesses a higher level of elasticity for business processes while limiting risks and cost. BPM execute and monitor computerized processes that may go across business boundaries - a kind of next-generation workflow.
Decision Support System
(DSS) is an interactive computer-based system or subsystem planned to help decision makers use communications technologies, data, documents, knowledge and/or models in order to recognize and solve problems, complete decision process tasks, and in make decisions. Decision Support System is a common term use for any computer application which enhances a person or group's capability to make decisions. Also, Decision Support Systems is an academic field of research which involves designing and studying Decision Support Systems for use. In general, Decision Support Systems is the computerized information system that helps in decision-making activities. Five more specific Decision Support System types include.
Organisation like Tesco uses Enterprise System Software which requires people to familiarize new work models. They must be given full training and comprehensive knowledge of soft ware.
Normally the employees feel difficulty in change old system to new one. Especially with Electronic system.
Either employee refuse to accept or force IT to adjust and modify ES.
Customisation makes software unstable and harder to maintain. Because with the different changing in requirements system changes.
The mistakes companies make is to suppose that it is easier to change people than customise software. There is a delicate balance between the two.
Wide teamwork and planning across functional areas and between organizations internally or externally is needed.
Latest education and training needed for the employees and customer to get the basic objective of the organization.
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- Buyer supplier management in the aerospace value chain
- Integrated manufacturing systems, pp. 462-468McGuffog, T. (1997),
- Managing the Supply Chain with Speed and Certainty Article Number Association.McGuffog, T. (1999),
- Terry Lucey 1995 MIS pp 1&2 7th edition The Guernsey Press co.uk
- Brynjolfsson, E., and Hitt, L. Paradox Lost? Firm-Level Evidence on the Returns to Information Systems Spending, Management Science (42:4), 1996,
- Brynjolfsson et al. 2002; Cooper et al. 2000; Dewan and Kraemer 2000).
- by Paulbocij Dave Chaffey and Simon Hickle 3rd edition 2006 Business information systems printed prentice hall Financial times
- Gary Loveman, 'Diamonds in the Data Mine,' Harvard Business review (May 2003): 109-113
- Julie Schlosser, 'Markdown Lowdown,' Fortune (January 12, 2004): 40
- Graham Curits &David Cobham 4th edition 2002 Business Information System FT (Prentic Hall )
- Ein, Richard and Rai, Arun. 2009. "Interfirm Strategic Information Flows in Logistics Supply Chain Relationships," MIS Quarterly, (33: 4) pp.735-762.0')
- The International Journal of Information Systems Application'' www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03787206
- State of Database Management In Organizations'' www.management-hub.com