Mémoire de fin d'études
1. Presentation of the company
1.1 About Belron S.A.
1.1.1 The Head Office
Belron® is the world's largest traveler glass repair and replacement (VGRR) company, and the only dedicated provider of VGRR services operating on a global basis, generating revenues in excess of €2,100 million in 2008.
Our vision is to be the world's No.1 choice for traveler glass repair and replacement.
Belron® has operations in 31 countries across five continents, specializing in the replacement of traveler glass and the repair of chipped windscreens.
Our call centers handle forty calls every minute and every three seconds, a BelronMémoire de fin détudes business replaces a piece of glass or repairs a windscreen. We have over 1,800 service centers and 8,000 mobile repair users serving around 9 million motorists worldwide.
The role of Belron® is to provide support for all its companies around the world, and to grow and develop the Belron® Group as a global business. The focus of each business unit is to implement the strategy that has been jointly developed. Cross-border collaboration and the sharing of resources, ideas and best practices supports all that we do. We are committed to a continuous geographic expansion both through the acquisition and integration of leading VGRR businesses, and the development of a growing network of franchisees.
1.1.2 Key Fact
Every three seconds we complete a job for a motorist.
Every day we complete approximately 6,300 windscreen repairs.
Every week we complete 94,000 mobile jobs.
In just five years Belron have doubled the number of jobs they do for customers, and more than doubled its turnover.
1.1.3 Belron International Brands
1.2 Belron Canada
1.2.1 About Belron Canada
Belron® Canada Incorporated is a subsidiary of Belron S.A., which unites eight major names: Vanfax®, Lebeau® Vitres d'Autos, Duro® Vitres d'Autos, Speedy Glass®, Novus® Repair and Replacement, Apple Auto Glass® and Technicentre Plus®. Belron® Canada is a top provider of automobile, residential and commercial glass. It has risen to the position of Canada's foremost distributor of auto glass, developer and manufacturer of electronic automotive products. Its coast-to-coast facilities offer incomparable benefits to customers, suppliers, partners and employees alike.
Driver safety is a major concern for Belron® Canada. Protecting users means rigorous application of installation best practices. That is why all glass repair or replacement products are of the utmost quality and meet the latest industry standards. Major investments have been made in R & D efforts to find innovative and effective work processes.
Our customers know that when dealing with Belron® Canada, they will enjoy advantages such as:
- Mobile service
- Outlets in Canada from coast to coast
- Partnerships with major insurance companies and business customers
- Nationwide programs
- Insurance claims management
- Toll-free number throughout Canada
- 380 stores and 40 distribution centers
1.2.2 Corporative Profile
Belron® Canada puts a unique nationwide network of expertise to work, including Lebeau® Vitres d'Autos, Duro® Vitres d'Autos, Speedy Glass®, Novus® Repair and Replacement and Apple Auto Glass® in the auto glass sector, and Vanfax® in the distribution sector. This helps member companies maintain and further improve the quality of the auto glass repair, replacement and stock management services they offer across Canada.
Through this cooperative effort, Belron® Canada has built a solid basis across the country for providing its customers a very wide selection of auto residential and commercial glass, products and related services that meet the most stringent industry criteria for reliability, efficiency and productivity. Pledged not just to meet but even to anticipate customer needs, the Belron® management team has a constant watch on market trends. They have also built strategic alliances with suppliers with top grades for the quality of their products and services, and a reputation for their ability to remain abreast of the latest technology. BelronMémoire de fin détudes Canada thus offers its customers unrivalled service at a very competitive price.
Belron® Canada's leadership in technology, communications and repairs sets it apart in the industry.
Belron® Canada owns over 380 service centers across all ten provinces. Its 40 warehouses enable it to offer better service to retailers. Through Technicentre Plus®, Belron® Canada is also active in developing and manufacturing electronic products. With its headquarters in Montreal, Belron® Canada has a total nationwide staff of over 1'700.
The Belron® strategy is simple - it is about driving sales growth and maximizing the efficiencies of our operations.
The Belron® business model is based on close coordination between central management and the business units in order to maximise the benefits from scale economies and efficiencies. All operations are strongly integrated through the value chain - from supply and logistics through to call centre operations, service centre and mobile job execution.
At Belron®, we do not underestimate the value of local knowledge. Therefore, each business unit develops to respond to local needs. But by standardizing as much of the way we operate across the group, we are able to focus on local conditions and market requirements. This enables us not only to remain the number one operator in every market we are in, but also to reduce costs and drive operational efficiencies.
2 Enunciation of the issues
In the information technology department, it always been a priority to maintain the availability of the service, and to ensure its scalability.
Nowadays, in addition to these priorities, IT leader have to implement some strategies that permit to improve productivity and processes and permit to reduce operational and capital costs.
The explosion of information created by e-business is making storage a strategic investment priority for companies of all sizes. As storage becomes a priority, two major concerns have emerged: business continuity and business efficiency.
Business continuity requires storage that supports data availability so that employees, customers and trading partners can access data 24 x 7 through reliable, disaster tolerant systems.
Business efficiency, where storage is concerned, is the need for investment protection, reduced total cost of ownership and high performance and manageability. Storage just can't be an afterthought anymore. Too much is at stake.
How to reach these objectifs with a exponential amount of data and information that it have to be store
To meet with our challenges we start with a project in order to:
Unify the storage Management
Storage consolidation allows our organization to unify storage management on a high-performance storage area network. It a method of centralizing data storage among multiple servers. The objective is to facilitate data backup and archiving for all subscribers in an enterprise, while minimizing the time required to access and store data. Other desirable features include simplification of the storage infrastructure, centralized and efficient management, optimized resource utilization, and low operating cost.
There are three typical storage consolidation architectures: network-attached storage (NAS), redundant array of independent disks (RAID), and the storage area network (SAN).
In NAS, the hard drive that stores the data has its own network address. Files can be stored and retrieved rapidly because they do not compete with other computers for processor resources.
In RAID storage consolidation, the data is located on multiple disks. The array appears as a single logical hard drive. This facilitates balanced overlapping of input/output (I/O) operations and provides fault tolerance, minimizing downtime and the risk of catastrophic data loss.
The SAN is the most sophisticated architecture. SANs are noted for high throughput and ability to provide centralized storage for numerous subscribers over a large geographic area. SANs support data sharing and data migration among servers.
With the right storage consolidation solutions, you can more easily deploy, manage and scale storage configurations to accommodate increasingly complex business needs. Rather than managing disparate islands of storage, you can focus your attention on a single pool of storage resources that supports diverse applications and systems.
Increase Storage Utilization
Reduce Risk for Critical Business Applications
Enable High Availability
Features such as application optimized cache partitioning and dynamic, non disruptive data migration help you increase uptime and enable applications to consistently meet service level expectations. Transparent firmware, component upgrades and capacity expansion keep applications online during both routine and major maintenance. Efficient diagnostic tools enable effective, system wide planning and easy, timely adjustments to prevent disruptions. In addition, data throughput is significantly improved for backups and restores.
3.2 What is a Storage Area Network?
The Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA)1 defines the SAN at two levels.
At the networking level, they define it as a network whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements and among storage elements.
A SAN consists of a communication infrastructure, which provides physical connections, and a management layer, which organizes the connections, storage elements, and computer systems so that data transfer is secure and robust. The term SAN is usually (but not necessarily) identified with block I/O services rather than file access services.
At the system level, they define it as a storage system consisting of storage elements, storage devices, computer systems, and/or appliances, plus all control software, communicating over a network.
The SNIA definition specifically does not identify the term SAN with Fibre Channel technology. When the term SAN is used in connection with Fibre Channel technology, use of a qualified phrase such as "Fibre Channel SAN" is encouraged. According to this definition, an Ethernet-based network whose primary purpose is to provide access to storage elements would be considered a SAN. SANs are sometimes also used for system interconnection in clusters.
3.3 Topology and implementation
3.3.1 Global Topology
3.3.2 IBM System Storage DS4700 Express
18.104.22.168 Hardware Overview
According to our needs, Belron Canada chooses the IBM System Storage DS4700.
22.214.171.124 Technique Specification
126.96.36.199 Available features and benefits of DS4700
According to the IBM presentation, the IBM System Storage DS4700 Express has different features that we can implement to meet our objective:
* Eight 4Gbps Fiber Channel host port
- Designed to deliver high bandwidth for the most demanding applications
- Designed to provide up to 1550MBps of bandwidth for high throughput applications through the eight channels
* Backward compatibility with 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps devices
- Plan for the future while leveraging current investments
- Auto-negotiate connection speed to ease configuration in mixed environments
* Support for multiple RAID levels
- Helps provide high availability and security for mission-critical data
- Flexibility to configure system to address varying service levels
* Redundant, hot-swappable components
- Replace components while avoiding disruption of DS4700 Express operations
- Help address demanding service levels
* Up to 112 Fibre Channel drives
- Upgrade from a workgroup SAN to an enterprise network storage system with a single DS4700 Express
* Dynamic Capacity Expansion (DCE)
- Add DS4000 EXP810 enclosures to an existing DS4700 Express without stopping operations
- Bring unused storage online for a new host group or an existing volume to provide additional capacity on demand.
* Up to 64 partitions
- Help optimize the utilization of storage devices
- Help reduce hardware and storage management costs.
* System Storage DS4000 Storage Manager software
- Supports centralized management of local and networked DS4000 series systems
- Quickly configure and monitor storage from a browser-based interface.
- Configure volumes, perform routine maintenance and add new enclosures and capacity without interrupting access to data
* Mix Fibre Channel attachment units
- Allocate Fibre Channel disk to applications that demand the highest performance and have high I/O rates
- Make point-in-time copies of logical volumes for file restoration, backups, application testing or data mining
* Dynamic Volume Expansion
- Expand logical volumes without disrupting operations
3.3.3 IBM System Storage Manager
The IBM System Storage manager client is a java-based GUI utility that is available for various operating systems.
The Storage manager is the focal point for configuration, copy services management, and maintenance activities.
You can use it to:
- Create new arrays and logical drives
- Expand existing arrays and logical drives
- Configure storage partitioning
- Convert from one RAID level to another
- Tune the System Storage Server (DS4700)
- Replace and rebuild failed disk drives
- Perform diagnostic and troubleshooting tasks
- Use advanced functions such as FlashCopy, VolumeCopy, and Enhanced Remote Mirroring
Storage manager allows you to perform other management tasks like checking the status of the storage server components, updating the firmware of RAID controllers, etc...
188.8.131.52 The Logical/physical view
The left pane shows the logical view. The storage-subsystem capacity is organized into a tree-like structure that shows all arrays and logical drives configured on the storage server. You can select any array or logical drive object in the tree and perform various tasks on it.
The right pane shows the physical view. The physical view displays the physical devices in the storage system, such as controllers and drives. When you click a logical drive or other item in the logical view, the associated physical components are displayed in the physical view. Selection of controllers or disk drives enables you to perform tasks on them.
Creating arrays and logical drives is one of the most basic steps and is required before you can start using the physical disk space. That is, you divide your disk drives into arrays and create one or more logical drives inside each array.
Create an Array
An array is a set of physical drives that the controller logically groups together to provide one or more logical drives to an application host or cluster.
Here is the Step-by-Step procedure to create a new array with all unconfigured disk.
First to create new array, right click on your Total Unconfigured Capacity, the click on "Create Array".
In that window, you will enter the name of the new array.
Here you can choose the RAID level that you want for your array. The array capacity will be in function of the selected RAID level.
Create a Logical Drive
A logical drive is a logical structure that you create on a storage system for data storage.
Here is the Step-by-Step procedure to create a new Logical Drive from free capacity already available in previously defined arrays on the storage system.
Right click on the available free capacity then on "Create Logical Drive"
Here you can set your new logical drive using any of the predefined I/O types listed, or manually set the cache read ahead multiplier, segment size, and controller ownership.
The three predefined I/O types use the following defaults:
Manually mapping logical drives to hosts prevents unwanted mapping and is always the recommended choice.
184.108.40.206 The Mappings View
The left pane shows the defined storage partitions, hosts, and host ports, while the right pane shows the LUN mappings for a particular host or host group. From this window, you can see, configure, or reconfigure which server is allowed to see which logical drive.
As heterogeneous hosts can be attached to the Storage Server, you must configure storage partitioning for two reasons:
- Each host operating system requires slightly different settings on the Storage Server. You must tell the storage system the host type that it is attached to.
- There is interference between the hosts if every host has access to every logical drive. By using storage partitioning and LUN masking, you ensure that each host or host group only has access to its assigned logical drives. You can have up to 256 LUNs assigned to a single storage partition.
The overall process of defining the storage partitions is as follows:
- Define host groups.
- Define hosts.
- Define host ports for each host.
- Define storage partitions by assigning logical drives to the hosts or host groups.
A Host is a single system that can be mapped to a logical drive. A Host Group is a collection of hosts that are allowed to access certain logical drives, for example, a VMware cluster.
When the Storage Server is connected to a Fiber Channel Switched Fabric, you have to make sure that first define the zoning appropriately, before configuring partitioning.
Here is the step-by-step procedure to map a undefined logical drive to a host or a group of host.
Right click on the undefined mappings
Select the Host or the Group Host, the Logical Unit Number (LUN) and the Logical Drive that you want to map.
To enable the use of the new Logical Drive inside the operating system, you have to first formatting the disks with a file system and mounting them.
3.3.4 Fibre Channel and Fibre Channel Switched Fabric
220.127.116.11 Fibre Channel Definition
Fibre Channel, or FC, is a gigabit-speed network technology primarily used for storage networking. Fibre Channel is standardized in the T11 Technical Committee of the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS), an American National Standards Institute (ANSI)-accredited standards committee. It started use primarily in the supercomputer field, but has become the standard connection type for storage area networks (SAN) in enterprise storage. Despite its name, Fibre Channel signaling can run on both twisted pair copper wire and fiber-optic cables.
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) is a transport protocol (similar to TCP used in IP networks) which predominantly transports SCSI commands over Fibre Channel networks.
18.104.22.168 SAN Topologies
22.214.171.124.1 Point-to-Point (FC-P2P)
A point-to-point connection is the simplest topology. It is used when there are exactly two nodes, and future expansion is not predicted. There is no sharing of the media, which allows the devices to use the total bandwidth of the link. A simple link initialization is needed before communications can begin.
126.96.36.199.2 Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
Arbitrated loop (FC-AL). In this design, all devices are in a loop or ring, similar to token ring networking. Adding or removing a device from the loop causes all activity on the loop to be interrupted. The failure of one device causes a break in the ring. A loop may also be made by cabling each port to the next in a ring.
188.8.131.52.3 Switched Fabric
The third topology used in SAN implementations is Fibre Channel Switched Fabric (FC-SW).
The switched fabric, or just fabric, is a network topology where network nodes connect with each other via one or more switches.
In the Fibre Channel switched fabric topology, devices are connected to each other through one or more Fibre Channel switches. A Fibre Channel switch is a network switch compatible with the Fibre Channel (FC) protocol. This topology allows the connection of up to the theoretical maximum of 16 million devices, limited only by the available address space (224).
This topology has the best scalability properties of the three FC topologies, it is also the most expensive, the only one requiring a fibre channel switch.
In our case, the Fibre Channel network designs employ two separate switches for redundancy. One of the advantages of this topology is capability of failover, meaning that in case one link breaks or a switch is out of order, the node can use the second fabric.
FC switches implement zoning, a mechanism that manage the visibility among nodes and disables unwanted traffic between them.
3.3.5 Fiber Switch
184.108.40.206 World Wide Name
All Fibre Channel devices have a unique identity called the World Wide Name (WWN). This is similar to the way all Ethernet cards have a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address.
Each Port will have its own WWN, but it also possible for a device with more than one Fibre Channel adapter to have its own WWN as well.
This means that a zone can be created using the entire array (Node WWN), or individual zones could be created using particular adapters(Port WWN or WWPN). In the future, this will be the case of the servers as well.
This WWN is a 64-bit address, and if two WWN addresses are put into the frame header, this leaves 16 bytes of data just for identifying destination and source address. So 64-bit addresses can impact routing performance.
Each device in the SAN is identified by a unique world wide name (WWN). The WWN contains a vendor identifier field, which is defined and maintained by the IEEE, and a vendor-specific information field.
Currently, there are two formats of the WWN as defined by the IEEE. The original format contains either a hex 10 or hex 20 in the first two bytes of the address.
For details information, you can visit: http://standards.ieee.org/
Concept of Zoning
Zoning allows for finer segmentation of the switched fabric. Zoning can be used to instigate a barrier between different environments. Only the members of the same zone can communicate within that zone and all other attempts from outside are rejected.
For example, it might be desirable to separate a Microsoft Windows NT environment from a UNIX environment. This is very useful because of the manner in which Windows attempts to claim all available storage for itself.
Because not all storage devices are capable of protecting their resources from any host seeking available resources, it makes sound business sense to protect the environment in another manner.
Zoning is also considered as a security feature and not just for separating different Operating System environments. It could be used for test and maintenance purposes. For example, not many enterprises will mix their test and development environments with their production environment. Within a fabric, you could easily separate your test environment from your production bandwidth allocation on the same fabric using zoning.
Zoning is implemented by the fabric operating systems within the fabric switches and can be implemented in two ways:
- Hardware zoning
- Software zoning
Hardware or port zoning
Hardware zoning is based on the physical fabric port number. The members of a zone are physical ports on the fabric switch.
The disadvantage of hardware zoning is the scalability because devices have to be connected to a specific port, and the whole zoning configuration could become unusable if the device is connected to a different port.
For example, if a port failed and requiring to be re-cabled into a new port, any zone containing reference to previous port would need to be replaced with the new port number. This would involve having to manually update the zoning information and applying the change to the fabric.
Software or WWN zoning
Software zoning is implemented within the name server running inside the fabric switch.
When a port contacts the name server, the name server will only reply with information about ports in the same zone as the requesting port.
When using zoning the members of the zone can be defined using their World Wide Names:
- Node WWN
- Port WWN
Usually, zoning also allows you to create symbolic names for the zone members and for the zones themselves. Dealing with the symbolic name or aliases for a device is often easier than trying to use the WWN address.
The number of members possible in a zone is limited only by the amount of memory in the fabric switch. A member can belong to multiple zones. You can define multiple sets of zones for the fabric, but only one set can be active at any time. You can activate another zone set any time you want, without the need to power down the switch.
With software zoning there is no need to worry about the physical connections to the switch. If you use WWNs for the zone members, even when a device is connected to another physical port, it will still remain in the same zoning definition, because the device's WWN remains the same. The zone follows the WWN.
220.127.116.11 LUN Masking
Another approach to securing storage devices from hosts wishing to take over already assigned resources is logical unit number (LUN) masking. Every storage device offers its resources to the hosts by means of LUNs.
For example, each partition in the storage server has its own LUN. If the host (server) wants to access the storage, it needs to request access to the LUN in the storage device. The purpose of LUN masking is to control access to the LUNs. The storage device itself accepts or rejects access requests from different hosts.
The user defines which hosts can access which LUN by means of the storage device control program. Whenever the host accesses a particular LUN, the storage device will check its access list for that LUN, and it will allow or disallow access to the LUN.
18.104.22.168 Routing Mechanisms
A complex fabric can be made of interconnected switches and directors, perhaps even spanning a LAN/WAN connection. The challenge is to route the traffic with a minimum of overhead, latency, and reliability, and to prevent out-of-order delivery of frames.
Here are some of the mechanisms.
In case of failure, it is important to consider having an alternative path between source and destination available. This will allow data to still reach its destination. However, having different paths available could lead to the delivery of frames being out of the order, due to frame taking a different path and arriving earlier than one of its predecessors.
A solution, which can be incorporated into the meshed fabric, is called a spanning tree and is an IEEE 802.1 standard. This means that switches keep to certain paths, as the spanning tree protocol will block certain paths to produce a simply connected active topology. Then the shortest path in terms of hops is used to deliver the frames, and only one path is active at a time. This means that all associated frames go over the same path to the destination. The paths that are blocked can be held in reserve and used only if, for example, a primary path fails.
The most commonly used path selection protocol is fabric shortest path first (FSPF). This type of path selection is usually performed at boot time, and no configuration is needed. All paths are established at start time, and only if no inter-switch link (ISL) is broken or added will reconfiguration take place.
Fabric shortest path first
According to the FC-SW-2 standard, fabric shortest path first (FSPF) is a link state path selection protocol. The concepts used in FSPF were first proposed by Brocade, and have since been incorporated into the FC-SW-2 standard. Since then it has been adopted by most, if not all, manufacturers.
What FSPF is
FSPF keeps track of the links on all switches in the fabric and associates a cost with each link. The cost is always calculated as being directly proportional to the number of hops. The protocol computes paths from a switch to all other switches in the fabric by adding the cost of all links traversed by the path, and choosing the path that minimizes the cost.
How FSPF works
The collection of link states (including cost) of all switches in a fabric constitutes the topology database (or link state database). The topology database is kept in all switches in the fabric, and they are maintained and synchronized to each other. There is an initial database synchronization, and an update mechanism.
The initial database synchronization is used when a switch is initialized, or when an ISL comes up. The update mechanism is used when there is a link state change. This ensures consistency among all switches in the fabric.
How FSPF helps
In the situation where there are multiple routes, FSPF will ensure that the route that is used is the one with the lowest number of hops. If all the hops:
- Have the same latency
- Operate at the same speed
- Have no congestion
The FSPF will ensure that the frames get to their destinations by the fastest route.
3.3.6 Server Installation
22.214.171.124 Host Bus Adapters (HBA) Card
According to our objective of redundancy, each server connected to the SAN will be equipped with to HBA Card.
Each card will be connected to a different Fiber Switch of the fabric.
Index et definition
1 Storage Networking Industry Association
An association of producers and consumers of storage networking products, whose goal is to further storage networking technology and applications. The Storage Networking Industry Association, or SNIA, was incorporated in December, 1997, and is a registered 501(c)(6) non-profit trade association. Its members are dedicated to "ensuring that storage networks become complete and trusted solutions across the IT community".