OS installation and configuration

We are International Diploma in Computer Studies (IDCS) students from Myanmar Computer Com., Ltd (MCC), and Yangon. We study for four subjects in our first modules that are Computer Technology, Programming Methods, Visual Basic.NET and Fundamental of Hardware and Operating System for elective subjects.

        The objectives of this assignment are to access the student's ability to assemble a small peer- to - peer network system including the demonstration of the understanding of the technical and practical skills involved in PC technical support such as installation of NIC's , using hub or switch, installation Windows XP operation system , installation and configuration the printer , printer sharing by any of the other PCs in the LAN, establishing one shared folder (directory) on each of the PCs, testing the printer.

We do this assignment for my one of the Core Subjects, Fundamental of Hardware and Operating System (FHOS). We studied and obtained require information and knowledge from my lectures. We also gathered information from the Internet. Thanks to all our lectures because they help to us in doing assignment to be easy. Especially, we really thank to U Yar zar Aye Cho and U Tin Naing Htwe as they give us useful advices and guidance for our assignment.

Due to this assignment, we got a lot of knowledge that related the Fundamental of Hardware and Operating Systems like WINDOWS INSTALLATION, Printer installation, Major system files in XP etc. We actually got much knowledge by doing this one. Although we are not professionals, we do this one as well as we can. I think that this assignment will be good in spite of being perfect.

We first start to be familiarised with equipments such as NIC Card (Network Interface Card), Ethernet switch, printer etc. We take about three days to do this task.

Network Interface card (NIC card)

        Network interface card (NIC card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network.


First we will require being familiar with equipment. We have to make the list of the equipments that will be used. We have to search the detail of each item and their prices.

Especially, we seek the technical details of Network Interface Cards (NIC Cards), switch and Printer. They are the important items in this project.

After doing it, we will take about 3 three days to familiarize with the equipment. And then we are going to develop the action plan for one day. We will collect the required equipments for 3 days because we have to collect to the things we want. We take two days to install hardware. For installation of software, we will need about 2 days. In network installation and configuration, we will have to take two days. To install and make sharing a printer, we will need about one day. Totally, we will require about 14 days to be completing this project.

In the task2, we will do the following task practically.

  • Installing Network Interface Cards( NIC )
  • Using an appropriate hub or switch connect the PCs using appropriate cabling
  • Installing Windows XP professional
  • Installing and configuring the printer
  • Sharing the Printer
  • Sharing the Folder (NCCMar09)
  • Copying the test document
  • Test the printer by printing the test document from each of the PCs.

Five Majors System Files in Windows XP

The five major system files in Windows XP are

  2. NTLDR


NTLDR enables the customer to select which OS to start up from at the menu; for NT and NT-based operating systems, it also enables the customer to through preconfigured options to the kernel. The menu options are saved in boot.ini file, which is stored in the root directory.

For NT-based operating systems, the path of the OS is shown as an Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) path.

BOOT.INI is being protected from User Configuration, which has the attributes: system, hidden and read-only.


NTLDR (NT Loader) is a loader for all releases of Microsoft Windows NT up to and consisting Windows XP versions and Windows Server 2003 versions. NTLDR is normally executes from the local hard drive, but it can also be executed from portable media -- CD-ROM, USB flash drive or floppy disk. NTLDR can also copy without NT-based OS with regard to the boot sector file.


The Windows NT start-up process is the process by which Microsoft's Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 operating systems initialize.


It is the It located in Registry hive file that loads as HKEY-CURRENT-USER when a user logs on. Contain the user profile for the user who is currently logged on to the computer. C:\Document and Settings\Your name here\NTUSER.DAT.


Ntdetect.comis a component ofMicrosoftWindows NToperating systemsthat operate on thex86architecture. It is used during theWindows NT start up process, and is responsible for detecting basic hardware that will be required to start the operating system.

Ntdetect.com is invoked byNTLDR, and returns the information it gathers to NTLDR when finished, so that it can then be passed on toNtoskrnl.exe, the Windows kernel.

Ntdetect.com is used on computers that useBIOSfirmware. Computers withExtensible Firmware Interface, such asIA-64, use a technique of device-detection that is not tied to the operating system.

Hardware works somewhat differently depending on whether the Advanced configuration and power management hardware is supported. If ACPI is supported, the list of found devices passed into the kernel, Windows will assume responsibility for assigning each device a number of sources. On older hardware, where ACPI is not supported, the BIOS takes responsibility for the allocation of resources, not the operating system, so this information is forwarded to the kernel as well.

Five Common Technologies Available for Establishing Internet Connectivity

  1. Wi-Fi
  2. ADSL
  3. Dial Up
  4. Wi-Max
  5. Broadband

1. Wi Fi

Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, originally founded in 1999 as WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance). Organization consists of more than 300 companies whose products are certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance, based on the IEEE 802.11 set of standards (also called WLAN (Wireless LAN) and Wi-Fi). This certification provides interoperability between different wireless devices.

Wi-Fi certified technologies are supported by nearly every modern personal computer operating system, most advanced game consoles, laptops, smart phones and many printers and other peripherals.


Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line(ADSL) is a form ofDSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission overcopper telephonethan a conventionalvoice bandmodemcan provide. It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voicetelephone call. A splitter - ormicro filter- allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time. Because phone lines vary in quality and were not originally engineered with DSL in mind, it can generally only be used over short distances, typically less than 4km.

3. Dial Up

Dial-up Internet Accessis a form ofInternet accessviatelephone lines. The user's computer orrouteruses an attachedmodemconnected to a telephone line to dial into anInternet service provider's (ISP) node to establish a modem-to-modem link, which is then used torouteInternet Protocolpackets between the user's equipment and hosts on theInternet.

4. Wi-Max

WiMAX, meaningWorldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is telecommunicationstechnology that provides wirelesstransmissionof data using a variety of transmission modes, frompoint-to-pointlinks to portable internet access The technology provides up to 75 Mbit/s symmetric broadband speed without the need for cables. The technology is based on theIEEE 802.16standard (also calledBroadband Wireless Access).

5. Broadband

Broadband Internet access, often shortened to justbroadband, is high data rate Internet access—typically contrasted withdial-up accessover a modem.

Dial-up modems are generally only capable of a maximumbitratesof 56kilobit per second (kilobitsper second) and require the full use of a telephone line—whereas broadband technologies supply at least double this bandwidth and generally without disrupting telephone use.

Major Criticisms of Latest Windows OS (Windows Vista)


1. Hardware requirements

Higher demands some "premium" features, such as the Aero interface, which influenced many of the top graders. The continuing uncertainty ultimately led to class action against Microsoft, as people found themselves with new computers that have not been able to use new software to its full potential, despite assurances of "Vista Capable" designation. Court case publish internal communications to Microsoft, which suggests that managers have also had trouble with this problem.

2. Licensing and cost

Criticism of upgrade licenses related to Windows Vista Home Premium via the Starter has been expressed to Ken Fisher, Technical, who noted that the new requirement with the previous operating system already installed, go to cause irritation for users who reinstall Windows on a regular basis. It was found that the upgrade copy of Windows Vista can be installed clean without first installing a previous version of Windows. On first installation, Windows will refuse to activate. The user must then reinstall the same copy of Vista. Vista reinstalled then activated, allowing the user to install the upgrade from Windows Vista without owning a previous operating system. As with Windows XP, separate rules still applies to OEM versions of Vista installed on new computers: Microsoft claims that these versions are not legally transferable (although whether this is contrary to law, the first sale has yet to decision clearly legally).

3. Digital rights management

Windows Vista supports other forms of digital rights management protection. Depending on what the content demands, the machine can not pass premium content via non-encrypted output, or be artificially deteriorate the signal quality of such outputs, or not show all. The drivers for this hardware must be approved by Microsoft, cancellation mechanism is also Microsoft that allows drivers to turn off equipment at end-user PC via the Internet. However, despite several requests for evidence to support these claims, Peter Guttmann has never supported his allegations with any evidence examined. Proponents claim that Microsoft had no choice but to follow the requirements of film studios, and that this technology will actually be allowed until after 2010, Microsoft also noted that the content protection mechanisms exist in Windows as far back as Windows Me, and that the new protection not apply to existing content

4. User Account Control

While UAC is considered an important part of the security infrastructure Vista, as it is blocking the software from silently gain administrator privileges without your knowledge, it was widely criticized for generating too many challenges. This has led many users of Vista UAC considered annoying and tiresome, with some subsequently either turned off, or entry into the auto-approval system. In response to this criticism, Microsoft changed the implementation to reduce the number of call with SP1. Although the changes led to improvements, it is not completely alleviate concerns.


Fundamentals of Hardware and Operating Systems (IDCS text book) by BROOKS, CHARLES J.

Guide to Networking Essentials(Fifth Edition) by Greg Tomsho, Ed Tittel and David Johnson.

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