Imagining the Global
I would like to talk in this paper about the topic connected with globalization, because this term is widely used in our society last years and we should look at it attentively in the frames of this work. We can mention that exactly today globalization became “second nature” to us, and it has several reasons why these changes have a place in our life. I want to also define the term globalization and explain how the “global” as common sense became so popular in our life.
Defining the term “globalization” it is necessary to say that globalization is increasing integration of economies and societies in the whole world. Globalization also can be described as the inevitable phenomenon in history of humanity, consisting in that the world as a result of exchange by commodities and products becomes information, knowledge and cultural values more associate. However for the last decades the rates of this global integration became much more high and impressive due to unprecedented achievements in such spheres, as technologies, means of communication, science, transport and industry.
Although globalization accelerates development of humanity and it is outcome of people's actions, it is not a simple process to which it is needed to adapt and which creates serious problems and difficulties. Such rapid rates of changes can accept threatening character, and most countries tried to control or manage them in their activity. Globalization became our “second nature” and it took not so many times as it can seem on the first glance.
Looking at the problem of globalization in political and economical sense we can mark out that globalization became reason of the hottest discussions of the last decade in this sphere.
Criticizing the consequences of globalization, more frequent than all people allude to economic integration. Economic integration takes place then, when countries are softened by such limits, as tariffs on import, and make the economy opened for investments and trade with other world. The critics of globalization mark that inequality in the present global system of trade negatively affects developing countries in harm to the developed countries.
According to Murray we see that the supporters of globalization consider that the leadthrough of policy of open economy in such countries, as Vietnam, India, China and Uganda, allowed largely to shorten the scales of poverty. (Murray, 2006) In reply to it critics declare that over this process brought to exploitation of people in developing countries, to serious destabilization and practically did not bring a benefit.
In order that entire countries could turn to the account from globalization, it follows an international association to continue work on liquidation of disproportions in international trade (reduction of subsidies to the farmers and decline of trade barriers), which answer interests of the developed countries, and creation of more just system. In the next paragraph I want to use real examples how globalization influenced on different countries, because examples are better than ordinary words.
Saying about positive influence of globalization we can mention that globalization made some countries more prosperous and we can call these challenges real benefits for their economic level:
ü China. Reforms resulted in the extraordinary decline of level of poverty. In a period from 1978 to 1989 quantity of rural poor men to 34 millions grew short from 250.
ü India. For the last 20 years the level of poverty went down twice.
ü Vietnam. The results of inspections of the poorest families testify that in 90th years of ХХ century the living conditions were improved by 98% members of such families. A government was conducted by the inspection of family at the beginning of process of reforms and, going back to the same family in six years, they set that had happened considerable decline of level of poverty. People have more food stuffs, their children attended middle school. One of numerous factors, influencing on success of reforms in Vietnam, became liberalization of trade. For ten years level of poverty in a country was succeeded to shorten in two times. Because of economic integration prices grew on the products of poor farmers: rice, fish, nuts, and also workplaces capacity was increased on factories on making of shoe and clothes, where work is paid much better, than other work is in Vietnam.
But for a great regret globalization can't help to all countries and for example:
ü Many African countries got no benefit from globalization. Their export is still taken to the limited list of primary commodities.
ü Some experts explain lag of these countries by ineffectiveness of the conducted policy, lack of development of infrastructure, weakness of institutes and corrupted nature of organs of power.
ü Other experts consider that some countries can not disembogue in the process of global growth because of unfavorable geographical position and climatic conditions. So, countries, not having an outlet to the sea, can experience difficulty with a competition on the global markets of commodities of industrial production and services.
Analyzing globalization Chumakov said that “Globalization and cosmopolitanism, on the one hand, and autarchy, nationalism, on the other are two extremes between which the humankind is determined to balance constantly due to diversity and natural confrontation of various cultural and civilization systems, by which it is represented. At the same time, globalization and cosmopolitanism are natural phenomena and the most important characteristics of social development. That is why we should not put obstacles in the way of their dissemination and rooting in the social life, but to aim at deeper understanding of their essence and what is hidden behind them in order, preventing ourselves from rash evaluations and one-sided conclusions, to contribute into the formation of a stable and just global world.” (Chumakov, 2008)
Thinking about globalization in cultural sense we can mention that cultural diffusion, i.e. elemental and by nobody controlled borrowing of cultural values, has both positive and negative aspects. From one side, it allows people to communicate between each other and hear each other every day. Intercourse and cognition is instrumental in rapprochement of people. De autre part, beyond measure active intercourse and borrowing is dangerous the loss of cultural originality. Distribution of identical cultural standards all over the world, the openness of scopes for cultural influence and broadening cultural intercourse compelled scientists to talk about the process of globalization of modern culture.
Globalization describes the acceleration of integration of nations in the world system in connection with development of modern transport vehicles and economic connections, due to affecting people of mass medias. It is instrumental in expansion of cultural contacts between people and migration of people. As any process in our life globalization has positive and negative sides. The negative moments of globalization are covered in possibility of loss of the cultural originality. It can be presented as a result of acculturation and assimilation.
The maintenance of cultural originality in modern society began to be estimated as higher achievement of civilization. In the past it wasn't take notice of this process, therefore one nation took in other, dissolving in itself without remaining the culture of the subdued people. So it was in the days of European colonization in the countries of Latin America and Africa.
Thus, based on all above mentioned it is necessary to say that the process of globalization of culture creates close connection between economic and culturological disciplines. The last one is so important that it can be talked about economization of culture and culturalization of economy. Similar influence is determined that a public production is more oriented on creation of the intellectual, cultural and spiritual blessings and services or on the production of “characters”, and in the field of culture the laws of market and competition are all stronger felt (“mass-culture”).
Chumakov, A. The Twenty-Second World Congress of Philosophy.
Murray, Warwick E. Geographies of Globalization. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Sachs, Jeffrey. The End of Poverty. New York, New York: The Penguin Press, 2005.
Smith, Charles. International Trade and Globalisation, 3rd edition. Stocksfield: Anforme, 2007.
Symposia 2: Globalization and Cosmopolitanism. Globalization and Cosmopolitanism in the Context of Modernity. Seoul, 2008.