As Chatterjee, Dutta, Ray and Sengupta (1993), Bloch (1996), and Ray and Vohra (1997, 1999) have argued, the inability to renegotiate agreements can generate inefficiency: even if binding agreements can be freely negotiated to begin with, coalitional considerations fundamentally impede the attainment of efficiency if the ability to rewrite those agreements is missing.
A good facilitator is familiar with different types of group dynamics. Different groups require different skill set and are usually determined by intervention type, curricula, subject matter, and/or purpose. There are four basic types of groups: Support Groups, Information Presentation Group, Decision making Groups, and Skills-building Groups/Workshops. Some interventions, like Safety Counts, might include more than one type of group.
Participant Driven - These types of groups provide participants with emotional support in overcoming obstacles or achieving goals. Examples of support groups include Safety Counts, Healthy Relationships, coming-out groups, grief and loss, and sexual assault survivors.
Information Presentation Groups - These types of groups aim to provide participants with new information on topics that concern them. Examples of information presentation groups include Safety Counts, where participants are given information about HIV/HVC in their communities, health insurance enrollment sessions, and a presentation on new immigration policies.
Decision-making Groups - These groups are formed to make decisions on various issues. Examples of decision-making groups include Mpowerment core group, management team, and committees, e.g., community planning groups, Board of Directors.
Skills-building Groups/Workshops - These types of groups provide participants with skills, e.g., condom use, negotiation skills, how to develop a recruitment plan. Examples of skills-building groups/workshops include SISTA, VOICES, evaluation training, and recruitment training.
Mixed blessing means having an advantage and disadvantage occurring in just one event. To be able to relate this to a group, there are different advantages that one can encounter when in a group, like for example, having to compliment the strengths and weaknesses of each other, and contribute and learn from one another. However, there are also some disadvantages that may occur, for instance, having different point of views in terms of decision making, and to be able to pin point the responsibilities drawn from the decision.
Conformity is the tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, and/or behaviors in ways that are consistent with social norms
Two basic types of conformity:
- public conformity
- private conformity
Conformity differs from compliance in two ways; it involves (a) a change of behaviour towards a group or social norm, and (b) pressure from a group of people rather than a request from an individual. Conformity is defined as a “change in behaviour or belief toward a group as a result of real or imagined group pressure.” This implies that the change in behaviour is approved by the group (you would not be confirming to a punk group if you got a shore “back and sides” and started to wear granny's knitted cardigans). Also the person has a choice in how to respond to group pressure. Three responses are possible:
* Conformity (change in direction that group would favour)
* Independence (individual does what he/she would do in absence of group pressure)
* Anti-conformity (individual deliberately does the opposite to group expectations)
Other factors affecting conformity:
(i) Normative social influence is greater in face to face situations rather than situations where individuals give responses in private.
(ii) Attractiveness of group for the individual; the more attractive the greater the conformity to group norms.
(iii) Reference groups - groups who we both like and compare ourselves to - are particularly powerful sources of social influence.
(iv) Self-esteem - subjects with high self-esteem conform less than those with low self-esteem, on the Crutchfield procedure (Stang 1973)
(v) Reinforcement - Endler demonstrated that conformity was greatest when subjects were rewarded for agreeing with an incorrect majority, especially if rewards were given every time, instead of every other time.
Two reasons for conformity:
- normative social influence (public conformity)
• want to “fit in”; don't want to be deviant
• e.g., teenagers, REP sign-up sheet
- informational social influence (private conformity)
• ambiguous situation, we look to others
• e.g., new bus route
Conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationships and in all social settings. Because of the wide range of potential differences among people, the absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaningful interaction. Conflict by itself is neither good nor bad. However, the manner in which conflict is handled determines whether it is constructive or destructive (Deutsch & Coleman, 2000).
Conflict is defined as an inaptness of goals or values among two or more parties in a relationship, joint with attempts to control each other along with antagonistic feelings in the direction of each other (Fisher, 1990). The inappropriateness or difference may exist in realism or may only be professed by the parties concerned. Nonetheless, the contrasting actions and the aggressive emotions are extremely real hallmarks of human conflict.
Conflict has the potential for either a great deal of destruction or much creativity and positive social change (Kriesberg, 1998). Therefore, it is essential to understand the basic processes of conflict so that we can work to maximize productive outcomes and minimize destructive ones.
Intergroup conflict occurs between collections of people such as ethnic or racial groups, departments or levels of decision making in the same organization, and union and management. Competition for scarce resources is a common source of intergroup conflict, and societies have developed numerous regulatory mechanisms, such as collective bargaining and mediation, for dealing with intergroup conflict in less disruptive ways. Social-psychological processes are very important in intergroup conflict (Fisher, 1990). Group members tend to develop stereotypes (oversimplified negative beliefs) of the opposing group, tend to blame them for their own problems (scapegoating), and practice discrimination against them. These classic symptoms of intergroup conflict can be just as evident in organizations as in race relations in community settings. Intergroup conflict is especially tense and prone to escalation and intractability when group identities are threatened. The costs of destructive intergroup conflict can be extremely high for a society in both economic and social terms.
Regardless of the level of conflict, there are differing approaches to deal with the incompatibilities that exist. Conflict can result in destructive outcomes or creative ones depending on the approach that is taken. If we can manage conflict creatively, we can often find new solutions that are mutually satisfactory to both parties. Sometimes this will involve a distribution of resources or power that is more equitable than before, or in creating a larger pool of resources or forms of influence than before. Creative outcomes are more probable when the parties are interdependent, i.e., each having some degree of independence and autonomy from which to influence the other, rather than one party being primarily dependent on the other. Given interdependence, three general strategies have been identified that the parties may take toward dealing with their conflict; win-lose, lose-lose, and win-win (Blake, Shepard & Mouton, 1964).
Conflict is an inevitable fact of human existence. If we work to understand and manage it effectively, we can improve both the satisfaction and productivity of our social relationships.
Expanding the sphere of individual responsibility will require collective action. The aim and expression of socialist policies must be to expand individual rights and responsibilities. But individuals will be unable to achieve this on their own. Many obstacles to individual security and advancement - for instance the inadequacy of investment in housing, education, training and health - will only be overcome by sustained collective action.
The dynamic of individualism should be expanded to production. If people can own their homes, if they can choose where to invest pensions, why should they not have a right to own the machines they work with? Individual rights to consultation and participation at work should be written into contracts of employment. Moves towards social ownership should be based on the idea that individual workers have a right to own a share of the assets of companies they have built up.
The needs of the individual are equivalent to the needs of society and each have to make concessions to the other for the reason that society and the individual are reliant on each other, signifying that one can't survive without the other. The individual has lots of needs, but unfortunately, not the entire of these needs can be attained because if the all of the individual's requirements were met, then society all together may cease to exist. There is a belief that puts the individual's needs primarily other needs. This philosophy is identified transcendentalism. In order to rise above into a better existence, the individual ought to not conform.
Society, or other individuals, as well has needs that are important for the reason that the society is the composite of each and every other individual. For the majority of individuals, safety and security are two essential components of life. This safety can simply be acquired through order. Unluckily, order and regulations limit the freedoms of the individual. In an ideal world, if all the individuals in the society can perform without the regulations, then the security of the individual's wouldn't be defenseless. Unfortunately, there will always be a number of individuals who need the laws to perform. And it is these individuals that endanger the safety of ALL individuals. Individuals must also perform or contribute to society.
There must be a reciprocated respect between the individual along with society for there to be some accommodations. The individual have got to respect the fact that he/she is a part of society and must have a say to it for the advantage of everybody. Society's needs are better than his own because society have an effect on more individuals. An individual's actions may involve many other people. For instance, when Bartleby chose not to contribute to society, his actions also influence the narrator. The narrator compensated and fed him in spite of of the fact that Bartleby was not working and was embarrassing him at the front of his colleagues. Subsequent to Bartleby decided to waste away himself, he died. Because Bartleby had no wealth, the other individuals had to shell out for his burial. It is society's conscientiousness to stop the birth of Bartleby's. In order to avoid this, society must also find ways to help the desires of the individual. This can be made by respecting as well as believing in the good found in each man. If people can trust the better decision of its individuals, afterward the rules and regulations may be lessened. In ending, the rights of both the individual as well as society are equal and they must assist each other to achieve the best possible level happiness and justice, for the reason that both the individual and society are reliant on each other.