Laboratory Report of Kimberley Jayne Barker

Laboratory Report of Kimberley Jayne Barker

Age: over 18

Occupation of Witness: Forensic Scientist

Address: Scientific Support Unit, East Midlands police force, Kedleston rd Police Station, Kedleston Rd, Derby, DE22 1GB

I certify that I have read over the contents of this laboratory report (consisting of 16 pages including 3 appendices each signed by me) is true to the best of my knowledge and belief giving an objective and unbiased opinion on matters within my expertise on the following exhibits as a declaration of truth whilst understanding and the consequences of making a false declaration.

Item 1: (KJ150110RL) Black handled knife

Item 2: (RL15011027) Hair - tape lifted from a chair at the crime scene

Item 3: (KJ15011033) Black jeans

Dated the 11th day of February, 2009.

Signature:

________________________________________________________________________

1. I am a Scientific Officer employed by the Scientific Support unit of the East Midlands police force (EMPF), based at Kedleston Rd police station, Derby. I possess the following qualification, B.Sc. (Hons) Forensic Science with criminology. I am currently a member of the Forensic Science Society.

Information Given

At 07.35hrs on 15th January 2010 neighbours reported that they heard at least 2 people shouting and what seemed like a gun being fired at 69 Swinger Rd, Derby. Firearm response units found no trace of a gun anywhere and turned the scene over to the East Midlands Police Force (EMPF) Scientific Support Unit. An individual has been found wondering the streets with a loss of memory. EMPF Investigators belief she may have been assaulted and have asked Scientific Support to examine her clothes which are still at the scene to be examined for biological evidence.

An individual has been arrested and searched. Evidence recovered from the individual will be forwarded to the Crime Scene Lab in due course. In the meantime, you have been asked to recover evidence that the suspect, Mrs. Boombastic, was at the scene

Section 1: Item 1: (KJ151001RL) Black handled knife

(Box number – 12345)

Section 1.1: Introduction -

Examination of the first item began in lab N804 at 9.10am on the 28th January 2010. The work benches were cleaned and lined with brown paper to avoid contamination of the evidence.

Appropriate protective lab wear was worn at all times during the examination of the evidence to prevent contamination, including lab coat, gloves and apposite steps were taken to ensure that hair was secure and not likely to fall onto the item of evidence being examined.

The item retrieved from the crime scene for examination was a black handled, Wilkinson's home ware brand, 19cm bladed kitchen knife. The Scientific support unit was asked to look at any evidence that might provide confirmation of the suspicion that the victim was assaulted; paying particular attention to biological evidence that could yield a DNA profile.

The sealed evidence box was opened and the item was removed for examination.

The item was photographed and sketched.

Upon initial examination several areas of possible biological evidence were noted. 6 areas in total of red/brown staining on the blade of the knife (labelled 3-6 and 8), the largest of which measured 2cm x 2cm. These are noted on the laboratory examination sheet which is included in the appendix of the report.

The examination of the item was completed by 11.53am.

Section 1.2: Materials and Methods

The box was opened at 9.17am once the workstation had been cleared and prepared for the evidence to be laid out. The following methodology is set out in chronological order.

The knife was placed on the brown paper and visually examined. This entailed looking very closely at the item using magnification and artificial lighting, taking note of any unique detail, staining, fibres and the location of any areas of wear and/or damage.

The item was then photographed with a scale and some photographs were taken detailing anything found on the knife. (These are not included in the report but can be made available if necessary). A sketch of the knife illustrating the points of interest was made.

Several areas of staining were recognized on the blade of the knife, these are noted on the laboratory drawings which are included in the report. Due to the resemblance to blood, each stain was swabbed and tested using Kastle Meyer (KM) test as done by Tobe et al (2007) this uses 1 drop of ethanol, 1 drop of the phenolphthalein, and 1 of hydrogen peroxide. A positive reaction is indicated by a purple/pink colour change. As with all presumptive tests carried out, a control was performed using distilled water, which yielded a negative result. Gloves were discarded after performing the Kastle Meyer test and replaced with clean ones. This test is a strong indicator of the presence of blood, but it is not confirmatory, therefore further testing of the stain was required.

The confirmatory test of choice in this case was the Teichmann's test as performed by Miller (1969) in a fume cupboard. The production of crystals of Ferroprotoprophyrin

Chloride confirms the presence of blood.

After the confirmation of blood, several swabs were taken from each area of staining and were sent to the DNA laboratory for further analysis. The gloves used during this test were discarded afterwards and replaced with clean ones so as to prevent contamination.

The handle of the knife was also swabbed for skin cells for DNA analysis just around the edges so as not to disrupt any fingerprints that might be on the handle. The swabs were also sent to the DNA lab to obtain a DNA profile.

After several swabs had been taken of all the biological evidence, their identity confirmed and samples sent away to the DNA laboratory for generation of DNA profiles from the evidence, it was then deemed ok to begin examining the item for any finger marks. Fresh gloves were worn for this process, discarded immediately afterwards and replaced with a clean pair. Upon initial examination no marks could be detected with the naked eye and so oblique lighting was used to detect any latent prints. Further examination was done using pink fluorescent fingerprint powder. This method was chosen due to the hard, relatively smooth surface of the knife and the contrast between the powder and the dark colour of the handle. Any finger marks were then viewed under fluorescent lighting conditions to better accentuate the minute detail (Lee et al, 2001). The fingerprints were lifted using fingerprint lifting tape and stored on clear acetate. These prints could then be referred to when needed, using the fluorescent light to examine the ridge detail. The acetate was packaged separately after analysis.

The examination of the item finished at 11.53am and the item was replaced into the secure box and the box sealed and signed.

Section 1.3: Results

Blood detection and DNA

The reddish/brown stains on the blade of the knife were tested for blood, the results are as follows:

Presumptive KM test

Positive

Confirmatory Teichmann's test

Positive

Fig.1 Results from the presumptive and confirmatory tests for blood.

DNA analysis of the bloodstain gave a full DNA profile, which is shown below (Fig.2):

Item: Black handled knife – Blood Stains

Locus

TPOX

F13A01

FGA

F13B

CSF1PO

D7S820

LPL

Genotype

8, 9

3.2, 8

19, 22

9,10

12

11,13

8,11

Frequency

Locus

THO1

vWA

D13S317

D16S539

HPRTB

FESFPS

AMEL

Genotype

6,7

17,20

10

8, 9

15, 16

13,14

XX

Frequency

Female

DNA Profile Suspect

Locus

TPOX

F13A01

FGA

F13B

CSF1PO

D7S820

LPL

Genotype

6, 11

3.2, 5

19, 22

7,8

12

11,13

8,11

Frequency

1.1%

3.5%

2.7%

1%

10%

2.2%

0.1%

Locus

THO1

vWA

D13S317

D16S539

HPRTB

FESFPS

AMEL

Genotype

9, 9.3

17,20

10

8, 9

15, 16

8, 13

XY

Frequency

1%

1.1%

0.2%

0.5%

0.1%

0.07%

Male

The genotype frequency for each short tandem repeat (STR) locus for the DNA profile of the suspect (Fig.3) is discovered using the Caucasian allele frequency database and an equation based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

Suspect profile frequency: 1.56x10¯22

No DNA was recovered from the swabs of the handle.

Fingerprints

3 finger marks were detected in total on the handle of the knife; none were obtained from the blade. These are discussed below and their locations are noted on the laboratory sketches which are included in this report:

Finger mark

Description

1

Loop – Partial fingerprint

2

Tented arch – partial fingerprint

3

Possibly loop – too smudged to allow for successful analysis/characterisation.

Finger prints 1 and 2, although only partial prints and somewhat smudged, should be sufficient for a comparison to a known source. Fingerprints have been sent to the fingerprint bureau for further analysis.

Section 1.4: Discussion

The fact that the knife blade has sizeable quantities of blood on it suggests a violent encounter and so finding the donor of the blood is of paramount importance, as well as locating the individual who was holding the knife at the time of the bloodshed.

The DNA profile of the blood on the knife (Fig.2) does not match that of the suspect (Fig.3). The DNA profile of the blood belongs to a female whose DNA profile is not currently known. This could be the victim, or a third party. Item KJ15011033 (the black jeans found at the scene) had spots of blood on the pocket, inside the leg of the jeans, the DNA profile of which matches that of the blood sample taken from the knife.

The partial fingerprints lifted from the handle of the knife will have to be compared to a known source (this could be fingerprint cards from victim and/or suspect) using the standard 16 ridge characteristics or minutiae as a basis. Obtaining fingerprints from the item is of great evidential value due to the uniqueness of the fingerprint – Galton (1895) calculated the chances of two different people having the same fingerprint is 1 in 64 billion. The condition of the fingerprints lifted was not fantastic, however, 2 of the 3 prints lifted were viable in so much as the 16 unique minutiae/ridge detail required for comparison purposes could be identified. This would require a specialist in the field of dactyloscopy, and so the fingerprints were sent to the fingerprint bureau.

I have based my conclusions on the information currently available to me.

If new information becomes available I may need to re-evaluate my conclusions.

Section 2: Item 2: (RL15011027) Hair - tape lifted from chair at crime scene

(Bag number – B4628067)

Section 2.1: Introduction

Examination of the first item began in lab N804 at 9.07am on the 4th February 2010. The work benches were cleaned and lined with brown paper to avoid contamination of the evidence.

Appropriate protective lab wear was worn at all times during the examination of the evidence, including lab coat, clean latex gloves and apposite steps were taken to ensure that hair was secure and not likely to fall onto the item of evidence being examined.

The item examined was a hair which was tape lifted from the crime scene.

In this case, due to the small nature of the evidence, particular attention was made to not misplace the evidence during the initial examination of the item.

The examination concluded at around 11.30am on the 4th February 1020.

Section 2.2: Materials and Methods

The bag was opened away from the original seal at 9.12am once workstation cleaning and preparation had been completed. Clean gloves were worn and the hair was removed for examination with sterile tweezers. The following methodology is set out in chronological order.

First of all the overall appearance of the hair was noted, that is the length, coarseness, shape, colour and any other features that could be readily seen with the naked eye.

These features are noted in the results section and again on the laboratory sketch that is included in the report.

The hair was then mounted onto a microscope slide using clear nail varnish, so that the entire length of the hair could be viewed, and a cover slip placed over the top. The microscope was micrometer calibrated for each objective lens.

The hair was examined at x400 (x10 ocular lens, and x40 objective lens) magnification. The features of the hair were identified according to a manual by Deedrick et al (2004) and recorded on the laboratory sketch which is included in the report.

Once the source of the hair had been alluded to it was compared to some known samples of hairs from various animal hairs.

The hair, still mounted on the microscope slide, was placed back into the bag which was sealed and signed at 11.30am on the 4th of February 2010.

Section 2.3: Results

Microscope calibration at x400 magnification – 1mm = 396 eye piece units (epu)

The results are presented below. These are the various morphological features, identified at each stage of analysis, that were considered useful in the identification of the hair.

Initial examination

- The hair was short in length – approximately 4cm.

- It was light in colour, which varied from root to tip

- Coarse in texture

Microscopic analysis

- Medulla was more than 1/3 of the diameter of the hair and continuous in its presence along the length of the hair – which is a feature of animal hair rather than human hair.

- Imbricate scales –this is flattened, rounded scales, common in most animals and humans.

- Ovid bodies – these are present in dog, cattle and other animal hair. To a lesser extent they are present in human hair.

- Even pigmentation in the cortex

- The root of the hair was amorphous

Through microscopic comparison from known sources, the hair was confirmed as a dog hair, possibly Border collie.

Section 2.4: Discussion

Upon initial examination of the hair provided no clues as to the species to which the hair belonged and so microscopic analysis of the hair had to be performed.

The hair was examined at x400 magnification (the drawing for which can be found on the laboratory sketch sheets included in this report), The presence of the Ovid bodies along the cortex of the hair and the relative size of the medulla were the most striking features of this hair. Ovid bodies are abundant in animals such as dogs and cattle (Deedrick et al 2004) but not as frequently encountered in human hairs. Another key feature of the hair is the medulla. In human hair the medulla can be continuous, discontinuous or not present at all, but it is generally less than one third of the total width of the hair. For item RL15011027 the medulla was visibly more than one third of the width of the hair shaft, which is characteristic of hair from animal origin.

In human hair the pigment distribution tends to be towards the cuticle (Deedrick et al 2004). The questioned hair contains even distribution of pigment in the cortex and a colour change can be observed midway down the shaft of the hair. All of these morphological factors considered simultaneously amount to strong evidence that the hair is not of human origin.

This particular piece of evidence was chosen for analysis in the laboratory as it was thought it could be useful in connecting the suspect with the crime scene. Although the hair was found to not be of human origin it could still prove useful in placing an individual at the scene of the crime. If it is found that there is no record of a domestic animal inhabiting 69 Swinger Rd. Derby then the hair could have been placed at the scene by secondary transfer, possibly by the suspect or another individual with access to the scene. I have based my conclusions on the information currently available to me. If new information becomes available I may need to re-evaluate my conclusions.

Section 3: Item 3: (KJ15011033) Black jeans

(Bag number-D01661534)

Section 3.1: Introduction

Examination of the first item began in lab N804 at 9.14am on the 11th February 2010. The work benches were cleaned and lined with brown paper to avoid contamination of the evidence.

Appropriate protective lab wear was worn at all times during the examination of the evidence to prevent contamination, including lab coat, gloves and apposite steps were taken to ensure that hair was secure and not likely to fall onto the item of evidence being examined. . The Scientific support unit was asked to look at any evidence that might provide confirmation of the suspicion that the victim was assaulted; paying particular attention to biological evidence that could yield a DNA profile.

The item retrieved from the crime scene for examination was a pair of black jeans.

It reached the laboratory from the scene in a sealed large paper evidence bag. The Scientific support unit was asked to look at any evidence that might provide confirmation of the suspicion that the victim was assaulted; paying particular attention to biological evidence that could yield a DNA profile. The item examined was a pair of black denim jeans, the size and other details unknown due to the illegible label.

Upon initial examination of the garment a large tear was observed on the left leg of the jeans, the exact location of which can be seen on the laboratory sketches which are included in the report. Photographs are also available if requested, but are not included in this report. Closer examination revealed 3 areas of dark staining on the left pocket inside the jeans, exposed through the tear. Examination under UV light also highlighted another area of possible body fluid deposition to be analysed further.

A small amount of an unknown white powder was found located on the back of the jeans on the right leg.

The examination of this piece of evidence concluded at 12.03pm on the 11th February 2010.

Section 3.2: Materials and Methods

The paper evidence bag was opened at 9.20am and the item removed and unfolded carefully onto the brown paper so as not to lose any loose material. The following methodology is set out in chronological order. Photographs were taken throughout which are not included in the report but can be made available on request.

The front of the garment was examined first and any lose hairs or fibres collected and the location along with a brief description was noted on the lab diagram (which is available in the appendix). Any hairs and/or fibres collected were immediately mounted to a microscope slide and numbered to correspond with the diagram; these were then examined under a calibrated microscope and any defining features were noted on the sketch and can be found in the result section (3.3). The front of the jeans was examined (including pockets) thoroughly with the use of a magnifying glass under both natural and artificial lighting. Once all loose material had been collected and preserved the garment was turned over to examine the underside. Once again all loose hairs and debris were collected (again, the pockets were searched and the inside of the garment). The garment was then moved to a blackout room to examine for body fluids, fibres and any other substances capable of fluorescence that couldn't be detected by the naked eye under visible light conditions using alternative light sources (blue and green Crime-Lites™). All body fluids such as saliva, urine and semen will fluoresce under the Crime-Lite™ (wavelengths 430-470nm)

Using the blood detection Crime-Lite™ (wavelengths 400-430) blood stains will darken – enhancing its contrast against the background material.

Once the areas of interest had been marked on the garment with white pencil it was taken back for further analysis, for which a clean pair of gloves were worn. Two potential areas of interest were observed in total, and these were both on the front of the jeans. The first area fluoresced under the body fluid Crime-Lite™, suggesting the presence of semen or saliva, the location of which was on the front button. The second area of interest was on the inside of the pocket that was exposed through the large tear on the thigh area of the item. The stain was visible under visible light conditions and was a darkish red/brown colour, which suggested it might be blood. Due to the resemblance to blood, each stain was swabbed and tested using Kastle Meyer (KM) test as done by Tobe et al (2007) this uses 1 drop of ethanol, 1 drop of the phenolphthalein, and 1 of hydrogen peroxide. A positive reaction is indicated by a purple/pink colour change. As with all presumptive tests carried out, a control was performed using distilled water, which yielded a negative result. Gloves were discarded after performing the Kastle Meyer test and replaced with clean ones. This test is a strong indicator of the presence of blood, but it is not confirmatory, therefore further testing of the stain was required.

The confirmatory test of choice in this case was the Teichmann's test as performed by Miller (1969). This process must be performed in a fume cupboard and the gloves worn during the process discarded immediately afterwards for health and safety reasons and to avoid contamination. The production of crystals of Ferroprotoprophyrin

Chloride confirms the presence of blood.

After the confirmation of blood, several swabs were taken from each area of staining and were sent to the DNA laboratory for further analysis

The area of fluorescence observed on the front button of the item was then to be tested. Due to the strength of the fluorescence it was tested for semen first. The acid phosphatase test was performed as described by Evers et al (2009). Acid phosphatise (AP) activity is significantly greater in semen than in any other bodily fluid and so the colour change (from colourless to purple) reaction should occur more rapidly.

This is not sufficient to enable discrimination between AP from seminal sources, and AP from vaginal or other sources and so a confirmatory test was required.

Testing for Prostate Specific antigen (PSA test) was chosen as the confirmatory test of choice in this case due to there only being a small amount of the stain to work with. This was done according to the methodology set out by Hochmeister (1999).

Swabs of the semen were sent to the DNA lab for further analysis.

Of the white powder found on the underside of the jeans (location is marked on the lab sketch) a sample was taken and sent to the technician for analysis using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Swabs of the waistband region and of the area surrounding the tear of the jeans were sent for DNA analysis of any epithelial cells that might be present.

Hairs that could be identified as human and had hair follicles attached were also sent off for DNA analysis. At 12.03pm on the 11th February 2010 the examination of this item was complete. The item was placed back into the bag and the bag was sealed and signed.

Section 3.3: Results

Hairs

Listed below are the hairs (which are numbered corresponding to the locations on the laboratory sketch which is available in this report)

Hair 5 (KJ150110335) – Upon initial examination

- 12mm in length

- White

- Fine – medium coarseness

Microscopic analysis

- Medulla accounts for half the overall width of the hair

- Tapered tip

- Amorphous root/follicle.

Comparison of Hair 5 to a known sample confirmed the hair to be a white cat hair.

Hairs 9 and 10 (KJ15011033b) (location of these hairs is illustrated on the laboratory sketch) were identified as cat hairs through comparison to known samples. These hairs had a great deal in common with hair 5 in terms of morphological features, the only difference being the colour change that occurred in both hairs (9 and 10) approximately midway down the hair shafts which did not occur in hair 5.This particular breed of cat is thought to be tabby.

Hairs 1, 2 and 3 (KJ15011033c) – upon initial examination

- Approximately 13 cm in length

- Light brown colour

- All similar in appearance

Microscopic analysis

- Slight fraying at the tip of the hair, typical feature of cut hair

- No medulla

- Imbricate scales

- Distorted follicle

It was concluded that hairs 1, 2 and 3 were human head hairs, taking into account all of the above factors.

It was also determined that the hairs belonged to a Caucasian individual due to:

* The small size of the cuticle, relative to the overall width of the hair

* The light colour of the hair

* The fine – medium coarseness of the hair

* The oval shaped cross section.

Bloodstain analysis

Test used

Result

Kastle-Meyer

Positive

Teichmann's

Positive

Seminal fluid analysis

Test used

Result

Crime-Lite™

Positive

Acid Phosphatase test

Positive

Prostate specific antigen test

Positive

The GC/MS analysis returned no results from the sample of white powder.

Hairs 1 and 2 obtained from the pocket of the garment were sent for DNA analysis. Regrettably, no DNA profile for these hairs can be provided, as the samples were misplaced at the DNA laboratory.

No DNA was recovered from the swabs of epithelial cells taken from the jeans.

Item: Black Jeans – Semen from front button

Locus

TPOX

F13A01

FGA

F13B

CSF1PO

D7S820

LPL

Genotype

6, 11

3.2, 5

19, 22

7,8

12

11,13

8,11

Frequency

1.1%

3.5%

2.7%

1%

10%

2.2%

0.1%

Locus

THO1

vWA

D13S317

D16S539

HPRTB

FESFPS

AMEL

Genotype

9, 9.3

17,20

10

8, 9

15, 16

8, 13

XY

Frequency

1%

1.1%

0.2%

0.5%

0.1%

0.07%

Male

DNA profile generated from the semen found on the front button of the garment

Item: Black Jeans - Blood

Locus

TPOX

F13A01

FGA

F13B

CSF1PO

D7S820

LPL

Genotype

8, 9

3.2, 8

19, 22

9,10

12

11,13

8,11

Frequency

9.8%

3%

2.8%

7.3%

11%

2.2%

0.1%

Locus

THO1

vWA

D13S317

D16S539

HPRTB

FESFPS

AMEL

Genotype

6,7

17,20

10

8, 9

15, 16

13,14

XX

Frequency

7%

1.1%

0.3%

0.5%

0.1%

0%

female

the DNA profile generated from the bloodstain identified on the garment.

DNA Profile Suspect

Locus

TPOX

F13A01

FGA

F13B

CSF1PO

D7S820

LPL

Genotype

6, 11

3.2, 5

19, 22

7,8

12

11,13

8,11

Frequency

1.1%

3.5%

2.7%

1%

10%

2.2%

0.1%

Locus

THO1

vWA

D13S317

D16S539

HPRTB

FESFPS

AMEL

Genotype

9, 9.3

17,20

10

8, 9

15, 16

8, 13

XY

Frequency

1%

1.1%

0.2%

0.5%

0.1%

0.07%

Male

The DNA profile of the suspect, Mrs Boombastic.

Suspect profile frequency: 1.56x10¯22

Section 3.4: Discussion

The GC/MS analysis returned no results from the sample of white powder. This is probably due to insufficient material for analysis. This does however; strongly suggest that the substance was not a narcotic, as the GC/MS equipment would be able to detect even trace amounts of narcotic substances (Mulé et al 1988) and can easily compare the material to a library of substances (Kintz et al 2005)

The animal hairs recovered (see previous results section) could be useful in connecting the suspect with the crime scene. Although these hairs were not of human origin it could still prove useful in placing an individual at the scene of the crime. If it is found that there is no record of a domestic animal inhabiting 69 Swinger Rd. Derby then the hair could have been placed at the scene by secondary transfer, possibly by the suspect or another individual with access to the scene. In this case items of the suspects clothing should be collected and any hairs on the garments should be tape lifted for comparison. If it can be established that the suspect owns a

There were 3 human hairs found in the pocket of the jeans, 2 of which had intact roots which would have been useful for DNA analysis, however due to unforeseen and unfortunate circumstances there are no DNA profiles to present for either hair sample. This also means that drug analysis and microscopic hair comparison can no longer be performed.

Hairs could have ended up in the pockets due to secondary transfer.

The presence of semen was confirmed by positive results for both the Acid Phosphatase test and the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test. The PSA detection test is often considered confirmatory due to the fact that PSA is produced almost exclusively by the prostate (Hochmeister 1999).

To match a suspect's DNA profile to a profile obtained from the scene there must be at least 10 STR loci in common, according to the standards set by the National DNA Database (Martin 2004).

The full DNA profile generated from the semen (Fig.7) found on the front button of the garment matches the profile of the suspect, Mrs Boombastic (Fig.9) which a high degree of certainty. If the semen did not come from the suspect then the profile must match by chance. It is estimated that the chance of obtaining these matching profiles if the semen did in fact come from another individual, unrelated to the suspect, is in the order of 1 in a billion.

This could be taken as evidence that the suspect was at the scene of the crime or at the very least has an association with another individual connected to the scene and so the value of this evidence is very strong.

The DNA profile generated from the bloodstains on the torn jeans (Fig.8) matches the blood found on the knife (item KJ151001RL, Fig.2) – This strongly suggests that a violent event occurred at 69 Swinger Street, Derby and although it cannot be proved that the bloodshed of the unknown female and deposition of the suspect's seminal fluid occurred as one event, the presumed nature of the case certainly opens it up as a probability.

The next stage in investigation would be to find the identity of the unknown female DNA profile.

I have based my conclusions on the information currently available to me. If new information becomes available I may need to re-evaluate my conclusions.

Appendix 1 – References

* Deedrick D W, Koch S L (2004) Microscopy of Hair Part II: A Practical Guide and Manual for Animal Hairs. Forensic science communications. 6:3

* Deedrick D W, Kock S L (2004) Microscopy of Hair part 1: A practical guide and manual for human hairs. Forensic science communications. 6:1

* Evers H, Heidorn F, Gruber C, Lasczkowski G, Risse M, Dettmeyer R, Verhoff MA. (2009) Investigative strategy for the forensic detection of sperm traces. Forensic science medical pathology. 5:3 p182-8

* Galton F (1895) Fingerprint Directories. Macmillan and co.

* Hochmeister, MN (1999) Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) membrane test assays for the forensic identification of seminal fluid. Journal of forensic science. 44:5

* Lee H C, and Gaensslen R E (2001) Advances in fingerprint technology. 2nd edition. CRC Press LLC.

* P D Martin. (2004) National DNA Databases – practice and practicability. A forum for discussion. International congress series. 1261. P1-8

* Miller L B. (1969) Hemochromogen Crystal Formation with Minute Amounts of Blood. Journal of the Forensic Science Society. 9:1-2 P 84-86

* Mulé S J, Casella G A (1988) Confirmation of Marijuana, Cocaine, Morphine, Codeine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Phencyclidine by GC/MS in Urine Following Immunoassay Screening. Journal of analytical toxicology. 12:2:102-107

* P. Kintz , A. Tracqui and P. Mangin. (2005). Detection of drugs in hair for clinical and forensic applications. International journal of legal medicine. 105:1 p1-4

* Tobe S S, Watson N and Dae´id N N. 2007. Evaluation of Six Presumptive Tests for Blood, Their Specificity, Sensitivity, and Effect on High Molecular-Weight DNA. Journal of Forensic Science, 52:1:102-109


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