A task management

Task management

Task management must exist, and hopefully be consistent with corporate objectives. It should be possible to translate these into quantitative task success criteria. Task management is process of managing tasks. Task management mainly deals from one task staring stage to ending (during the life cycle of the task). In this includes the planning, testing, tracking and reporting.

In the task management become very effectively when manage the tasks including its states, priority, time human and financial recourse management.

When tasks ready the task start working until completes. Task management processes the tasks from ready state to complete state, in the figure one task from ready to assign. Before assign the task cancelled or time out that goes to finish through the terminated and expired. Task is assigned task running until the goal reach.

Task objectives

Davenport legal services is legal issue company in this the partners work on corporate clients, mainly large international firms.

The firm is structured around four practice areas:

  1. Banking and finance
  2. Capital markets
  3. Litigation and dispute resolution
  4. Tax, pensions and employment

In this company using a technical issues and non-technical issues this are explaining in below.

Technical issues

Davenport legal services in information system objects are using technical and non technical issues in these technical issues are

  • Time
  • Cost
  • Quality
  • Content


Time is a very important for the task management in the business. Every one of task objectives takes a few times to accomplish the goal. The time segment is similarly shared or adjusted depending on the condition.

Davenport legal services in develop a project in this project is in tacks a 8 months but it's fully operational in 12 months in this every task objects are takes time in this every objectives are completed that particular time


A technical issue in cast is an important object of Task management. It become more effective when the task objective helps task become more cost effective.

A Davenport legal service of strictly estimation cost of US$80,000 has been allocated to the project in this project cast not more then US$80,000.


A technical issue in Quality is also very important object compare with time object in Task objectives will help develop the quality of task management production. Otherwise, the task management will be put into full confusion or fail.

Davenport legal services organization in project develop a quality project in this project develop a 8 months and this project check the quality in 4 months then total develop time is 12 months in this last 4 months are check the quality of this project then it is successfully project.


Is very useful to make the task management outcome more consist and accurate. In this task objects help very much.

Non-technical issues

Task management in few non- technical issues are show in below

  1. Leadership
  2. Organizational attribute
  3. Human resource


Leadership is a most important non-technical issue in the organizations it is led the total organization. In this who will lead the project? How will he manage the team? What will be the reaction of the team to his leadership styles is?

Davenport legal services organization in the 4 administers are leading the organization. One or two partners lead each of in 4 practical areas. There are continuing tensions among partners as they canteen for company resources.

Organizational attribute:

The organizational attributes are used to define the rules and regulations defined to the organization. Based on the organizational attribute task management improves. Based on the task objectives organization framework improves. The organization's task management is definitely improved by defining the task objectives clearly. The framework towards providing a sense of the perfect direction to the effective task management to be pursued by the company or organization will be provided by the task objectives.

Davenport legal services company is strictly tells the estimation budget of the project it is complete the maximum of 12 months it is a rule of the development project and the same time organization is gives the total information of the project.

Human resource

By defining the task objectives very clearly, the organizations will be provided help to maximize the skills and potentials of the organization's human resources. Since the cost of the project that is invested by the organization is directly proportional to the amount of time taken to complete the project, it is very important to concentrate on time factors and team must always plan to decrease the amount of time wherever it is possible, as this will reduces the cost of the project. Equal participation of the employees and team is essential and highly important in the project since they are responsible to complete the project successfully.

Davenport legal services company have 2 offices in this 4 legal administrators and two receptionists work from these offices and the working staff and then new project developers team all are responsible to complete the project and successfully running the company

Project Planning

Project planning is the most essential step in any successful project. This is factual in authentic time, where many projects are undertaken without any accurate or gracious planning and they either lead to the failures of the projects or some times if getting Successful they lead to hard time at the user acceptance testing level or directs to a rigid maintenance. Different questions should be considerable before starting a project that what may be the problem situation and what is to be done, till when user wants it, how to complete it, what resources may require and things more or less like that. Planning can be visually displayed by Gantt chart, Organizational chart etc.

Planning techniques

Resources in project organization might be distinct as the most excellent and finest way of using the time, staff, hardware, software, finance and working area while developing a project completely. Creative projects are given to different project mangers which are then discussed and make themselves different from others by giving the idea how they best use the resources and can efficiently develop the project. Resources are not only the using of machinery but also the people who are there to develop the project along with the finance taken or used to complete the task from starting to ending of the project. It also includes the software and hardware require in the development of the project. Time matters a lot as every second is precious for a person who develops project so every minute is being paid. It is being particular that before the project starts, Project Manager should keep in mind all the resources and know if the financial expenditures allow resources to be in approached in time or it should be discussed with the clients if they are necessary to be used or those functionalities can be delayed or omitted for a time line deployment.

Stages of project plan

Davenport legal services company in the key stages are show in below

Stage1In this stage tack the resources

Stage2In this stage annalistic the resources

Stage3In this stage check the system requirement

Stage 4In this stage estimate the number of project development staff

Stage 5In this stage calculate the time of completing of project

Stage 6In this stage create the plan of the project

Time Scales

Time scales allows supervising completely upon the project development and is applied for every module of the project plan; so that the task can be accomplish in a measurement schedule, rather being working eventually. When time scale of a project is defined the management knows well to achieve the goal in that interval and though they work hard and with soft nature to communicate and find the complete information from the business personnel and management. The timescales decided while making project plans are set to be realistic and practical in a manner that any happening can take place and resources couldn't work. It should be kept in mind that time scale should cover all modules in a manner that resources have some time for free where they cannot get tired and bored for work. Their bore mood or tiring mood can affect the project development. Often in practical scheduling, time scales may change while working on the project as sometimes cause of missing resources thee schedule can get late. The manager setting the time schedule must keep in mind that module identification is important.

Resources Allocation:

Resource can be defined as 'Something that can be used for support or help'. It means an available supply that can be drawn on when needed (the free dictionary). In project management, resources are required to carry out the project tasks. They can be people, equipment, facilities, finance, or anything else capable of definition (usually other than labour) required for the completion of a project. Resources are not only the using machinery but also the people who are there to develop the project along with the finance taken or used to complete the task from a - z of the project. It also includes the software and hardware require in the development of the project. Before the project starts, a project Manager should keep in mind all the resources and know if the financial expenditures allow resources to be in approach in time.

Resource allocation is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. It is the process of allocating resources among the various projects or business units.(Wikipedia).

The process of resource allocation can be divided into two main stages:

1. Basic or Initial Resource Allocation- This coincides with the initial stage of Planning of a Project. Planning is the stage where a project is outlined and at this stage resources are allocated.

Reallocation of Resources: Reallocation is done when the organisation may see its resources increased or decreased. This is mostly in terms of availability finance. At this stage the resources are reallocated needs to be prioritized.

Recently, davenport legal services have also had to deal with substantially more computer-based crimes, and so have to search through a large amount of computer evidence. This requires more advanced computer systems to access a variety of new information system. Furthermore, sorting through paperwork every time information is required is very time consuming, whereas in electronic form, information could be shared and retrieved more quickly.

In this using to develop the bespoke integrated software package. However, davenport legal services solicitors are dreadfully customary inhered working methods and so tend to be distrustful of any new methods

Leadership Styles

Leadership is the superlative way to analyze and alter the thoughts and minds of people with you and besides you. Some people have in born attitude and some learn to be a leader. People who have inborn mode of leadership gets autocratic and who learns gets democratic. Autocratic people may also get democratic sometimes after learning the leadership but it all depends on the person who is the ideal leader (the trainer) for the one. There are following different ways of leadership.

Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership

This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments.

This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management style. These studies say that autocratic leaders:

  • Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees
  • Do not trust employees
  • Do not allow for employee input

Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include:

  • New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow
  • Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions
  • Employees do not respond to any other leadership style
  • There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis
  • There is limited time in which to make a decision
  • A manager's power is challenged by an employee
  • The area was poorly managed
  • Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization

The autocratic leadership style should not be used when:

  • Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
  • Employees expect to have their opinions heard
  • Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions
  • There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage

Democratic Leadership Style

The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision.

Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader:

  • Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance
  • Allows employees to establish goals
  • Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted
  • Recognizes and encourages achievement.

Delegate or Free Region

In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.

Effects of Leadership

To every organization, there are internal problems and especially where there are boss is more than one. It's not only that organization has fights among the employees but it is a more possible opening and a disaster of business when seniors or business runners fight. Similarly, as in the business of software, all four owners of the company require having the decision powers and are called managers of the company. although, leaders and their leadership can affect the business in negative or positive attitudes. Following are few problems

While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use.

  • The manager's personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work?
  • The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style manager's use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to.
  • The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts.

No Control

All project development requires to be supervised by a leader. Similarly, for the project of software development, it also requires to be controlled by any of the member in the business. This is because if the team is not being supervised, the development team would be doing whatever and whenever they want which may lead to a delay or dishonesty in completion of all modules.

Fast Access to Work

Attitude of the leaders should be friendly and associated. This is to understand the Development requirements and taking care of the developers who are putting their efforts day and night to develop the project. This care and concern will make the developers love their work and their hardships would not for money but for the personnel as well and this makes them enjoy their work. As working in enjoyable setting, results to more work done than in a boring environment.


For the expansion of business, light mode communication matters a lot, as people may get attracted to the syrupy natured person and this can bring more clients to the business. Although, assembly, give treat to staff, communicating with clients etc. May lead to business development is a qualified growth.

Financial Glance

Being soft hearted is not only the solution to deal with the employees as this may be a loss of the business. That is, taking care of employees in a manner to spend on them more than what business accounts allow is also not an excellent leadership. Though, a person should be authoritarian in a manner of spending for extra curricular activities for socialization.

Quality Project Development

It is a vital step to develop a project of business in this era but more vital to it is to produce a quality product. Quality production can only be done if the business is fully analyzed. Analyst should be smart but as in case of e-business, business people and web developers both are not much professionals, though, leaders should be calm in answering the questions of any type. Moreover, leaders of the company should not only answer the question once but to make the analyst feel comfortable that much that analyst can ask one question number of times so that one can make his mind clear about the business strategies. As good as the analyst is good in understating the business, as much as the quality product will be taken out.


Leadership style influence level of motivation. However, throughout a lifetime, man's motivation is influenced by changing ambitions and/or leadership style he works under or socializes with. Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker responsibility increases ambition.

Self-motivated or visionaries will not accept authority controlled environments. They will find a way to escape if trapped. In a team-motivated environment, dependency types will become inspired and strive to be acceptable with independent thinking coworkers. Associates influence the level of individual motivation.

Reaction to Change

Command-and-control leadership is the primary style in our society. It is accepted because efficiency is created by repetitive action, teaching people to resist change. Once acquiring a skill, they do not want to learn another. The worker adapts to level three with an occasional trip to level two.

Worker responsibility is just the opposite, it motivates people to thrive on change by seeking challenges, finding ways to achieve goals. Level one is the leader of changing technology, finding ways to create efficiency


Mentoring is the long term passing on of support, guidance and advice. In the workplace it has tended to describe a relationship in which a more experienced colleague uses their greater knowledge and understanding of the work or workplace to support the development of a more junior or inexperienced member of staff.


It defines coaching as developing a person's skills and knowledge so that their job performance improves, hopefully leading to the achievement of organizational objectives. It targets high performance and improvement at work, although it may also have an impact on an individual's private life. It usually lasts for a short period and focuses on specific skills and goals.

Benefits of Coaching and Mentoring

When a person works with a coach or mentor he/she will benefit in many ways:

  • Have a safe place to offload how u feels.
  • Develop skills you already have.
  • Better management of career goals
  • Learn new skills.
  • Gain insight into yourself and the people you work with.
  • Get unbiased, confidential support
  • Gain fresh perspectives on your issues
  • Get advice, suggestions and options (Chandler and Grzyb)

Use of Coaching and Mentoring:

When an organization is going thorough changes in business strategies and product development, there are often changes in role, job description of key staff. Employees are reluctant to change. Such scenarios an organization or company needs to use coaching or mentoring to provide support to its employees. Companies need to use coaching or mentoring to help staff to adapt to change and accept change. This will help then align their personal values and goals with those of the organization.

Coaching & mentoring are techniques which both focus on individual rather than on organization. Coaching or mentoring can help enhance staff morale, motivation and productivity. This will in turn reduce staff turnover. This induces a feeling in the staff that they are valued by the organization on individual level during the time of change. This can be provided by an internal or external coaches or mentors.

Coaching creates a balance between organizational and personal goals and objectives. It takes in to consideration training and development of individual employees. A relationship should be 'Win Win' one, where both the parties reap the benefit. With coaching and mentoring both the company and the staff are situation where both the parties profit. (Coaching Network)

Coaching Network is an integral part of our strategy as it uses managers from outside of the organization to give a completely fresh and objective perspective on our issues. It exposes our staff to best-practice thinking elsewhere with the intention of it becoming standard practice in the Kent Fire and Rescue Service

Executive Coaching & Mentoring

There is a great deal of overlap between business and executive coaching or mentoring. Many people will offer either service, but there is a growing body of professionals in the UK who are calling themselves executive coaches and mentors and are differentiating themselves in the marketplace. The key differences between business and executive coaching and mentoring are that Executive coaches and mentors typically

  • Have a track record in professional and executive roles
  • Work exclusively with the 'high-flyers' or with those who have potential to be a high flyer
  • Work at board or CEO level within high profile or 'blue-chip' organisations
  • Offer total confidentiality
  • Work with potential 'captains of industry' and high profile business leaders


Communication should be done in a clear manner so that analyzing would be easy and comfortable to design. However, communication media between two parties can be in different ways but to choose the direct method is the good management practice and saves time. Communicating face to face in the verbal discussion will lead to better understanding and in case of raising queries the feedback will be immediate. Verbal communication leads to no ambiguities. However, discussing to all four business owners individually and exchanging the thoughts of their partners in a comfortable and friendly environment will be more legitimate than to communicate all four at a time. All communication should be ended, by the analyst telling all what his understanding goes with. Later, at the end of all four communications analyst will provide a written understanding document which will be checked by all four of members for the signatures of acceptance. In case of any query, analyst can communicate to any personnel any time.

Misunderstanding is a word, which may said to be the mixture of mistakes, misconceptions, confusions, misinterpretations and quarrels. These all are lead due to nothing else than communication. Inappropriate communication may lead to quarrel. Quarrel is the biggest disaster for business and especially when working with friends, quarrel ends up with nothing in hand.

Misinterpretation may get in the communication, if leaders or the analyst communicates thinking himself a bit higher in rank or need to show off. Though, communication between two parties should use the true, simple and clear words. The communication from the managers should be straight to what is require and communication from the analyst should end up with what is in his mind. Confusion may lead the project designing in the ambiguity corner. Though, leaders should make the analyst should feel comfortable to ask anything related or requires to the project development. In the same way, analyst should not be reluctant, infect confident enough to ask later or sooner to eliminate the confusion. Misconceptions may arise when a single topic is discussed with many different people. As no one is perfect and everyone has its own ideas and thought to get successful though, people usually elaborate the topic in sense what they think. However, leaders should tell analyst their thoughts but in the same time should listen to the concepts he has in mind and clear it calmly and politely. On other side, Analyst should be clear to the concepts he got in explaining for elimination and should not feel hesitant to query it any time. Mistakes are being done by everyone. But they can be corrected. After verbal communication, a written document should be prepared by the analyst to its understandings and is signature for accepting whatever requirements gather documented on are accurate. Alterations should be clearly communicated in written form so that it would stay in record that the alteration is later made on the understandings documented

Two fundamentally different concepts of communication have appeared in the literature on economic adjustment processes. One is vertical communication in which all agents send messages to and receive messages from a central agent often called the auctioneer, helmsman or central planner. Typically, there is a considerable amount of common information available, usually in the form of prices which all agents observe. Often there is some central coordination of actions. An agent has little diret contact with agents other than the central agent.

The second concept is horizontal communication is which all message exchange occurs through direct contact between agents. There is no one agent involved in every message exchange occurs through direct contact between agents. There is little common information and mo central coordination of actions

Barriers to Effective Communication

No matter how good the communication system in an organization is, unfortunately barriers can and do often occur. This may be caused by a number of factors which can usually be summarized as being due to physical barriers, system design faults or additional barriers.

Physical barriers

Physical barriers in the workplace include:

  • Marked out territories, empires and fiefdoms into which strangers are not allowed
  • Closed office doors, barrier screens, separate areas for people of different status
  • Large working areas or working in one unit that is physically separate from others.

Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. As long as people still have a personal space that they can call their own, nearness to others aids communication because it helps us get to know one another.

Emotional barriers

One of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the emotional barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others.

They feel vulnerable. While some caution may be wise in certain relationships, excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships.

Perceptual barriers

The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently. If we didn't, we would have no need to communicate: something like extrasensory perception would take its place.

The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and perceptions shape our own realities:

Cultural barriers

When we join a group and wish to remain in it, sooner or later we need to adopt the behavior patterns of the group. These are the behaviors that the group accepts as signs of belonging.

The group rewards such behavior through acts of recognition, approval and inclusion. In groups which are happy to accept you, and where you are happy to conform, there is a mutuality of interest and a high level of win-win contact.

Where, however, there are barriers to your membership of a group, a high level of game-playing replaces good communication.

Gender barriers

There are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. In childhood, girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, have a vocabulary twice that of boys.

The reason for this lies in the wiring of a man's and woman's brains. When a man talks, his speech is located in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. When a woman talks, the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations.

This means that a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalized way, features of left-brain thinking; whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion, features of both sides of the brain. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day.

Language barriers

Language that describes what we want to say in our terms may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions, buzz-words and jargon. When we couch our communication in such language, it is a way of excluding others. In a global market place the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to talk in their language.

One of the more chilling memories of the Cold War was the threat by the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev saying to the Americans at the United Nations: "We will bury you!" This was taken to mean a threat of nuclear annihilation.

Interpersonal barriers

There are six levels at which people can distance themselves from one another:

  1. Withdrawal is an absence of interpersonal contact. It is both refusal to be in touch and time alone.
  2. Rituals are meaningless, repetitive routines devoid of real contact.
  3. Pastimes fill up time with others in social but superficial activities.
  4. Working activities are those tasks which follow the rules and procedures of contact but no more.
  5. Games are subtle, manipulative interactions which are about winning and losing. They include "rackets" and "stamps".
  6. Closeness is the aim of interpersonal contact where there is a high level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others.

Working on improving your communications is a broad-brush activity. You have to change your thoughts, your feelings, and your physical connections.

That way, you can break down the barriers that get in your way and start building relationships that really work.


  • Anonymous (1973) 'Military Leadership' U.S. Army Handbook [Online] Available from: http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html [7th May 2010]
  • Abp (03/03) NYU - Project Planning Available from: http://www.nyu.edu/its/humanities/ninchguide/II/[7th May 2010]
  • Anonymous (n.d.) About.com, Tech Carriers - Information Technology - Definition and History Available from: http://jobsearchtech.about.com/od/careersintechnology/p/ITDefinition.htm[7th May 2010]
  • Anonymous (2004) Primary Care Contracting - Project Management Tools Available from: http://www.natpact.nhs.uk/qof/assessortraining/dwn2/21157/index.htm [7th May 2010]
  • Anonymous (2009) 12 Manage the Executive Fast Track - Leadership - Methods, Models and Theories Available from: http://www.12manage.com/i_l.html [7th May 2010]
  • Anonymous (n.d.), coach and mentor definitions, Coaching network. (http://www.coachingnetwork.org.uk/resourcecentre/WhatAreCoachingAndMentoring.htm#TopOfPage)
  • Chapman, Alan & Rosen head, Ron (1995 - 2008) BusinessBalls.com, Project Management Available from: http://www.businessballs.com/project.htm [7th May 2010].
  • Chandler, Robin and Grzyb Jo Ellen (2004).Coaching &Mentoring The impact factory Retrieved 8th November 2009 from (http://www.impactfactory.com/gate/free/coachingandmentoring.pdf) [7th May 2010].
  • Anonymous (n.d.), Resource allocation [WIKI] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_allocation).
  • Anonymous (n.d) communication barriers available from: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_can_you_overcome_communication_barriers [8th May 2010].
  • Anonymous (n.d) Leadership Styles available from: http://autoimmunization.com/archives/2008/12/[8th May 2010].
  • Anonymous (n.d) communication barriers available from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-7-Barriers-To-Great-Communications&id=153524[8th May 2010].

Please be aware that the free essay that you were just reading was not written by us. This essay, and all of the others available to view on the website, were provided to us by students in exchange for services that we offer. This relationship helps our students to get an even better deal while also contributing to the biggest free essay resource in the UK!