Computer science and memory

Fundamentals of Hardware & Operating Systems

Task 1.1: Report for library computer system

To: Library Manager

From: Library System Administrator


Respectably Manager: I hope your acceptation for my report. I am a PC technician support from and permit of Arnclan Services Company. Archive district CARMEL has upgraded computer system. The community wants to clarify the archive computer system. I was sent to give technical suggestion suitable infrastructure computer our services company.

Library PCs are standalone and old model machine, 233 MHz (PC) with a maximum 64M of RAM. This system is Windows Me Os, have a maximum capacity of hard drive 4GB IDE. PCs prepared with just a slow-moving drives and do not have the CD ROMs or DVD ROMs, the sound card and so on. PCS has only the serial and parallel ports without the USB cable or a fire-wire.

They have a network shared all the PCs with a single low-speed printer dot-matrix and internet dial-up connection. 233 MHz PC may be slow and then some problem is solving of mathematical and logical operations. Besides, MB 64 RAM is very low ability to install Windows XP or later. In accumulation, this OS is required minimum 128MB RAM and 2GB free space hard disk. It is also unfeasible to backup data and information because of its capacity. This capacity is not enough of floppy disk to store our data. Thus, clumsy drive no upgraded benefits for t in our time.

Costumers not used extra memory devices because of no ready to use USB or fire-wire ports. Using, dot-matrix printer is not suitable for many printed paper. Customers are accessed slow internet connection because using a single dial-up. A total weakness of this system, a standalone PC with 233 MHz microprocessor can effect slow execution of instructions applications, 64MB RAM can not store enough information to solve problem, and the operating system not have security and confidence.

Customers can not access high speed, large capacity and reliable from 4GB IDE hard drive. Also, not have CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMs, costumer cannot take out their information (such as audio, video and other multimedia data) compressed into the optical devices. In totaling, people to use ink-jet and laser printers in this system, so we must change the old dot-matrix printer to a one of new model printers and then we must maintaining the Internet dial-up connection for customer to obtain good enough to get news and information.

If we change old system to new system, we will require the following items as a minimum. First, I want to use Acer V173 Bb - 17" TFT. We can get 1280 x 1024 resolution, 16 million color and 5 ms response time. Then, I choose a mainboard MSI MB K9N6PGM2-V2 Geforce 6150SE Nforce 430 (MCP61P) DDR2 Uatx Retail with 4USB 2.0. It will cost $ 46.69 so it will cost advantages. I choose CPU is AMD Athlon 64 X2 3 GHz (Dual-Core) Processor and cost $ 55. I choose memory Kingston 2GB 240-Pin DDR2 SDRAM DDR2 667 (PC2 5300) and will cost $ 45.99 and prefer SHARK 300W Dual-Fan ATX P4 Power Supply with 6pin Aux Power, S-ATA, and 20+4 main connectors and cost $ 45.

I prefer NIC card is Argon 10/100MB Realtek 8139 card and cost $ 15.99. It will present full gigabit-through permission from disconnect and disconnect the backbone of the infrastructure switch, and now down through to the desktop and the workplace. After that, I favor the creative sound effects card-96kHz Surround 5.1 X-Fi bombing of the sound - 24bit and it will cost $ 50. Finally, I choose the adapter graphics card, video adapters VGA PCI MB XGI Volari Z7 16 - MB 16 - DDR SDRAM for VGA. It will cost $ 61.

We can obtain a permit high-quality graphics. It 'design s low power consumption eliminates the need for a cooling fan and heat sink, making it VGA PCI video adapter comb ideal for embedded and critical applications from its environment. As the ink-jet and laser printers novel in our time, we visit decision on these 2. Therefore, I define a laser printer. So, I choose the engine p 1006 HP laser and it will cost $ 104. And I choose a broadband Internet interaction for the internet connection using a broadband internet service ADSL; consumers can obtain knowledge and information from the website with fast speed. After the move as an old-fashioned system in the new version one, we can run application software as we like. Software that can run on Windows XP Open Office 3.1, GIMP, or view Irfan, free antivirus like antivirus Avast or AVG, Mozilla Firefox 3.5, but 2 Google and Internet Explorer 8.0, petrel 2.0 Mozilla, wireless broadband Internet gateway for interaction, installing printers , optical media and scanner.

Task 2.1: Searching New Products



Brands & Capacity



Intel D201GLY2A SiS662 Mini-ITX Motherboard

$ 49.99


MB K9N6PGM2-V2 Geforce 6150SE Nforce 430 (MCP61P) DDR2 Uatx Retail

$ 59.98


Intel Celeron 1.2GHz 100MHz 256KB CPU

$ 24.99


Intel Core 2 Quad Processor Q6600 2.4GHz 1066MHz 8MB LGA775 EM64T CPU, OEM

$ 279.99


WD Scorpio Blue 320 GB ATA Internal hard drive - 100 MBps - 5400 rpm

$ 99


CMS Full Disk Encryption Hard Drive 320 GB Internal hard drive - 150 MBps - 5400 rpm

$ 213


Sima USB/FireWire Multi-Adapter Cable

$ 24.99


Motorola D200 Bluetooth Stereo PC Adapter Network adapter - USB

$ 11


Macsense Aerolite Wua-880 Wi-fi Network Adapter - Usb - 54mbps - IEEE 802.11b/g...

$ 64.99


Brother HL 4040CDN Color Laser printer - 21 ppm - 300 sheets

$ 268


HP Deskjet F4280 All-in-One Color Ink-jet - Printer / copier / scanner

$ 60


Belkin Bulk cable - Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 1000 ft

$ 80


CABLES TO GO cat6 1000ft grey solid utp cable

$ 146.66


Zoom Wireless Modem 4300AF - 56 Kbps Fax / modem - serial RS-232 / Bluetooth

$ 70

My searched all new products from


Task 3.1: Problem

The calculation computers in center are independent of age 233 machines (PC) so they cannot read, to interpret and the instructions of software and cannot conduct arithmetical operations and logics for the system of efficient way. They only have 64 MB of ram at the most, reason why Windows XP cannot be executed or later and it is not possible to be stored to a great amount of data and information. The present operating system is Windows ME so that the system is absolutely outside date. The used hard disks in the PC are IDE and the maximum capacity is of 4 GB for that reason we cannot obtain from high speed and it is not possible to be executed applications of software of efficient way. From the computers they are equipped with disk drives only it has potential of data and backup little slow speed of transference and only has 1.44 MB of memory so that it is only possible to be used to little make backups of archives and folders. Therefore, we must put in VCD and DVD units. The computers have only the ports series and parallel, without ports fire USB or cable, you cannot secure the bus technology, and she cannot transfer data with units USB. The unique matrix printer only can print graphs of low resolution, with a limited yield of color. Therefore, we must change that to one in one suitable one. In addition, the present system lacks network so that it cannot be united and the data transfer from a PC to another one. On the other hand, a single line connection cannot obtain from high speed and line, whereas the access to networks, our line of cut telephone. Therefore, we must change to the connection of telephone access to Internet in broadband or the connection adapted of others. Thus, we will have a new and modern system.

Task 3.2: Motherboard

The plate of the system is the center of the system of PC-compatible microcomputer that contains the circuits that determine the power of calculation and the speed of all the system, the microprocessor and control systems that of the system. First of all, I am going to clear and to reinstate the new motherboard to obtain a better system again. In order to clear the plate old mother, I must disconnect all the connections between the motherboard and components in the case, to verify the positions of all the configurations of bridge, clear any cable that is simply in the form and disconnects the power supply. Then, to clear adapters PCI and the graphical first video card and clears the screws to me that hold the Earth of the plate of the system in the chassis. Next, slipping plate of system toward the left to release its plastic feet of the grooves in the ground of the unit of the system. Finally, to raise meeting outside the box. In order to return install the plate of the system, to install the screws of earthling that the Together hole of the system for the metal separators in the floor of the chassis. After that, one will become to connect all the cables to the plate of the system with the connections of energy, the connections of the frontal panel, and the connections of the disk drives. Then, the option to install cards of adapter in the corresponding groove expansion connectors. It replaces the outer cover of the unit of system or the lateral panels and returns to connect all the external ES of systems. Finally, to start up the system and to change the CMOS configuration to give back the system to its configuration of original yield. I am going to select MSI MB K9N6PGM2-V2 motherboard - Geforce 6150SE Nforce 430 (MCP61P) DDR2 Uatx to replace the old system, since it has a graphical monitor high performance integrated as a result of faster graphs and a greater quality of video and is excellent for the multitask and multimedia.

Task 3.3: Microprocessor (CPU)

Microprocessor is known like "brain" of the computer system, since they can read, it convert machine code by interpreting and executing. the instructions of software and also it conducts arithmetical operations and logics for the system. The first step is to remove the CPU. First of all, to clear heat dissipater and ventilator of cooling. An activated a mechanism of subjection in the changes of socket to a side, the blockade of the pins in its place. In order to release the microprocessor of the taking, the arm of handle next to the taking must be pressed downwards and far from the taking. When one is free about socket, it raises the arm to release the pressure in the pin of the microprocessor. Reinstallation can be taken like this one. I can choose AMD Athlon 64 X2 3 GHz (Dual-Core) Processor and will cost 143 dollars because much more it is adapted like for the industry.

Task 3.4: Memory

Memory RAM, is sufficient to operate directly with the microprocessor and it is possible to be read of and writing in as often as desired. RAM is a type of volatile memory, its content disappears when the energy takes off of the memory. In order to clear and to install the memory, module DIMM simply slides vertically in the single and it is locked in its place by a card in each end. I choose Kingston 2GB 240-Pin DDR2 SDRAM DDR2 667 (PC2 5300) and will cost $ 45.99 reason why she will save much money to him and we will put ourselves in standard of the industry, the memory generic appointed the clients who of white box or generic computer science systems, or that glide to buy memory by specification.

Task 3.5: Power Supply Unit (PSU)

Power supply is the component in the system that turns the voltage of CA of the taking of commercial current for the voltage of CC required by the circuits of the computer. The function of the power supply is to regulate to offer different electrical energy levels from the components of the system. The power supplies are mentioned like with a power that needs in Watts, a standard power supply that normally would be able to give around 350 Watts. In order to eliminate the power supply of the system, first of all, to disconnect the connection of the feeding of the plate of the system, that becomes disconnected the commercial feeder of the receiver and the feeding of the monitor of the current taking becomes disconnected. Next, one becomes disconnected the connection of the interior of the motherboard and the connectors of feeding of the diskette unit, hard disk, CD ROM and the switch of the frontal panel. Next, flock the unit of feeding of the system that contains the elimination of the four screws that hold the power supply for the rare one of the unit of the system and to store the screws correctly. Finally, the power supply of the system of elevation until the end. In order to invest it is the reinstallation of the power supply. I prefer SHARK 300W Dual-Fan ATX P4 Power Supply with 6pin Aux Power and cost $ 45.

Task 3.6: Schedule






Removing & Installing

Main board

30 min

If you don't put it out carefully,

the circuits on it will break

easily and this

Motherboard cannot be used.


Removing & Installing CPU

10 min

Special Zero Insertion Force

(ZIF) sockets were designed

to be placed in the socket

without force and then be

clamped in place


Removing & Installing

Memory Card

20 min

The SIMM sockets accept

72-pin modules and DIMM

Sockets accept 168-pins.


Removing & Installing

Power Supply


P8 and P9 connectors that

deliver power to the system

board are alike, their voltage

levels are different. Reversing

them can cause several


Task 4

Task 4.1: Windows XP Step by Step Installation

Firstly, Computer is turn on and then press Delete key to enter the BIOS. I choice First Boot Device is CDROM from advanced BIOS Features. Insert the Microsoft Windows XP Service Park 2 CD to CDROM and then pressed F10 key to save and exit from BIOS.

I see “Press any key to continuous … “and then press enter setup







Secondly, I installed driver software (VGA, Sound, Chipset etc...) for computers.

Task 4.2: Installation Application Software

Task 4.2.1: Installation 3.1 Application

Task 4.3: Installation Printer

5.1. Common Printer Problems

The ideal step before determining the cause of any problem of the common printer is to decide what piece of the printer of the corresponding system is the error: the equipment host, the cable of signal, or the printer. Almost each printer is equipped with a system incorporated in the self-examination. The form easiest to determine if the printer is in lack is to execute its own routine of test. If the car-test executes and prints the clean pages, the majority of the printers has been eliminated like a possible source of problems. The problem could be in the equipment, the wiring, or the portion of interface of the printer. If the printer not the car-test, nevertheless, you need to solve the problem of the printer. If the cable is of good quality, must control the configuration of the function of the printer of the computer host. One of the problems most common in this part of the impression subsystem is the printer driver. If he is incorrect for the printer that is used, or if it has been damaged, the impression will not take place.

5.2. Troubleshooting Network Printer Problems

The complexity of the operations of transport of the printer in a network is much greater due to the addition of the controllers of network and protocols. Many of the problems when printing through the network imply the components of the operating system. Therefore, its creation of networks and functions of impression so much is due to verify. When the impression cannot be transmitted through the network, it verifies that the local equipment and the printer of network are formed for the remote impression. To execute a printing car-test to verify that its hardware works correctly. If the printer does not print a test page, is evident that there is a problem with the hardware of the printer. Next, to solve the problem of hardware of the printer. When hardware works, it tries to print again through the network. Next, to find out if the servant of the printer can print directly to the printer. He abra a document in the impression servant and tries to print. If the file is not printed directly to the local printer, is a problem in local hardware. To solve the problem like a local, printing problem independent. If the premises of the operation of the servant of printer in the work, throw a look to the operation of the network when trying to carry out other functions of network, such as the transference of a file of the remote control unit for the impression servant. If the network functions are in operation, to examine the operation of the printer of the local computer. Problems that must be investigated if a printer of ready network success carries out a test, but are not printed from the network include A cable of bad network Incorrect or damaged controllers An incorrect direction IP of network A mask of subred incorrect configuration

5.3. Troubleshooting Dot-Matrix Printer

If you are having problems with a printer dot matrix, begins the process of solution of problems by means of the execution of the printer dot matrix incorporated in self-test. Monitor of the welcome computer (if it exists), the wiring, or the portion of interface of the printer. If the printer not the car-test, nevertheless, must solve the problem of the printer being based on the symptoms that produce.

5.3.1: Dot-Matrix Printer Power-Supply Problems

If the printer does not work and it does not show the lights, it does not make noises, and it does not conduct any battle, the power supply generally is implied. Test of the light in line. If the printer is out of line, the impression action does not take place. To lack or evil installed tape cartridge also it can prevent that the impression unit. It connects a lamp or another device in the exit to verify that he is operative. It verifies that the feeder well is connected to the printer and the sole.

5.3.2: Print head Not Printing

If none of the print head's print wires are being energized, the first step should be to exchange the control board for a known-good board of the same type. If the new control board does not correct the problem, replace the print head. A power-supply problem could also prevent the print head from printing.

If the tops of characters are missing, the print head is misaligned with the plan. If the output of the print becomes lighter as it moves left to right across the page, you might need to adjust the spacing (gap) between the planet and the print head carriage rod to obtain proper printing.

To exchange a dot-matrix print head assembly, make sure that it is cool enough to be handled. These units can become hot enough to cause a serious burn.

5.3. 3: Print head Not Moving

If the print head is printing but not moving across the page, a single block of print is generated on the page. When this type of problem occurs, the related components include the print head positioning motor, the timing belt, the home-position and timing sensors, the control board, and possibly the power-supply board.

5.3. 4: Paper Not Advancing

When the paper does not advance, the output normally appears as one line of dark blocks across the page. Examine the printer's paper feed selector lever to maker sure that it is set properly for the type of paper feed selected. If the paper feed is set correctly, the printer is online, and the paper does not move, you need to troubleshoot the paper-feed motor and gear train. Check the motor and gear train by setting the printer to the offline mode and holding down the Form Feed (FF).

5.4. Troubleshooting Ink-Jet Printers

As with the dot-matrix printer, the first step in determining the cause of an ink-jet printer problem is to determine which part of the printer system is at fault-the host computer, the signal cable, or the printer.

5.4.1: Print head Not Printing

If the print head is moving but not printing, begin by checking the ink supply in the print cartridge. If the printer does not print from the self-test, the components involved include the print head, the flexible signal cable, the main control board, and possibly the power-supply board.

To isolate the cause of these problems, perform the following actions one at a time:

* Replace the print cartridge.

* Check the flexible cabling for continuity and for short circuits between adjacent conductors.

* Exchange the control board for a known-good one.

* Finally, check the power supply.

5.4.2: Print head Not Moving

If the print head is printing but not moving across the page, a single block of print is normally generated on the page. When this type of problem occurs, the related components include the print head-positioning motor, the timing belt, the home-position sensor, the control board, and possibly the power supply.

5.4.3: Paper Not Advancing

When the paper does not advance in an ink-jet printer, the output is normally a thick, dark line across the page. If the printer is online and the paper does not move, you must troubleshoot the paper-handling motor and gear train. Check the motor and gear train by setting the printer to the offline mode and holding down the Form Feed button. Check the printer's paper thickness settings. If they are correct and the print output is disd, you need to replace the paper-feed rollers.

5.5: Operating System Utilities

5.5.1: Task Manager

The close program dialog, the Task Manager can be used to determine which applications in the system are running or stopped, as well as which resources are being used and can also determine what the general microprocessor and memory usage levels are. You can access the Windows 2000/XP Task Manger by pressing Ctrl +Alt+ Del or Ctrl +Shift+ Esc. You can also access the Task Manager by right-clicking the system tray and selecting Task Manager from the pop-up context menu.

1) Application

In Windows Task Manager, it has five application tabs: Applications, Process, Performance, Networking and Users.

To use the Task Manger, select the application from the application tabs and click the End Task Button. If prompted, click the End Task button again to confirm the selection.

2) Process

The process tab provides information that can be helpful in tracking down problems associated with slow system operations.

3) Performance

The performance tab provides a graphical summary of the system's CPU and memory usage.

4) Networking

The networking tab displays the situation of network.

5) User

The user tab shows the number of users in that computer system.

5.5.2: Device Manager

The device manager utilities are basically an easy-to-use interface for the Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000/XP Registries. It can use to manually isolate hardware and configuration conflicts.

In the Device Manager display, the presence of plus (+) and minus (-) signs in the nodes of the devices indicates expandable and collapsible information branches at those nodes.

The Device Manager displays an exclamation point (!) inside a yellow circle whenever a device is experiencing a direct hardware conflict with another device. The nature of the problem is described in the device's Properties page.

Similarly, a red X appears beside a device's icon when the device has been disabled due to a user-selection conflict. This situation can occur when a user wants to disable a selected device without removing it.

When a device conflict is suspected, simply click on the offending device in the listing, right-click on the item, and select the Properties option from the pop-up menu. The tabs at the top of the Properties page provide access to the device's General information, Driver specifications, and Resource assignments. When a conflict is indicated, you should click on the Resources tab to examine the Conflicting Devices list.


In the normal use of the hard-disk drive, files become fragmented on the drive. As mentioned previously, this file fragmentation creates conditions that cause the drive to operate more slowly. Fragmentation occurs when files are stored in noncontiguous locations on the drive. This happen when files are stored, retrieved, modified, and rewritten due to differences in the sizes of the before-and-after files. Some portions of files may become lost on the drive when a program is unexpectedly interrupted (such as when software crashes, for example, or during a power failure). These lost allocation units (chains) also cause the drive to operate slowly. Therefore, it is customary to use the DOS CHKDSK command to find these chains and remove them before performing a defrag operation.

In some cases, you may also need to remove some data from the drive to defragment it. If the system is producing Out of Disk Space error messages, the defragmentation utility will not have enough room on the drive to realign the clusters. When this happen, some of the contents of the drive must be transferred to a backup media (or discarded) to free additional disk space for the realignment process to occur.

In Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000/XP systems, you can locate the Defragment utility by selecting Start, Programs, Accessories, System Tools. In Windows 2000 and XP, you can also access the Defragmenter by selecting Start, Settings, Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Computer Management.

5.5.3: Disk Defragmenter

5.5.4:Back Up

Back up utilities enable the user to quickly create extended copies of files, groups of files, or an entire disk drive. This operation is normally performed to create backup copies of important information, fro use in the event that the drive crashes or the disk becomes corrupt. The Backup and Restore functions can be used to back up and retrieve one or more files to another disk.

The Microsoft Backup and Restore disk-management utility is found in both Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000/XP; however, it is not automatically installed when Windows is set up.

Backup Types

Most backup utilities allow backups to be performed in a number of ways. Typically, backups fall into four categories:

* Full or total

* Incremental

* Daily

* Differential ( or modified-only)

In a full, of total, backup, the entire contents of the designed disk are backed up. This includes directory and subdirectory listings and their contents. This backup method requires the most time each day to perform but also requires the least time to restore the system after a failure. Only the most recent backup copy is required to restore the system.

In an incremental backup operation, the system backs up files that have been created or changed since the last backup. Restoring the system from an incremental backup requires the use of the last full backup and each incremental backup made since then: this method requires the least amount of time to back up the system but the most amount of time to restore it.

To conduct a daily, or copy, backup, you move through the tree structure of the disk and mark, or tag, directories and files to be backed up. After all the directories/files have been marked, they are backed up in a single operation.

Specifying a differential, or modified-only, backup causes the backup utility to examine each file to determine whether it has changed since the last full backup was performed. If not, it is bypassed. If the file has been altered, however, it will be backed up. This option is a valuable time-saving feature in a periodic backup strategy. To restore the system, you need a copy of the last full backup and the last differential back up.

5.5.5:Disk Cleanup

This utility can be used to remove certain types of normally disposable files and optional components from the system to clear additional disk space. You can access the Disk Cleanup utility through the System Tools entry by selecting Start, Programs, Accessories.

When it is activated, the Disk Cleanup utility calculates the amount of space that can be regained b y emptying the Recycle Bin. It also examines the space saved by removing downloaded files, temporary files, and temporary Internet files. The View Files button can be used to view the individual files involved in the group before discarding them.

Reference (Google shopping)


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