There are economic, businesses, social dimensions and policies with globalization. This Paper is concerned with the dimension of businesses. A certain economic platform is presented here because fundamental economic dimension obtains often appreciably given on, but mainly author concentrates on the impact and the potential of globalization on the reputation of the company.
The key to understand globalization is found in the reasons for which the commodity runs and divisions of the production occur. It is important because the economic exchanges very seldom take place between the nations or the groups of nations: they take place between the organizations ("companies", etc). The national prospect is an aggregation politically significant but economically synthetic of activity, because there is no similarity of interest between the nation-states and the economic elements located in them. This was discussed in literature of academic since the birth of economic sciences like discipline.
Consider the following - Currently the United States spends approximately 12 percent of its income on imports; in late 1800s that quantify was 8 percent. For this period its market shifted just approximately more protectionist with the majority open in the developed world. The element foreign trade of the U K of the interior product gross was 40 percent during 1850s. It is slightly higher than of today. It is not difficult to interpret these data in economic sciences: the answer is to make with progress, the specialization of production and the mobility techniques of factor. Quite simply, much of the activity which constitutes globalization does not appear in the commercial statistics. The international businesses are not just trade and it is not always the most important aspect. The international specialization of production and the optimal allocation of resources are often much more important. The IT and the tools and the techniques of the management of chain of provisioning (SCM) are facilitating and accelerating this tendency.
Key points are (A) Globalization is not about making and/or to sell products in all the areas of the world and (b) in a paramount way, globalization is not limited to marketing and the sale. The sale and the marketing are not always the most important factors of globalization: globalization is a strong techno-economic phenomenon with major implications for purchasers.
Considering two issues that are very different, international trade theory, and international trade policy. The theory of international trade is about the flow of the products, services, knowledge and information between the countries. The policy of international trade is about the methods used by governments and organizations, for socio-politic reasons, to intervene in operations of economic sciences.
Not to wish ardently there is we operated on a market where the goods, particularly produced, could enter, but the international mobility of the services was much lower and the mobility of the factors of production (particularly work) was extremely low internationally while being rather high domestically. The prices tended to converge by ("floating") the increasingly free system of rate of exchange, while factors of production were returned account in the domestic currency. It was thus the entry rather than the side of output of the economic activity which encouraged a greater internationalization of the operations. Although we can correctly direct us to the absolute growth of the trade over one prolonged period, its growth relative with the general, reflective economic tendency of the request like the provisioning, shows us something completely different. The knowledge flow was quite different. This had the major impact on organizations, often in a manner that the national governments find difficult and that some social and political groups find to threaten. It is the basic reason for which so many governments are still wedged with the blindness which it export is good and globalization is bad. In the test to define and include/understand holistically the phenomenon of globalization, we end up including/understanding the new way in which the savings and the components in organization of the economies act one on the other.
Globalization is, in author's sight, about creating a new whole of competences which make it possible a company to use resources on an optimal basis to meet a request of customer differentiated profitably without respect for the geography. Put more simply, globalization is about entering an organization in a position to make deals on any market which they choose, and to make of the businesses is not simply about marketing and of the sale. To look at globalization like process acquiring and replacing competences helps us to understand how and why new forms of organization emergent to take above and companies of profile established high by defeat. Globalization is not limited to large companies. Our concepts of "top" companies change too. One can in a justifiable way put the question if several of the enormous companies of the world (often fusion and acquisition-conduit) are the chiefs or really total truths. There the obviousness increases that such great organizations are not chiefs in any true direction of the word. The critical issue is : in which regards are great fusion and "multinational" conglomerates acquisition-based rather than owners of a booklet of the operations reduced and under-optimized in fragments extending through a various range from the countries.
There are certain number of principal factors which influence the tendency towards globalization and then to evaluate the implications for purchasers and marketing.
The principal dependent factors influencing the tendency towards globalization are as follows.
- Structural shift in the economy of world
- Diffusion of technologies and computerized systems of information
- Integration and operating speed of the financial markets
- Efficient corporate structure
- Competitiveness based on supply chains.
Structural variation in the world economy
Where is the structural shift taking us to? The answer must be found in (A) the increasingly integrated economic establishments which characterize late capitalism and (b) the greatest interactivity found in chains of provisioning.
Where the organizations integrate through borders they contribute to several economies simultaneously. This has both optimistic and negative aspects from the point of view of the national governments. This is specified clearly and with humanity analyzed by the economist of price-profit Joseph Stiglitz (Stiglitz 2002) Nobel. The increase in the "connexity", it discusses, caused the need again standard for system social, political and legal which considers the widening of space between the "rich and "have nots". The basic point here is not that there is something economically unfair about globalization, but that its processes give the human beings and the lobbys without scruples to all the levels of new spheres of company of occasion. The politicians and the legislators are simply not until speed with reality of economic sciences 21st-century and the I.T., but are in much case or slow down on the egoistic catch or amoral.
Sticking with economic dimensions and of businesses, we have a new whole of consequences of the decisions. These decisions introduce into a more pointed hearth the fundamental laws of economic sciences while they are connected to the optimal use of the resources. The markets can not function perfectly; but they function according to principles' which can be easily understood. Consequently a world connected more and more, decisions on interest rates of interest taken in US, in London, in Japan, in Germany, etc can have a significant economic effect. Impact to measures such as the trade balance is clear.
The result is that the companies functioning in the developed world must now look at their operations in a different manner. E.g, the future for cars of a manufacture of company in Western Europe is not very bright if such a company is vertically integrated there while it could be good for a company which is in Western Europe and sources the elements of all the chain of provisioning which contributes to its finished product of the place which is adapted more to this activity. This inevitable structural shift causes two strategically significant phenomena.
- New technologies of the logistics and the management of chain of provisioning catalyse simultaneously the tendency of globalization and uncouple creation from value of the place of the decision-making.
- The definition of competition is shifting from product against product towards the supply chain against supply chain
There is an aspect of the globalization, which appears in the social one as well as in economic dimensions. The step of arming competences with core of globalization on behalf of a certain number of companies saw the relative reinforcement of the countries where the capture and the use of knowledge were high.
Contrasting examples of the catch two. The appearance of Nokia in Finland saw the rise in beams and chains of telecommunications and the companies - related like collaborators and suppliers and the set up of the Finnish establishments in research like world-class. In the same way the initial reasoning for the centripetal investment in electronics and the pharmaceutical ones in Ireland was access to the low cost of labor and to gain a balance in the European economic sector. This caused the establishment of the operations of world-class (A) through the latter and the chains of provisioning of other sectors; (b) with the international and total companies of logistics developed out of the traditional companies of forwarding of transport and freight; and (c) in the establishments of the first quality of research and formation whose work increases Ireland Incorporated as a whole.
Diffusion of technologies and the computerized systems of information
The arrival of the accessible computing power, previously the available ones only to the organizations with a good number of money and cash flow strong, helped to create a basic platform. The concept of a " principal" company changes. Large conglomerates more are not automatically admired for their balance - indeed much are avoided by the houses of investment of placement in values mobiliéres more and more quite informed. Several of the principal openings are done by the small ones, undertaking companies based in the beams mutually of support and Web of provisioning.
The basic question of businesses is how to satisfy the request of the customers who have the range of A (now increase) of the choice. Classically we were accustomed to seeing that this like choice between the innovation/differentiation and the operational effectiveness/cost control. Dimensions of quality and the price are not any more one difference.
Information became the "fabric of body" of the modern society. Considering that one concluded appreciably from arrangements previously commercial on the basis of asymmetrical information, larger transparency in information has the wire, with a situation in which optimization is easier and with it does not hold any account of the geographical borders. Although we are still confronted with the principles of the choice, complexity and unfinished information, larger diffusion of I.T. made side tilted of this basic aspect of the businesses much easier to treat. Superimpose this with a function of production which functions with through national borders and the result is a much better use of resource. This leads us to the concept "Efficient and agile corporate structure".
Integration and operational speed of the financial markets
Financial markets were based on internet for a long time and they function 24 hours out of 24 with a speed which is several times higher than there was. The organizations, independently of the size, can now in a profitable way control banking reports/ratios of operations apart from the base of origin. It is not any more one operational need. Globalization has affected the sector of financial services until a greater degree and more quickly than of other sectors. Fusions and acquisitions in the banking environment were a conductive of globalization and a response to its potential envisaged.
The capital is a product and is marketable on a basis of arbitration. Now, given the much-increased speed of circulation of capital , the markets are adjusted and tested with open space quicker than before. This potentially causes one of higher level of risk of foreign currencies the research of the optimal cost of foreign currencies. If a company can actuate an overall policy of financing, the process of the hedges to the minimum reduces the effects of the movements of currency. When combined with an overall policy of approvisonnement, there are a closer balance between the costs and the incomes and a cash flow more equal. This argument is prolonged with the property. However a company can be built-in in a country, much are enumerated on several stock exchange markets. The property of the capital is thus a discriminator. While there remains hard to find a company whose actions majority-are had apart from its country of incorporation, the tendency is clear.
The Efficient and Agile Corporate
Like a direct result of the development of the accessible capacity of calculation, a new whole range of the forms of organization became available. Form fixes and capital-based we observe more activity achieved on the basis of the organizations of "Web" or "network". Those named virtual" or "prolonged " companies the ": the more significant form is "the nimble company".
The erosion of the unit prices and decline in the ordering of the finished evaluation manufacturers is a very important issue. Every year the manufacturers of much of industrial products face the need for reducing prices of product, or offer more devices for the same price. The producer prices with the production, quite simply, eroding in everyone are developed and in particular in the economies which were noted for their control of manufacture during all the time of war 2 of post-World - the United States, RU, Germany, Japan. Into response to this phenomenon the majority of the manufacturers in the developed world changed the way in which manufacture is controlled. The first phase of this answer named "the thin manufacture", which was cleared a way in Japan.
However even by the end of 1980, when the traditional handbooks on thin manufacture appeared, the concept was already ripe. Thin manufacture can be profitable in simple terms of accountancy: it is, however, somewhat inflexible. The thin operations of manufacture of individual answer badly the fluctuations in the request. Consequently a concept "of the agile manufacture", developed at the beginning in the United States for defense operations emerged under the government at the beginning of the Nineties. This concept is one "to prick together" of alliances of the thin operations of manufacture. If an operation tests a sudden rise or a sudden fall in the request, it can invite other members of alliance required or to accept the product of any member of alliance.
All simply, agile manufacture makes it possible participants to undertake" the soft activity "operational effective. However, it does not guarantee profitability. The manufacturers of the television sets saw benefit eroding the year over the year while the devices of the product on a given price level increased and reliability of product improved at the point where the request of the ascribable after-sales service fell. On the other hand General Electric tested the considerable erosion of the prices in its traditional products but improved profitability uniformly mainly by selling relative services of high value with the products.
Of always prone manufacture of effectiveness: nowadays, however, manufacture is not always the principal source of additional value in all the chain of provisioning. This value emigrated elsewhere.
Competitiveness based on Supply chains
Connected in great part to the appearance of the nimble company, we see an important change of the base of the competition inter-with organization. In particular on markets of business-with-businesses we have a base of customer more and more quite informed who is able to analyze where the value is created. Where there is a value which can be allotted to the permanent deformation of the capital (definite holistically), such an activity is carried out internally. Where it is adapted to assign this activity with a player different in the chain from provisioning, the activity can be carried out outside. If we are in the businesses to offer a medical examination or service produces it, the position is identical.
To take an example, a very high percentage of the end value of the modern plane of Boeing is externalisé: the comparative advantage of Boeing, its value-are added and consequently its output of the credit derive from its knowledge and qualifications extending from the R & D basic by the study and from the logistic management of system at the complex final assembly. The orders of Boeing but does not undertake the manufacture of the components and the partial assemblies: these products come besides. "Elsewhere" becomes total, and the new competence of core by controlling I.T. sophisticated. the systems makes it possible Boeing to order the totality of its chain of provisioning
Managerial aspect of globalization
Globalization causes changes of the content of the activity which we name "management". The conditions overarching imposed by globalization are the replacement of the systems process-based of the order and the order with a fabric of the shared vision and values, of common objectives.
Few organizations have these characteristics. Less accept, even vis-a-vis the hard data with the opposite, that the effective execution in the total economy even less includes a radical change of the attitude required for the competing success of survival. If you doubt this, the catch right a glance with does not import which BRITISH company of significant size and with you will find the targets of national sales on the markets defined on a national basis, "authorized" national organizations (C. - with-D. restricted) with the act nationally; reward on the basis for the national-measured exits.
For eradicating the problems, the start should be abandonment of any mode national-based of thought and a movement towards considering the field of businesses in which one functions. By "field of businesses" I want to say simply that one defines businesses in one while the totality of additional value which one can reach on the basis to increase the suitable capital and the possibilities - some of which will be had and others of which will be bought or rent-in. Thus there will be thereafter a no such thing like the "Indian" or "Chinese" market, but a borderless field of businesses which will have as its types of product of segments not or countries but customers total in structures of supply chain of provisioning, each one having distinct characteristics. customer or supply chain becomes segment of the market.
For instance, in telecommunication, the incipient segments or generalize of the integrators of systems (for example. Ericsson, Lucent) or generalizing the authorities of telecommunications (for example BT, telecom of Deutsche) which nationally change negotiation to negotiate some overall).
How purchase of these segments of simple-company? It will depend on their sight of their field of businesses. Some of the components of source of will, some will require complete subsets, others will require something enters. The answer will be a mixture of the packages of product which could imply the direct provisioning of product of a collaboration of function of procurement of product, local or international total of the relative manufacturers, acquisition of the companies through the chain of provisioning.
The changes above have principal implications for the totality of the field of management of company. They influence the marketing in a very major and provocative way. Now we turn towards this dimension.
Implications for purchasers and marketing
Globalization gives to purchasers the opportunity to reach a range much consumers who was the case in the past. This facilitates some aspects of marketing and others more difficult.
Basic and technical tools of marketing
A more and more integrated environment of businesses the emphase moves of an individual to a platform of collaboration of sale. This is presented in detail at a multitude of studies of academic on total management (see in particular Coulson-Thomas 1992). Changes of the tools and the techniques of the market east in response to national/regional aspects which remain during the processes of the transition - various aspects from ripe activity of corporation and generalize atvarious rates, and the legal conditions and national/regional standards of product change very slowly.
Supply Chain Marketing
The sale is based more and more on three chains of provisioning acting one on the other; product by money, information and service. The transfers of information and money are easier, since they are two elements of the businesses which became generalized most easily and most quickly. The chain of procurements of product per service is more tough as it is less uniform and is prone to the dissensions (mainly cultural) local. Because (A) of the constant migration of the value in states of competing provisioning and (b) of the decision-making without a symmetrical information, the range of the concept of marketing moves gradually beyond the traditional 4Ps (produced, price, promotion, place) which framed the discipline for so much a long time.
The value of customer can be known from any element or combination from the elements, not simply on the final package of product. The sale is about identifying how and why the customers develop and change their sights as for what the value constitutes. This takes place against a bottom of the reports/ratios moreover in addition to collaboration rather than the report/ratio of businesses length of the traditional arm.
It is not difficult to see how the decoupling of the creation of value of the country of the place of the resources and the activities which are limited to the 4Ps makes necessary a redefinition of the activity which we name "marketing". Globalization accentuates this tendency.
Cohesivity and uniformity
If globalization affects organizations, then it changes by function in businesses. The final challenge is to maintain the cohesivity and the uniformity by presenting a company and its offers at the world.
They is not very probable aspects that the markets will converge entirely because of the differences in the environments of history and sociology, of culture, physics and legal, and much of others. This made of the questions such as stigmatizing moreover, not less, important. But the concept and the goal of a mark change: it is used to submit only one report/ratio about the values and of the position of the core of a company. The capacity of a buyer to attain a "segment of one" (or normally a "segment of little") on the basis of cohesive and coherent platform of sale will be the key with total success.
Competences in the environment of market
The environment of market is characterized by a fluidity of organization appreciably larger. All this causes an additional whole of challenges which are removed from by leaders of the businesses generally, but particularly in office of sale. Those easily translate into comparison competences of core, as follows.
The movement towards globalization requires directors of sale (and other) to give up national allegiances and this can have come only when the senior executive of company modifies its own sights and installs a whole of process and the structures which pay to reality incipient from the businesses and not to the last practice. Globalization prolongs the choice - sides of supply and of the reports/ratios of businesses. It open not only more markets with us, it opens simultaneously our markets with more competitors. This provides a more liquid environment of sale in which a can "hedge" of organization its markets and customers in order to maximize returns and to the minimum to reduce the risk and uncertainty.
Because a response to this "enabling" is not alone enough: it must be accompanied by the executive development. The periodic rehandlings of organization which find work for the existing hierarchy are not effective any more. While we move ahead at the 21st century when we must recognize more than always before this structure the strategy follows, and this means delayered now, frontier and multipurpose teams carried out by the senior executive which does not pass their life travelling the world but which communicate electronically and interactivement with a prolonged team or "virtual".
It is why globalization can never be about the sale in each area of the world. It is why the total company will be distinguished by sound possibilities not just by the markets it is useful or numbers of countries of which it sources its entries. Globalization can be uncomfortable for governments "interventionists", in particular those which prefer to influence the economic forces for the narrow goals of protectionism vis-a-vis the change. Correctly controlled at the intergovernmental level, globalization will level the field of play until a very significant degree and will change the nature of the occasion and competition. This constitutes the true soul of globalization. It will change our views in marketing and in operational management.