In the contemporary age, the end of Khilafa is supposed to be one of the catastrophic events that is considered to have happened to the Muslim Ummah. On March 3rd 2010 marked 86 years since Mustafa Kemal abolished Islamic Khalifah in the Turkey State. Since then the Muslim Ummah has seen division, occupation, stagnation, domination. The Muslims are till today still bruised with the destruction of Khalifah. The destruction of Khalifah was not an instantaneous impulse or a reaction; it was cumulative action of what had been added in the western ruler's minds for decades and centuries. Mustafa Kemal was mere used as a pawn to pull off the trigger for this catastrophe. The following are the reason that led to the downfall of the Khalifah.
Factors behind the decline of Islamic science after the sixteen century.
During early conquests by Muslim emperors, the expansions into Middle East, Central Asia and North-western India led to increase in knowledge and skills from Ancient Middle east, India, Greece. They learnt the art of papermaking from some Chinese prisoners which they later on improved using linen rags. From the view of traditionalists, Islamic science although appreciable in many ways, was still deprived of innovative ideas and zeal.
The downfall of the Islamic science is believed to have started to see its downfall from 12th or 13th century. One of the reasons given for this is that there existed antagonism between the Islamic orthodoxy and the way Greeks practices their science. Other reasons given for the fall is the tension between the Shia and the Sunni Muslims. It is also considered that the Mongol invasions in the 13th century truly brought down the Islamic science. The Mongols destroyed the Muslim libraries, hospitals, universities. The catastrophic events in Baghdad are considered to be an end to the Islamic Golden Era. Some of the traditionalists also believe that the invasions, during the 13th century, by the Crusades and the Mongols were a way of punishing Muslims by God. Other reasons believed to have led to the downfall of Islamic science are economic and political rather than religious. It is said that after the downfall of Islam in Spain in 1492, the scientific opportunities were taken up by the Europeans who later founded the scientific revolution. All in all the picture says that the Islamic science went under fragmentations from all directions is it economic, political or religious.
End of Khilafah
After the fall of the Berlin wall, the westerns were celebrating their delight over disintegration of Soviet Union. Others were celebrating their victory over communism, by declaring that democracy is the key to the rise of a nation. With the downfall of Khilafah, the Muslims regret that the greatest blessing bestowed upon them by Allah has been taken away. The Quran states in it how the human societies will be hit and changed with due course of time. It also states how the societies will be affected by corruption amongst economic and political fields and there will be no exception whosoever it may be. Accordingly, it said that this is the punishment which each of the human creature will be given.
The downfall of the Khilafah, started when the weakness in the Ummah had begun internally. The weakness can be divided on the basis of two points, namely,
- Weak understanding of Islam
- And, it's bad implementation.
The weak understanding of Islam, amongst the Muslims, led to misinterpretations of some the aspects of Islamic Aqeedah. As new groups and sects emerged amongst the Muslims, they got deviated from the path, the course, for which the foundation was formed. The aims and goals were modified. The concepts of Al-Qada, Al-Qadar, Tawakul were misunderstood.
As the weak understanding of Islam got more deviated from its destined path, the bad implementation went on to go worse. The teachings of Allah, revealing concerns of people's life and man-made laws became obsolete. The greatest teaching of all religions and not only Islam, that the good triumphs evil, was ignored and is still being taken to the worst levels.
Implementing also involved delivering the messages from Da'wah to the common people as teachings and affecting their lives. This was not at all taken seriously, in turn; their own suggestions followed which led to rage and anger amongst the people
The European Effect
In 1924, Mustafa Kemal in Turkey had officially wiped off Khilafah from the Planet Earth. The last of the Khilafah was exiled from Turkey and asked for never to return back. This ended the 1342 years old Islamic Rule. It is said that the colonial powers instigated the Muslims with disunity and disharmony and then plotting the devastation of Khalifah.
A year before this, Turkey's was recognised as officially independent. After the end of WW-I the Britain withdrew it troops positioned in Turkey. There had been protests in the House of Commons for recognising the independence of Turkey. But Lord Curzon answered to this as, Turkey has been handicapped, it has been destroyed on moral and physical grounds, such that it will never rise again. The British and the French played shrewdly, dividing the Muslim land amongst them. The anger and agitation amongst the Europeans were way before the time when the Khilafah had sided with Germany in World War - I. This was a perfect chance to play tricky and clean out the plans which had been started hundreds of years ago.
The first such attempt was made by Pope Urban II. He tried to destroy unity of Islam by ordering crusades to occupy Al-Quds. The crusaders occupied the state for 200 years but were finally defeated. Then again in 15th century another attack was made. In 16th century, Islamic states came booming in number. The Islam crawled across southern and eastern Europe. As a result of this, millions and millions of people from Albania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and various other countries welcomed Islam with open arms. When Vienna was seized in 1529, it was decided by the Europeans that the prevalence of Khilafah will be stopped. Alliances were formed to fight against the spread of Khilafah. At this point, when all joined hands to fight against the Khilafah, crusaders rose up to the revival and planned against the Khilafah. They called this the "Oriental Problem".
Count Henri Decastri explains in his book, that the orators in those times came up with the hymns and rhymes which were filled with anger and hatred for the Muslims. This concept was conceived by the crusaders in order to promote the anger and hatred for the Muslims. These hymns had settled in people's minds make them loathe the Muslims in every sense. The poisonous minds of the people poisoned by the crusaders began work anti-Muslim in each and every way.
When the crusaders were run down, they realised that the Muslims were guided and directed by the Islamic Aqeeda. They saw that as long as they have Khilafah as their supporter and guiding force they cannot eradicate Muslims. This is when in the end of the 16th century they established their headquarters for onslaught of Muslims in the world. This is when the American, French and the British started entering the Muslim arena.
The aims of the missionary formed were to; separate the Arabs from the Uthmani state and to cut out the Muslims from the connections of Islam. As the missionary activities were proceeding the British and the French teamed up with the Russians to colonise the Muslim world. During the mid-eighteenth century, the Russians fought the Khilafah and occupied Ukraine, Caucasus and Crimea which were merged up in the Russian Empire. In the 19th century, France had North Africa and Britain had India, Egypt and Turkey. Slowly and slowly the Khalifah occupied lands kept receding when all that was left with Khalifah was just Turkey.
In 1916, the British and the French came up with a secret agreement, Sykes-Picot, which deliberately was splitting up the Khalifah land. According to this, the British now occupied Jordan, Iraq and Haifa whereas France occupied Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. The French and the British were left to decide the boundaries amongst these states. Both of them sketched the countries such that the it divided all the Khalifah land which was there. The Middle-East boundaries which we see now are all the gifts of these two powers.
Before the complete destruction of Khalifah, Mustafa Kemal was able to establish himself as an authority within the Turkey. Kemal had aid from the British and was supported up to the authority level. In 1922, the conference was held to recognize the independence of Turkey, which was then under the occupancy of the allied forces. Lord Curzon put forward some of the points in order to realize the independence of Turkey, which demanded
- Total Khalifah eradication and pushing the Khailfah outside its borders
- Declaring Turkey to be a secular state and confiscating all the Khalifah assets.
Since Khalifah was an ancient establishment and most of the Muslims in Turkey cherished it, the conference wounded up in failure as these points were not implemented. Even after such a shrewd trick played by Lord Curzon, he did not give up. In 1924, Mustafa using all his, political power and influence, terrorised and pushed the Abolition bill. The Abolition bill demanded the Khilfah to be thrown out from the state with immediate effect. This How the Khilafah came to an end. Even after all this, Lord Curzon made sure that the Khilafah were unable to rise up. He made up rules and regulations such as introducing non-Islamic concepts, changing education system to colonial way rather than the Islamic way and more such ways.
Today Muslim world still gets strangulated by the western tyrant authorities, which make them, live in poverty and fight, and beg for natural resources. Muslims are still divided on the basis of borders and territories and are continuously engaged in other small issues so that they cannot unite and fight back against the western forces.
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- Council of Muslim Theologians. (n.d.) Retrieved March 21, 2010, from http://www.jamiat.org.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=355:3rd-march-1924-the-destruction-of-the-islamic-khilafah&catid=45:history&Itemid=27
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