Fallacies

False Analogy

This is an unsound form of inductive argument. It is not right to assume that whites are readily skilled as opposed to minorities needing extra help with study and test habits and time management. Therefore, this is a false analogy.

Slippery Slope

This illustrates a line of reasoning which affirms the consequent of the first premise and the conclusion affirms the antecedent. The writer presents his case such that if Houston had all the mentioned expansions, they would be prepared to host any event. There are other considerable factors needed to qualify Houston to be a host for big events.

Common Belief

This is a common belief. A lot of people believe that the bellybutton skin area is widely used for facial plastic surgery. Being believed by many is not proof or evidence of the truth.

Argument from analogy / False Analogy

This is clearly a false analogy because women do not generally get pregnant by slow-dancing, unless of course that sexual intercourse occurs while dancing, and granting the woman was fertile at the time.

False Analogy / Common Belief

Blonde does not constitute being less intellectual. “Dumb blonde” is the phrase more popularly known. This is a false analogy because one can be blonde and be intelligent. Likewise, one can be brunette and be dumb.

Fallacy of Composition

This fallacy assumes that saving so many dollars on certain hotel amenities will amount to total savings. This is a fallacy of composition because it is concluded that he will have more than $300 in savings since he was only being charged minimally for added amenities.

Post Hoc Fallacy

A crewmember of a United Airlines flight from Houston to San Francisco developed symptoms associated with food poisoning once they reached their destination. He claimed that he got it from the crew meal he ate.

This is a post hoc fallacy since three other crewmembers ate the same meal.

Straw Man Fallacy

On the theory of evolution: Humans are just monkeys with less hair and our ancestors were apes. This is a straw man fallacy since the theory of evolution just does not claim that humans are monkeys with less hair. This statement is an attempt to oversimplify the theory, creating a “straw” version of the original theory.

Fallacy of Division

In this fallacy, the writer is concluding that the man (who did not know how to read) would have learned to read since the article being discussed was about his family. This is a fallacy of division since he is assuming that the man would make an effort to learn how to read so he can read an article about his family.

False Dilemma or False Dichotomy

*War is the only way of stopping Saddam Hussein. After all, sanctions haven't worked at all.

War and sanctions aren't the only options. There are other possibilities such as diplomacy that should be considered. This statement assumes that possibilities of sanctions and war exhaust all the possibilities, but this is not so.

Ad Hominem Fallacy

*What Peter Singer said about us needing to give more to charity can't be right. After all, Singer is just another one of those obnoxious freaks.

This is a case of clear ad hominem fallacy since singer is personally being attacked here, not his argument.

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