In 2003 the U.K. Government has introduced legislation allow parents of children under 6 or have disabled children under 18, the right in law to have a flexible working to be arrangement from their employers. According to a survey done by the Nation Office of Statistics in 2005 clarified that 71% of women workers and 60% of men worker were aware about their rights according to the 2003 legislation. And between 2003 and 2005 more than 14% of all employees had applied for a change to flexible time working. Then in 6 April the law extended the rights to request flexible working to health care provider of adults. Shift employees are in general excepted from flextime schemes as are senior managers, also there are other groups of employees for whom flextime arranging are uncommon include those who serving the public during core opening times.[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flexitime, 8/10/2009].
In this research we will discuss types of flexi time and its definitions also it will refer to the effect of flexi time on both of employers and employees in organizations in U.K. It will discuss also the disadvantages of flexi time if the scheme is not supervised properly.
1. Definition of terms
To understand what is flexi time is we should know firstly some terms like standard day, standard week, standard time, core time and flexi time.
It comprises of 6¾ hours of the work within the hours of 8 am and 7 pm (To illustrate the process of flexi time the coming sections referring to the standard work day for administrative staff of 6¾ hours, however, standard work day for other levels should be taken in account when applying flexi time for analyst programmers, technicians, library staff etc).
Standard week starts from Monday to Friday.
Normally working hours starts from 9.15 am till 12.45 pm and from 2.00 pm till 5.15 pm.
Core Time Band- the initially part of the work day while presence at work is a must, those are the periods when the all workers are needed to be present, i.e. from 9.30 am till 12.00 pm and from 2.00 pm till 4.00 pm.
-Flexible Time Band:
At beginning and end of the working day and frequently at lunch time, when reaching and leaving times are flexible, 8.00 am - 7.00 pm.
[ http://www.dcu.ie/partnership/FlexitimeRulesDec05.pdf, 10/10/2009].
2. Flex time Friendly Companies
There are too many companies applying and offering flexi time working system, from those companies:
-Sun Microsystems, Inc.,
this company has an advanced industry leader in storage, servers, software and services within a 100% focus upon network computing.
This company offers 40 % of its employees sharing in the company's “Open Work” system. In which the employees have the rights to work flexible hours. The workers within the open work system averagely more than 34 % earn within productivity, and provide the program a satisfaction evaluation of more than 80 % on metrics which track work / life balance.
Richard Jordan describes that Sun workers who work from there home achieve the highest performance rate over all workers, and then workers who work flexible hours, followed by employees who work within the office.
After that Sun Company has developed a highly evolved and innovating program called iWork which institutionalizes the virtual office and flexi time. Within this program which has been applied through the globe, Sun gains the 2005 Optimas Award for Global Outlook. This program has encouraged worker gratification, decreased turnover and relieved the company $ 255 million upon real property all over the last four years.
“The iWork program has revolutionized the way people work,” tells Eric Richert, an executive officer of iWork Solutios Gp. [http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-19025615_ITM, 10/10/2009].
-Best Buy Co. Inc.,
Profile: It is specialist in retailer of electronically products, private computers, amusement software and appliances.
This company offers 60 % of the workers share in Result - Only Work Environments, as part of this program, the hours of the working day are not specified, and the workers and management have the self-direction to finish their work where and when they decide as long as they reach defined targets.
Since ROWE program was applied, the company has measured a 35 % increase in productiveness in the departments applying it. Recently Best Buy established a supplementary called Culture Rx to learn its concept to other companies.
[ http://www.retailwire.com/Discussions/Sngl_Discussion.cfm/11845?, 11/10/2009].
In Culture Rx
, Best Buy provided details about ROWE. It defined this program as it is a business scheme that has been essayed to profound improves manpower productiveness (nearly 41 %) and decrease employees turnover rates (nearly 90 %), and ROWE is considered as an attractor for the talent you wish to attract.
ROWE program benefits include:
1. Retention: Retain talents you want, and dismiss the talent which not produce results.
2. Productivity: Get more production from the present manpower now.
3. Attraction: Be as a magnet to the best talents from the all generations.
4. Removing of uneconomical practice: Eliminate the wasteful tasks and operations; telecommunications becomes more effectual.
5. A manpower which is flexible, mobile, and accountable to have the ability to perform quicker, 24 / 7 system with obvious and measurable targets to every worker.
6. Space optimization, as there is no need to 1:1 work space required or hostelling system.
7. Environmental balance in life for all employees that is inclusive and fairly without and headache about managing flexible work system.
8. Improve worker commitment / morality / loyalty: glad workers promote the lower line, and become more productive.
9. Go green by reducing your harmful effect on the surroundings by creation of a culture that every employee has common sense that the work get done wherever from library, coffee shop, and whenever required.[ http://www.culturerx.com/, 11/10/2009]
Profile: This company supplies industry - focused tax, assurance, advisory, and HR consulting services to buildup the public trust and raise value to its customers and stakeholders.
The Company workforce includes 13,500 employees in UK, consists of 49 % female, 7 % ethnic minorities, and the percentage of women returning after maternity leave 85%.
In 24 Sept. PWC Comp. has been named between the top ten of The Working Mother 100 Best companies towards the sixth consecutive year. PWC Company also was selected as “Best in Class- Flex in The Company Culture,” for being a leadership in bringing out flexibility programs to its employees. 100 % of this year's 100 Best list offer flextime work system, on-site of lactation and teleworking. [http://www.sys-con.com/node/1120778, 12/10/2009]
The targets of PWC Company are to have professional services firms, as consumer-centric organizations, it tends also to be marked by a long hours, macho society. Profitability growing lays on applying good work-life policies to capture best talent who are highly self motivated. There are principles for PWC comp.:
1) Individuals are all differ so there need according work-life balance always changes through an employee's life.
2) Employees had to take responsibilities to their own work-life balance and their needs.
3) PWC look to achieve the maximum balance among business and employee's needs.
4) Due to required long hours' working, directors need assist in helping their groups to work flexibly.
5) The quality of production is much important than the number of worked hours.
The company has also policies all the workers can apply for, and they are:
• Flexible patterns of work: As all the staff has the rights to apply for a flexible working arrange, not only parents.
• Flexible welfares.
• Job breaks.
• Arrangements for flexible leaving.
• Employee assist program.
• Training and management control for lifestyle
Policies to parents:
• Support maternity departure.
• Paternity departure is fully paid.
• Acceptance leaving.
• Parental departure.
• Time off to all dependants
• Childcare documents.[ http://www.theworkfoundation.com/Assets/Docs/PWC.pdf. 12/10/2009]
PWC Company business benefits from flextime:
• 60 percent of the employees said that they were fulfilled by their work-life balance, comparing to 40 percent in 1999.
• Staff retention improvement.
• Return rate growth from maternity departure from 40 percent in 1998 to 80 % in 2003.
• Change in the attitudes.
• Growth in the acceptance of flexible working according to its broadest sense, for example, flextime, home working etc, which encourages a higher sense of believe among managers and their staff and a higher sense of personal control between employees. [http://www.theworkfoundation.com/Assets/Docs/PWC.pdf, 12/10/2009]