Organizations around the world are facing big challenge in global competitive markets. These companies are trying to face these challenges by improving the work productivity through affective job performance. Affective job performance requires implementing a set of factors such as: motivation, job satisfaction, affective leaderships, strong structure, new culture, and change management. These factors can determine the organizations success, and draw its strategy, and enable them to be more competitive in the global market.
This report discusses the concept of both motivation, and job satisfaction, and their essential role for affective work performance, and the type of relationship between them. Also this report discusses the positive impact of leadership on the performance of an organization, and the nature and main features of transactional and transformational leadership and their impact on organizational performance, and the relevance of personal qualities or charisma for effective leadership. Also this report will choose an organization as an example to investigate the variety of ways in which work is divided and construct within it, and also discuss its current model, and the impact of this model on the performance of this organization. The report also will define the factors that influence the culture of the example organization, and finally this report will identify the major changes confronting the management today and the probable implications for the example organization.
Discussion the essential role of motivation, and job satisfaction for effective work performance
Organizations are attempting to build solid relationships with their members as they are the back bone of these organizations. Organizations can choose to increase work productivity by motivating their employee, and make them more satisfied with the job they are doing.
The concept of motivation has been developed through the years, and it was subject to many studies. Different researchers had given different definition to this term. Campbell and Pritchard (1976, p.78) have described motivation as "a label for the determinants of the choice to initiate effort on a certain task, the choice to expend a certain amount of effort, and the choice to persist in expending effort over a period of time."
Job satisfaction is linked with motivation, but they are not the same. Job satisfaction is an internal state, and can be associated with emotions, and personal feelings. Arnold and Feldman (1986, p. 86) defined job satisfaction as "the amount of overall affect that individuals have toward their job." Schultz and Schultz (1998); mentioned that job satisfaction includes both positive and the negative feelings that direct the people towards jobs. According to (Spector, 2003); the feelings of employees towards jobs can be influenced significantly by both motivation and of demotivation (Spector, 2003).
The relationship between job satisfaction and motivation is positive. Both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation can increase the people satisfaction with the job they offering i.e. financial rewards can motivate people at work to do better job, and be more satisfied. Another example; highly achievement-orientated employee, are strongly motivated by opportunities for promotion.
Job satisfaction can be also related with affective work performance, which means; people who are more satisfied can perform better, and work harder than those who are not satisfied. Job satisfaction is fundamental factor that can help achieving a high level of motivation, and improving work performance. Organizations can increase both satisfaction and motivation by improving the work environment that produce frustration and dissatisfaction.
Finally; motivation and job satisfaction are two main factors that can contribute to work productivity, and make work performance more affective. Highly motivated employee can achieve higher performance, and higher job satisfaction is required for higher motivation.
Discussion the essential role of leadership for effective work performance
Positive leaderships play a central role in the success of an organization by planning, and organising the work process, and encouraging people to be more innovative, and creative, and motivating them to spend higher effort to achieve higher performance.
Researchers have defined two styles of leadership. The first style is transformational leadership which is a style that has appositive impact on work performance within an organization, and this style involves a series of processes that stimulate, and motivate followers to spend, and produce more effort than what they would originally be expected to produce. Burns (1978); described transformational leadership as "a process of morality to the degree that leaders engage with followers on the basis of shared motives and values and goals." Transformational leader has a vision that enables him to draw a strategy that can motivate followers and encourage them to perform more challenging tasks, and inspiring them to develop their skills. Transformational leader can be a model that stimulates followers to admire it, and emulate it. This style has four essential elements: Individualized consideration, Intellectual stimulation, Inspirational motivation, and Role and identification model. Transformational leadership has great potential in the way how to make people think, and feel that they are part of something bigger.
The second style of leadership is transactional, which is the process of motivating followers via specific benefits in return for these followers to accomplish the required tasks. Transactional leadership is rational, and it is based on you give something in return to get something else. Transactional leader motivate followers to perform harder by promising them through reward, promotion, or holiday.
Transactional leadership is more management than leadership, and it is more common within organizations today because the lack of charismatic leaders.The transformational leadership style is more intuitive and on the long rang has more positive impact on work performance than the transactional style, and it produces higher outcomes.
Charismatic leadership is more associated with transformational leaders, because it has the ability to inspire, and influence followers, and stimulate them to emulate this model. Conger and Kanungo (1998) asserted that charismatic leadership is an attribution based on followers' perceptions of their leader's behaviour (Conger, 1999). Inspirational leader behaviours enable followers to be committed, loyal, and ready to achieve their goals. Charismatic leaders have ethical moral strategy in the way they are supporting the followers, and motivating them to be more confident. Charismatic leaders have a great power, and they can risk themselves in order to protect their followers.
Charismatic leader's example can be the French leader Napoleon who once said: "an army of rabbits commanded by a lion could be better than an army of lions commanded by a rabbit". Napoleon was a charismatic leader; he had the vision that enabled him to draw great strategies during wars, and he used to motivate his soldiers, and encourage them to be more confident. In return the soldiers became committed, loyal, and ready to achieve their nation goals.
Investigating the structure, and work division within an organization
Organizational structure is an important tool that supports the organization strategy to achieve its objectives by coordinating, and managing individuals, and teams work. It provides specific relationships, and effective communications between all unites in the organization. A structure within an organization must be changed, whenever the company business expanded to increase the work flexibility. Different organizations are using different structures according to their businesses, and matrix structure is the type being used in organizations that implement line-and-staff setup. Matrix structure is centralized, and the chain of command is flexible which allow an employee to report to more than one manager which helps making decisions faster.
Toyota uses a formal matrix structure for work divisions, which designed to facilitate communications between the production teams, and chief engineers, and to support teamwork and give the line department great responsibility for quick decision (i.e., Safety, Quality, Productivity, Cost, etc) (Jeffrey & Michael, 2008).
At Toyota the work is divided to different parts, and each group doing part of the job. The work groups are made up of several small teams that work day in and day out, and each work group is coached by a team leader. The team leader's structure within Toyota is very efficient, because leaders spend 50% of the time working on process, and the 50% working on supporting, and coaching their groups, and solving problems.
This type of work division allow leaders to have more control on the work, and help them making flat quick decision when a problem occurs.
Discussion the role of culture and the factors that influence it within an organization
Organizational culture helps outlining the company strategy, and directs its mission. It creates the atmosphere that helps employees to be more creative, and innovative, and more satisfied with the job they are doing. Organizational culture has been defined as "A system of knowledge, of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting that serve to relate human communities to their environmental settings" (Allaire and Firsirotu 1984).
Toyota's culture has a great role on the company success. It has created, and implemented two fundamental factors that helped the company achieve a high level of work productivity. These two factors are: Development of employees through learning, and training, Affective leaderships through managing, and problem solving. Toyota's culture has built solid relationships between the managers, and employees. The employees are highly motivated, and creative and more committed to the company. "Toyota employees generate over one million process improvement ideas annually" David McBride (2004). The leadership can help solving any problem occurs through the working process. A good example about the role of culture within Toyota is Just-in-time production (Toyota Production System (TPS)). This system requires all employees to be a specialist in the job they are doing, and find solutions for any problem they may facing during the work.
Discussion the role of change and change management within an organization
Change management aims to develop new culture within an organization that can pave the way for creating new environment that motivate people to be more innovative. Organizations choose to change for different reasons. It can be implementing new vision marketing strategy that must fit within new culture, implementing new technology, series of failure in the existing system. Change management works on changing people's behaviour to be more creative, and perform better work.
One of the main factors for Toyota success is the continence of adapting new change management which helped establishing new environment within the company that helped creating competitive innovative products. The new environment helped the company creating an affective production system called Toyota Production System (TPS). In fact this system is responsible for producing most Toyota innovative products, and therefore the system was subject to many studies around the world. Toyota just in time Production System (TPS) aims to improve work productivity, and machine reliability by reducing maintenance and operating costs. The TPS facilitates communication between engineering and employees. It requires all employees to be involved in the work process through certain mechanism that enable them to work actively, and be able to solve any problem during work.
Organizations that choose to create effective job performance, and improve work productivity; must take in consideration the role of each motivation, job satisfaction, leadership, structure, culture, and change management.
Motivation is a key factor that can lead an organization to achieve affective work performance, and higher work productivity. Job satisfaction is another factor that can help achieving a high level of motivation, and improving work performance. Organizations can increase both satisfaction and motivation by improving the work environment that produce frustration and dissatisfaction.The relationship between motivation and job satisfaction is that highly motivated employees can achieve higher performance job, and higher job satisfaction is required for higher motivation.
Positive leaderships is another factor that plays a central role in the success of an organization by planning, and managing the work, and inspiring the employees to be more innovative, and creative, and motivating them to spend higher effort to achieve higher performance.
Organizational structure is an important tool that supports the organization strategy to achieve its objectives by coordinating, and managing individuals, and teams work. It provides specific relationships, and effective communications between all unites in the organization which will help the employees to do better job.
Organizational culture helps outlining the company strategy, and directs its mission. It creates the atmosphere that helps employees to be more creative, and innovative, and more satisfied with the job they are doing.
Change management helps organizations developing new culture that can create new environment that motivate people to be more innovative.
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