Human management activities


With the advances in the society, the liberation of the thought and the development of the times, human management activities went through a series of profound changes; which includes a growing number of women boarding onto the management stage and highlighting more and more strong importance and functions in modern management. Women managers can offer almost everything that men managers can in terms of knowledge, capability, skills and experience (Rutherford, 2001). However, influenced by and subjected to various internal or external barriers, the road for female managers to grow and succeed lay numerous difficulties. Therefore, to comprehend the characteristics and advantages of female managers, to find effective ways to promote their advancement, both of which are undoubtedly of great significance to further improve and enhance female management ability, to develop female human resources and to push forward social gender equality.

This timely essay sets out to explore the solutions to all these pending issues. The paper in its first part reviews the changing position of women in the managerial work and then the characteristics and advantages of them. Next it examines the obstacles to women's managerial ability development. Finally some rationale actions taken to expand their capability and opportunities will be vividly provided in this paper.

Development of Female in Management

1948 was the first year when women were permitted to attend Oxford University, but such apparent progress has not been matched in the management field (University of Michigan, 2000). The growth in women's employment had occurred in a few sectors of jobs appeared being traditionally feminine such as clerical, service and teaching; at the same time in these areas, there had been a significant proportion of women who master good educational qualifications moving into more senior positions. Paradoxically, in some manufacturing industry, scientific or technological field that seen as traditionally dominated by men, women were not common, not to mention women managers. Once in a while there are a few women managers working within these sectors, they were still concentrated in those labour-intensive industries like textiles, clothing or other. But as more and more people began to put women's liberation in management on the agenda, in the next few decades, women management was continuously changing and experiencing new urgencies. Equal pay and equal opportunities legislation now have been launched in all western European countries, however, until now their effect on the women management in organizational hierarchies has been minimal. For this reason, in most European countries there have been initiatives, both at national and at organizational level, which try to extend beyond equal pay or equal opportunities legislation and to raise the numbers of women in management, those traditionally male-dominated occupations. Since 1990, a main programme aimed at promoting gender equality and improving the position of women in British companies has been Opportunity 2000, the first national initiative of this kind in the UK. It was different from the previous attempt at helping women's, as it was business-led and business-driven. Many organizations participating in Opportunity 2000 are closely monitoring the effects of their actions on women managers. All members must make three commitments: to set their own goals for expanding opportunities for women in the workforce by the year 2000; to publish these goals; and to monitor and report on progress regularly. It is by far the largest programme in Europe and has became a respected instrument to promote equal opportunities for women. Take the data of 1996 as an example: that time the women in Opportunity 2000 accounted for 17% of senior managers, 31% of middle managers, 41% of junior managers and 11% of directors, which is a most persuasive evidence that there are truly progress in women management (Davidson and Burke, 2000, 22).

At present, the majority of women are working outside the home (Carli and Eagly, 2002, 675). According to ILO statistics (2007), female labor participation rates, now averaging about 52%, are at their highest levels in modern history. These trends have been particularly marked in developed economies such as the European Union. Unfortunately, their share of management positions remains unusual and unacceptably low (Carli and Eagly, 2002, 675). With accurate figures hard to come by, an optimistic estimate suggests that just 10% of European managers are female. When senior management position considered, the figure is far smaller: only about 5% of senior managers (vice president or above) in Fortune 500 companies are women (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2007, 466) and in 2007 and 2008 women held just 15% of Fortune 500 corporate director seats and officer positions, also reflecting the stalled progress over the previous decades (Catalyst, 2009, The following figure shows the percentage of all women managers from three different data sources: the EEO-1 reports from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which reflect only medium and large-sized private-sector establishments; the Current Population Survey, the primary source for annual labor force data; and the Decennial Census data (Cohen et al, 2009, 319). It is difficult to put a more accurate figure on the numbers of women in management in the world, because different countries may have a different definition of a 'manager'.

Differences reflected not only in the amount, there exist earnings gap between men and women managers, as well as the occupational segregation. Gains for women in management have been greatest lower at managerial levels. Despite overall increase in overall sectors, comparatively growth of gains for women have been slow, particular senior management levels (Warner, 2003, 2256). Anyway, women's work options are much more limited than men. Sex difference also owed its creation to a great part of social expectations for women and men. A woman, may be an employee or a manger, but she ought to support her husband and nurse her child. This expectation constrained their work options, they have to work part-time, or to work in junior positions, which limited their access to 'good' jobs or increase their dependency on men. Most of their occupation are deputy but not chief, marginal but not main. After decreasing in the 1980s, occupational segregation among managers rebounded sharply upward in the 1990s (Cohen et al, 2009, 318). Although it has somewhat decline nowadays, it is still a major problem that plague many women who would be eager to devote to management.

Distinctive Characteristics and Advantages of Female on Management

According to Plato (2008), there is no organic differences between men and women through there may be some superiority of degree on the part of the sex of the me n. Sex difference, on the one hand, meant to signify genetic-to-physiological differemces (Pfaff, 2002, 410) and variations in the ways in which men and women approached (Lehman, 1993, 16); on the other hand, it referred to the impact of sex on the evaluations of women's and men's performance, but often a pervasive devaluations of women's achievements relative to men's.(O'Leary et al, 1985, 68). Because of sex differences, women's some abilities may be inferior to men; at the same time, it is also sex differences that create female management characteristics, put in another way---the "Soft Management", encompassing transformational leadership, workplace spirituality, employees' affective commitment etc. (Lenka et al, 2010, 80) and enduing with them unique advantages over men in management, which caters to the trends of modern management style and concept. These advantages are mainly embodied in the following areas:

Women are good at communication and skillful at balance

Almost everyone misread Carly Fiorina, the former CEO as well as a firm reformer of HP, should be a tough woman; however, people who actually contact with her will be conqued by her warm smile, greeting and comfortable human-based communication. When she was coming to power, US Business Week described Fiorina like this---a woman who has a silver tongue and an iron will. It is true that she not only has strong communication skills but also good at all kinds of metaphors. Just as Fiorina herself said, she often travel to the HP worldwide to see her staff, write personal e-mail to employees and hold regular HP employee communication assembly---all these are parts of her regular job. During the transformation of HP---a company that has strong values, especially during the time when almost everyone lack a clear understanding of the future, Fiorina was able to clearly map out the prospect of this transformation, attempting to let employees face this change and take part in transformation. From which we may glimpse the power of her communicating (Interview with Carly Fiorina, the Former CEO of Hewlett-Packard, 2008, In today's society, communication has become an prerequisite competency for a manager. Communication affects people's factual understanding of the situations they are in and their consent to be treated and adherence (Sobo, 2004), both of which belong to the scope of management. Objectively saying, women have better emphasis on emotional contents and better vocal and communication skills that includes a wide range of linguistic devices to soften communications (Ford, 2004, 21); besides, they tend to have a more heightened sound sensitivity and visual sensitivity than men (Ryan, 2008, 114). So firstly, female managers themselves have natural advantages in the aspect of communication. Subjectively, women are usually rich in emotions and are delighted to share with others; namely, they would like to spend a considerable amount of time to enhance mutual familiarity and goodwill in turn influence others through communication. It is precisely this long-term of fulfillment process that help female managers form their own distinctive communication skills and arts, which assist them to carry out a two-way communication, to handle various problems and to resolve all conflicts that exist in the organization.

Barbara Gan once said, if you can successfully co-ordinate a dispute between a 6-year-old child and a 4-year-old one who are robbing a toy at home, then you will have the ability to participate in any of the co-ordination in the world (Workplace Observation: Why are Chinese Women Entrepreneurs More Successful, 2003, Currently more and more women are demonstrating their abilities of running the family and achieving a perfect combination of these two in their managerial work: Bringing up the child, they learned the arts to educate, to listen and to persuade; getting along with the husband, they mastered the skills to tolerate, to peace and to deal with conflicts. The dual role of a mother and a wife virtually became an intangible wealth for female managers, allowing them to be good at balance and co-ordination.

Intuition of women, namely their Sixth Sense is sharp and judgment accurate

Female's intuition, also known as women's Sixth Sense, is women's natural special feature, which is also an valid part of female management characteristics. Usually when one talk about the Sixth Sense, it represents a kind of knowing that is intuitive and perceptive beyond what is normal, maybe something that other people could not see (Hybels, 2002, 161). It is that women managers can often sense the implication of current decisions in future reality; or they can discern a potential leadership whom most of us had wrote off, and the selected really soars in future leadership (Hybels, 2002, 162). or they can also intuitively understand the expectations of employees to properly provide what her employees need. Women in decision-making, unlike men whose focus only lay on logical thinking, they would apply emotions and intuition to this certain process. Scientists found that when decisions are made based on intuition, the role that emotions play may not only be important, but also indispensable. And another theory suggests that emotions can help a woman rapidly screen the varied possible options, yet she herself may not realize this process. Herbert Simon, the Nobel Prize winner, concluded that people can obtain a lot of information through experience and stored the mass of information for future check; the so-called 'intuition and judgement' are only their natural or habitual analytical method; while making use of intuition, in fact, women just rely on those rules and patterns that they themselves fail to account (Havash, 2005, While management is a procedure that always call decision-making and judgement-making, especially some urgent situations require decision-making can not be hesitantly 'dragging its feet'. Under which circumstance, the intuition of female managers tend to play a key role. The manager of Lisa Claybourn Company, Lisa Claybourn is just one that be highly praised for her decisive and quick style and sharp intuition. It is by virtue of intuition that Claybourn understand the type of clothes which working women want to wear and stirred up the revolution in fashion industry. She has a special insight to the market, keenly feeling the changing customer demands. Despite faced up with many oppositions, her self-confidence rendered her to rely on feelings to make decisions and not to hesitate to act. And she succeed. Her intuition is the factor that determine her success (Lisa Claybourn, 2010,

Women value human feelings and ethics and their affinity is strong

In their personality development, women pursue a care ethics that value personal relations and commits self-conscious carer to look after and take responsibility for the well-being of others (Gabriel, 2009). Even the cost of undertaking a pro-social act increases, women display more altruistically behaviors than men, such as helping or comforting others (Meier, 2006, 110). Being considerate is women's nature, which makes them able to 'put themselves in other's shoes' to feel other's suffering; maternity subtly gift women a strong affinity, which empower them to treat every subordinates in the organization kindly. If problem occurs, they are also willing to stand on the perspective of subordinates to make choices, which could not only solve the actual problem constructively for the organization, but also further strengthen the member's identity within herself even the organization. It is exactly their ablitlty to better understand, to consider, to care for others that establish an environment and atmosphere full of harmony, love, tolerance and humanization; at the same time, because they attach more importance to the lives and the welfares of subordinates and respect individual's values and needs, it will help enhance the employees's sense of belonging as well as the organization consolidation. It is a common phenomenon that food and women managers almost come together. They always bring food to the office urging everyone to gather around and eat, which they use it as a form of celebration, a expression of thanks and a means of bonding. Thanks to this, the original ruthless and hostile workplace, where everyone value power and rank, now fill of soft and warm.

Thus, compared with men, female managers really pay attention to humanness, avoid the dominance and attain a real 'people-oriented' (Burke and Mattis, 2005. 100).

With a good insight, women are relatively sensitive and expert at grasping the details

With their sharp observation ability, female managers are often comparatively more sensitive than male managers and can usually be the first to feel slight varieties and potential dangers in the surroundings. It is easy for them to seize the problems and to grasp the appropriate time to develop the organization, which is probably as a result of their Sixth Sense. Their thought and consideration are so careful and comprehensive, whether it comes to identity problems or to set goals, that they are able to insight into the essence of a particular issue with their sensitivity to objective, and thus making adequate decisions and drawing up a detailed plan. Mrs Estee Launder, who was a beauty-industry icon that literally change the face of the cosmetics dustry, focus on details at every juncture to achieve the highest possible standards (Mrs Estee Lauder, 2005, 28-29). An joint survey conducted by the United Nation's Female Development Foundation and Female Entrepreneur Association indicate that if the companies' average loss rate is 20%, then in those enterprises with female-oriented management, the rate is only 2% (Survey Said Companies having More Women in Senior Keep High-profit and High Collaboration, 2007, The reason lies in female managers' rigorous characteristics. Strictly controlling finance and 'keeping expenditures below income' are both the subconsciousness of female managers. They will list an expense plan and promise the operation of funds.

Women equally emphasize on toughness and flexibility, that is to say, couple hardness with softness

In the administration, female managers enjoy the flexible characteristics. Henry Mintzberg mentioned that the organization need to be fostered, need to be looked after and to be loved, need sustained and stable care. Love is a more feminine management style, although more and more good male CEOs are gradually adopting this way, but women still have more advantages (Communication World, 2007, ). First of all, their unique flexibility give them strong affinity, ensuring them an equal interaction with the upper and the lower; simultaneously, they are good at making use of moderate means to mollify conflicts and equilibrate benefits, enabling them to effectively strengthen team cohesion. Secondly, they mainly rely on personal charm as well as personal relationship with the subordinate, rather than dictatorial method or hard-handed command to set up prestige, therefore, it is likely for them to get recognition and support from staff and thus actively and effectively cooperate with staff, which finally achieves team competitiveness.

Moreover, in the working style, female managers also have the toughness characteristics. Their unique experiences of being a mother make them more caring, more selfless and more tenacious. So they show a high degree of sense of responsibility and mission to both organization members and the organization itself and a tremendous courage to face the uncertainties that may be encountered with work in future and a persistent effort to pursue the career. Reflected in life, that is practical, objective or pragmatic.

In fine, women managers' management style that deal hardness with softness bring them advantages that male managers can not match.

Unlike male managers, female managers may handle with several tasks and assignments at one time; they probably value instinct, intuition as well as analysis and rationality; they can cope with those necessary contradictions and they are tough but also tender, focused but also friendly (Paton and McCalman, 2008, 60). Women managers will make a positive contribution that consist of collaboration, cooperation, empowerment etc. to their jobs, all these are that a modern organization need badly.

Disadvantages or Risks of Female on Management

Women managers also experienced a number of physical or phycholgical disadvantages. Here we just underline two points:

Compared to male managers, female managers are more concerned about the handling of specific things and their macroscopic vision may not be so accurate as males. For example, in decision-making, they sometimes excessively sort out the details or hedge risks, and this may cause loss of decisiveness for overall situation; what is more, they are more emotional than male, some may have a too strong affinity or compassion to keep principles; last but not the least, they may have blind faith in the intuition and perfection, which may lead to some mistakes in decision-making process and blunder away some important opportunities.

Another fact one can not neglect is that since women are born susceptible and easy to become pretty jealous, their mind may not be as broad as men. Female managers often fear that if they cultivate or support younger generation, their position would be threatened, which has led to many of them were reluctant to promote younger generation. Perhaps due to the reason of same-sex repulsion, especially to those younger generation who have the same sex as a female, this reluctance may escalate into a kind of rejection. When seeing a young women is just moving forward, perhaps she is not happy but worried, she does not offer help but strangle her opportunity. Of course, for those top-class women managers who have succeed, this may be a misunderstanding. However, there really exist problems like this among some low-level even middle-level women managers.

At the same time, women managers may bear certain risks e.g. age limits, pregnant as well as reproductive costs and so on. What should be noted here is a tangle that often be overlooked by most of us---sex harassment.

Sex harassment is defined as an unwelcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favours and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature (Conte, 2000, 131). It is often about a female office lady fall through the harassment coming from a supervisor or a colleague. But a woman in managerial position may also be the victim of sexual harassment, perhaps a sexual harassment from males who occupy less powerful positions than this woman manager. And this is usually achieved by an employee devaluing the woman through addressing traditional gender stereotypes such as helpless, dependent and so on. Perhaps an subordinate may do so to gain some power over the higher-ranking female or to minimize power differentials (Robbins, 2001, 362). This conduct explicitly or implicitly place a negative influence on the woman manager and unreasonably interferes with her work performance. Additionally, dealing with male-female relationships become a headache for most female managers. If a woman manager contact a little bit more with a particular male superior or subordinate, it will provoke baseless rumor which have a strong lethality to both the heart and honor of this female. Belying circumstance above-stated are still formidable even intractable gender inequalities.

Barriers for Female Managers to Enhance Management Capacity

It can not be denied that women manager's lack of opportunities to advance and progress, not to their lack of competency, but to the great deal of barriers. Their process to grow are affected by dual hesitances involving internal and external ones.

  • External factors---traditional values and male chauvinism are two major external factors affecting the growth of female managers greatly. In the real life, the physical differences between men and women have been unreasonable amplified, such ideas as 'male superiority and female inferiority' or 'male dominant over female' limited women at the family. Although due to historical and geographical differences, this kind of prejudice or discrimination to women resulted in different manifestations; but it permeates in all respects of social life, which is the root cause that led to gender inequality. The well-known 'Glass Ceiling' is an existence of this point. Women themselves refer to the 'Glass Ceilling' as the level to which they may rise in a company but beyond which they may not go (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2007, 466) and it is a major invisible barrier that block the progress of women who seek important positions in a certain organization (Bchlander and Snell, 2009, 223). This is mainly because that in reality, people widely hold an more tolerant, more approvable, more encouraged attitude toward men with pioneering and risk-taking spirit, and the community also tend to provide more opportunities and resources with them; yet to the same far-sighted women, people throw them more suspicion, more blame and more negative, and the community is also inclined to treat and require them with the out-of-date traditional standards. This circumstances cause incredulity and distrust on women's management ability and deprive them of opportunities. Generally speaking, women in management that remain male-dominated often experience discrimination, stereotyping, bias or social isolation---a situation that limits women's opportunities, which would produce a huge resistance to those who would like to engage in the management.
  • Internal factors, above all, it is women's self-awareness about sex differences to tie them down. Traditional values and male chauvinism not only affect the society's judgement on the value of women, but also have a bad impact on women themselves' judgement about their values and achievements. In addition, some women were borned with such a psychological dependence that they must need someone to take care of them, making them more easily to become weak and lack self-confidence when managing independently. Next, it is the role contradictions of being a family member and a manager that may bring a latent threat. Although the restrictions of women's working area has been broken, they entered not only the public domain, but also the management areas. Although this can be an exciting challenge for most of them, however, what accompanied is more sources of stress and responsibilities, including those from family, work and society. Women who run their own business have the same even more issues as their sisters who are working for someone else. Women managers are multi-taskers and are influenced by more and more 'from-traditional-to-modern' ethics and this may create a collision of family role and social role.

Future of Women in Management

In thee late 20th century, as the information science and technology, the knowledge-based society and free-market economies influences, organizational environment has undergone dramatic changes. Obviously, traditional management methods have lost its inherent advantages and is gradually replaced by a modern one. Just as Peter Drucker expressed, this kind of change in ages exactly complies with female characteristics (Jian Kang Xin Shi Ye, 2009, Meantime, in line with this trend, women managers' management method is experiencing a revolution.

Developing from the power-type management toward the human- oriented one

Many women managers begin to realize herself as a woman who own particular gender superiority like being delicate, calm and gentle, so they no longer persistently pursue a man-oriented management approach---a traditional command-based, authoritarian management approach and come to carry out a human-oriented or emotion-oriented management at which that themselves excelled. The human-oriented management, based on the shared organizational values, culture and spiritual atmosphere, focus on leadership, on soft means e.g. communicating, motivating, inspiring and guiding people (Holt, 2002, 224). This approach requires managers to understand and respect people, concerned about staff's development and growth as well as the realization of their initiative, enthusiasm and sense of accomplishment, for which female's characteristics fit. Women are capable of turning these strengths into the management, therefore they will play an increasingly essential role in the management.

Transforming from the popularized management to the personalized one

Personalized contents have been getting more attention not only in social humanism but also in the aspect of management (Salvendy and Smith, 2009, 185). On the one hand, this is an era when personality highlight---everyone is no longer the firm adherer to those outdated concepts and full of courage to create new things; so are the women managers. On the other hand, today women managers around the world have achieved higher levels of education than ever before, so does their consciousness of self-awareness and innovation. There is no doubt that they will gradually improve day by day. In future, their personal potential in the management must unprecedented release. And they are also request to have vision, creative thinking ability and bold innovation.

Transiting from the singularized management to the integrated one

The modern time requires some form of integrated management but not a crude one of the early days (Bainey, 2004, 5-6), not a so-called integrated management merely some aspects to be improved but one that guarantee a continual improvement and effectiveness; and a talented manager who has got training in more than one professional field is in need, too. But integrated management can not be accomplished in isolation. For female managers, in order to meet the future development, they should be proficient not only in their specialized field, but also in other components of the management. They should develop diverse talents to move toward professional. Having a depth understanding of management is primary. Then important skills expected to be broaded such as financial, organizational, training and decision-making and so on.

Recommendations for Women in Management

For women managers to improve management capacity, the most fundamental is to improve their influence as a woman and a manager, which is not about imposing your values on others but about changing other's behavior, attitudes and beliefs and getting cooperation subconsciously (Cohen and Bradford, 2005, 87). This need both the social support and female managers' own efforts. For female managers themselves, the practical direction that they can work toward are as follows:

Make a perfect integrity of both the internal and external charm

Wisdom is the foundation for female managers to grow. Those attractive female managers must be invariably knowledgeable and quick-witted. So women managers should establish a concept of lifelong learning, which view the study as a responsibility, a pursuit, a state and take as more as methods to constantly update knowledge. Also, they should temper to explore some forward-looking issues, to capture the latest information and to forecast future. It is only through continuous learning can women managers enhance their management capacity. Besides, ideological appeal is the soul of management. It will be a impetus for a woman manager if she dare break the old mindset and working inertia to pioneer and innovate. To do so, they should make their way of thinking go from a closed to an open, from a rigid to a flexible, from a forward to a divergent. While will charm is a booster for female managers to achieve their set goals. There are a great deal of setbacks in future, so are the burden and commitment deriving from the family, the society and the work itself. Therefore, it is not enough to just have the courage to face all the difficulties, female managers should also acquire the ability to timely adjust, to self-control, to endure and to anti-frustration.

What is equally important, beauty, which women have talents in, is the need of the times. So female managers should pay attention to draw support from the good image. Let decent clothing, beautiful voice, natural facial expressions, modest behaviors and conversation make extra points for your influence. Make every word and deed coincide with your own grace, temperament and identity, so to harmoniously blend the manager's authority and women's beauty, and show special style with inner qualities and external devices.

Maintain a sufficient self-confidence and a positive mentality

For female managers, to build self-confidence, firstly, they must discard the imprisonment from traditional ideas or the male chauvinism and acquire the self-reliant concept. A female manager could learn from male managers, but she should also roll women's advantages with men's into one. Secondly, it is feasible to develop a neutral attitude and to overcome the psychological character weakness. It is not because you are a woman that you need care, you actually need to work harder to prove yourself. Furthermore, efforts should be taken to maintain a positive mentality. To see the progress of your subordinates and be happy for these advances, then make the use of as more as resources to offer help to those subordinates, as the measurement of a certain success is the whole team accomplishment but not that of yourself. Mary Kay Ash, who launched the Mary Kay Cosmetics, always remains the goal to provide women everywhere with an unlimited opportunity for personal and financial success and help them achieve full potential (Mary Kay Ash, 2005, 288).

Keep a balance of work and the family

Career and family should be eternal issues that any female managers can not evade. That is why they strengthen the resilience and learn to convert the role. At work they should do to the manager's responsibility; in life, they should also fulfill the duty as the wife, the mother and the daughter. The family is very important as the strong backing of a woman's career. However, the key is to know how to balance. When running a career, family can not be ignored or sacrificed. A female manager should be good at using kinds of methods and resources---a assured competent housekeeper may help perform part of the household affairs; friends or relatives may provide some help; Secondly, it is important to make good time management, a fixed time to share with family member should be planned out. The sweet CEO of Avon's Product, Andrea Jung, no matter how busy she is, insists on returning home by 7 p.m. for dinner at home with her husband and daughter (Sweet Executive, 2005, 256). In one word, female managers should make their multiple identities, multiple roles, multiple duties more harmonious and perfect.

Strenghten the consciousness of flexibility management

Flexibility is a innate superiority of women engaged in the management. In management, it is as important as rigid sense, especially at such a era when humanism is more important than ever. With a flexible sense to think and to solve problems can often improve the management to a large extent. 'People love those who love others and respect who respect them'. Female managers should be adept to play full of her soft advantages like being careful, delicate, modest, tolerant, affinitive and compassionate. It is principal to firmly grasp the concept of human-oriented management to win staff's trust and understanding. In summary, female managers should reflect the harmony, the collaboration and the flexibility in her management.

Objectively, it is pivotal to form a support system that is favorable to the development of women managers.

First, the family support system. It is necessary that men give women who are engaged in management more support and assume more family responsibilities, so that female managers can go out of the shackles from the family. Second, the organization support system. Organizations should optimize the environment for the development of female managers and set career blueprint for them to develop. Third, the social support system. The government and the media should publicize and promote the diversified development of the gender roles and change the stereotypes that traditionally divide gender roles. Then it will raise the social understanding about the importance as well as the advantages of female managers.


Nowadays, women managers have become an integral part of management team. They are good at communication and skillful at balance; they pay equal attention to the intuition but also analysis, rationality but also emotionality; they value human feelings as well as ethics; they own a good insight and sensitivity to grab the details; they couple hardness with softness. With the management developing from the power-type, the popularized, the personalized toward the human-oriented, the singularized and the integrated one, female managers deserve to be indispensable backbones of organizations. However, there are still many barriers that hinder their growth and advancement, including those internal barriers like women's self-awareness about sex differences and their role contradictions and such external criteria as the traditional values and male chauvinism, so women managers must make efforts to improve their management capability and the society should build a beneficial environment for them.

However, for female, successful management is not an elusive dream or mystery. By understanding the basic principle of a good management and their unique characteristics and advantages as a manager, and learning valuable experiences from those who have made achievements, they can all be an excellence.


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