Investment analysis


Value Investing directs to a practice or philosophy of buying stocks that are essentially sound, but the price of stock is below its noticeable value. There are a range of pointers that many Value Investors use to decide that a firm is both steady and the stock price is underrated. For any Value Investor, possibly more than any further style of investor is more worried with the commerce and its basics than other effects on the stock's price.


Basics, such as earnings growth, dividends, book value and cash flow are more serious than present market forces on the price of the stock. Value investors can be said as "buy and hold investors". Value investors will hold the purchased stock for effectively long term periods and they are not worried about short term fluctuations in the stock price.

When any Value Investor concludes that the fundamentals of the business are sound, but the equity shares are trading at a cost below its noticeable value, she or he knows that the firm is a probable investment applicant. The important assumption is that the stock market has wrongly underrated the stock. On the contrary, when the stock market recovers that mistake, price of the stock should increase near the noticeable value point of stock.

One obvious question is, how do any Value Investors find a probable investment?

  • The directions for the decision are as follows:
  • Price to earnings ratio (P/E) should be in the lower ten percentile for the sector of the firm
  • Debt to equity ratio should be less than unity
  • Price to book value ratio should also be less than unity
  • PEG value of lower than 1 is expected
  • Stock value must be dealing at 60-70% of its fundamental value

The Price to Earnings Ratio of P/E is figured by dividing the present value of the stock by the yearly earnings per share (EPS). The more the value of the P/E the more growth in investors will desire and the superior premium they are eager to pay for that projected growth.

Debt to equity or D/E is figured by dividing the total liabilities of the firm by the amount of shareholders equity. Next, Price to Book Value is figured by calculating the present price per share and dividing it by the book value of each share. The PEG is figured by calculating the P/E and dividing the value by the predictable growth in the earnings.

The fundamental value of a share is a complex process and is considered an imprecise science by most of value investors. The inherent value of a company or its asset is normally calculated based on a primary opinion of the value. Goodwill, barriers to entrance in a market and Brand Name are few of the factors that will decide the inherent value of a share.

Many investors have augmented their wealth significantly using a value-based investing approach to normal investment. This idea of Value Investing offers a philosophy that works appreciably over time if the investors buy cautiously and use endurance to hold the stock for the long term.

The reason of value investing is that average long-term total return on share subject to defending the original capital. The life sequence of investment can be articulated in four over-lapping phases: accumulation (lifetime income), preservation (careful investments), belated consumption (retirement expenditures), and lastly the distribution (bequeaths and gifts). The spotlight is on the conservation of the buying power of the original capital along with its appreciation in value.

Synthesis of information

The Four-Step ordinary Stock Selection Process is the realistic complement of the theory-based 4 step Common Stock venture Program. While Four-Step Investment clarifies the "why" of inherent value investing and stock valuation, 4 steps Selection reveilles the "how" of essential value investing.

Four-Step Selection is as follows:

Each step in the sensible selection process is intended with the aim of safety primary in mind. The amount of steps is randomly defined to focus evidently on the most decisive components. The 4 steps in the procedure are reviewed in the following stall and then detailed below.

The Four-Step ordinary Stock Selection procedure

  • Step 1: Search for investment thoughts within circle of capability.
  • Step 2: Estimate the company by discounted cash flow model.
  • Step 3: Judge the company and its opponents exhaustively.
  • Step 4: Make a decision whether to purchase with margin of safety, hold or sell.


STEP ONE: SEARCH. Hunt the universe of investment chances in marketable securities to recognize acceptable investment applicants for further analysis. Although inherent value investing relates to companies, bonds, cash and stocks (typically in a no-load cash market fund), the assessment model is used mainly for minority benefit in individual ordinary stocks. (Global Value Investing, 2010)

The primary hunt methods are:

  • Getting ideas from other depositors.
  • Rank ordering and Mechanical filtering of databases, either digital or print, without or with software for sorting and screening.
  • Reading financial and business news media.
  • Performing technical research.

STEP TWO: EVALUATE. Assess the candidate firm and its ordinary stock by guessing its investment worth both as a resource converter and as a going concern, and then decide its margin of safety. This thing will engage a calculation using 1 of numerous model categories based on discounted value of cash flow. It is noteworthy to not take the figures at face value, but somewhat to go ahead of the numbers to conclude what they signify. An approximation of the breakup worth of the business can act as a test on its current share market price. This engages an appraisal of personal assets that include the going concern. Firm's present arbitrage opportunities every time when they are value more deadly than active. The breakup price of paying off the debts, of selling the assets and distributing the residue to stock owners can supply as a floor or inferior value, and the substitute cost of the fixed assets less liabilities can act as an upper or ceiling value of the ordinary stock. Perfectly, the book value of plant, property and equipment approximates the substitute cost of its productive ability.

STEP THREE: STUDY. Evaluate the company, its industry and its competitors thoroughly if the firm's margin of safety is adequately compelling to defend further interest. The purpose is to conclude whether the market value is in error or the inherent value calculation is in fault for this particular stock component.

STEP FOUR: DECIDE. Make a choice whether there is adequate safety margin to implement a market order to unlock a long position to purchase the stock. Deal costs are of minor importance, but confirm to see if the share can be purchased straight from the company with no dealing through any broker. Also, ensure to cover that share price is lofty enough and operate in the stock is lively enough to avoid tentative situations. For instance, a least amount price of $5.00 on every share and 10,000 shares or superior average daily amount for the previous several months will assist to avoid manipulative and squeezes situations (Global Value Investing, 2010)

Depth of research

There have been a number of researches done on the Value Investment Approach given by Benjamin Graham. Along with the many advantages that have been talked about already, there have been cases in the past that have also limited the use of value investment. This generally applicable for longer periods of time when the concern is for over 10 years. Before the dot com burst took place every company that was even new to the IT industry could have boasted of the fact that they would certainly be doing well but then it didn't happen the way they had planned. The reason was that they lacked a proper B-Plan to aid their functioning. Now, value investment does not see whether the company has been using a proper B-Plan or not. IT simply goes with the company that is supposed to do well in the future in spite of not having a name in the market. So, before the approach is applied, it is advisable to know of the back-up behind a company that promises to do well in the future. Research says that only those investors should take the risk to participate in the value investment processes that have high capital strength. The reason for the same is that the results of the company can only be predicted. If performance indicators like the profitability ratios of the company are taken into concern, it would not support the investment in the firm. So, for any chances of losses in this respect, the investors should certainly be prepared. (Problems With The Value Investing Approach, 20010)

But at the same time research says that when the investors have a long-term plan that has been well studied, he can use the value investing approach judicially. The reason is that he would have all the time to find the targets. Not only this, even when an investor invests in a company, he generally stays for a larger period of time. So, this gives a time for the value investment approach to be applicable. The reason for this long-stay in the company is that the firms on which the value investment approach is used in generally not of very high market value. So, it would certainly take time for the investors to realize the kind of return that he is expecting.

It was also observed in the researches that an investor, who uses the value investment approach given by Benjamin Graham, should have a very strong and patient character. The reason for the same is that he would certainly have to wait for a long period of time before making an investment. So, with possible problems like recession in between, research says that value investment has to be used very logically and rationally in order to be effective. (Global Value Investing, 2010)

There have been various cases where investment in the form of value investment approach has actually worked. For example, the IT industry today is on the boom. This has given the people a chance to think more about value investment. There are certain very small companies which actually have the potential to do well. One such company is Directi. The company has a very small market value but has the potential to recruit people for more than 1 million AED per annum. This is the sort of company that suits the purpose of value investment. So, we can see that there has been a considerable amount of research on the topic. Some people have been of the view that Benjamin Graham had given the ideas ages ago so it might not be applicable. We can see by the examples that have been given that the value investment approach of Benjamin Graham was applicable in the 1990s and is applicable even today. This also justifies the fact that ever since the idea was given, there has been consistent applicability in the area.


Concluding the document we can say that generally bargain hunters are value investors and such investors are generally called as Value investors. Some of the value investing approaches involves special screening of stocks and thus investing in them for a long period of time to earn a higher return. Other value investors invest at a time when most of the stocks have been sold off and it is trading at its minimum. Finally some approaches involve buying a large number of shares of the company that they believe and undervalued and such large buying thus affecting the stock price.

Value investing is completely different from other types of investing. It does not relate to technical analysis and chartist analysis. In value investing the main goal is to give value to a business and give the troubled companies credit for the workout potential. In value investing the two concepts of corporate analysis and market analysis are regarded completely different.

Value investing in very simple terms states buying an undervalued stocks and selling the same stock when the market has determined the full potential of the stock, i.e., investing in a stock for which market considers it is less than its actual worth and different investors calculates this actual worth differently giving to different kinds of value investing.


The first requirement for value investing is to identify the undervalued stocks. Now this decision of whether the share price in underpriced correctly priced or overpriced can be done by some fundamental analysis.

For stock which are underpriced they have:

  • High dividend yields
  • Low price to earnings multiples
  • Low price to book ratios

Stocks which are currently trading at discount to their book value can also be considered as value investing stocks. Stocks which have low price to cash flow ratios are also considered as value stocks. These are some of the requirements of identifying the stocks for value investing, but the strategies may vary a lot from defining one's own strategy to copying some well known investor's strategy.


Value investing is all about selecting the right stocks to invest. The ability to select the stock with strong fundamentals can help earn huge returns in long run. It has been observed that in long run the return from value stocks are more than growth stocks. Compounding the dividends to them they become the most profitable investments in one's portfolio. The main problem lies in the fact that there is large number of companies floating their stocks in the market and thus it becomes difficult to find the stock that are promising and thus undervalued.

The loop hole in value investing can be over dependence on the methodology of value investing which can reduce ones earning potential. It is to select the right stock and hold it for the right period of time. It is very important that value investor keep the investor sentiment into account as this is quite an important factor in movement of prices in stocks in the market.


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  • The Basics of Value Investing. (n.d.) Retrieved on 22nd March, 2010 from
  • The Value Investing Approach - What Is Value Investing All About?. (2010). Retrieved on 22nd March, 2010 from
  • Global Value Investing. (2003).Retrieved on 22nd March, 2010 from

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