Drawing on and referring to theories and approaches to leadership introduced in the module, critically assess what you learned about leadership from your experience at the Leadership Trust. Please include examples to support your argument/discussion.
In this study leadership and its different theories have been studied. The study undertakes the trait theory, behavior and contingency theory and tries to find which one is more acceptable by the managers in an organization. It also studies which leadership theory is flexible and how it makes the decision of leaders flexible.
The traditional view of leadership states that leaders are those who lead a team either because they are physically stronger than any other or, as chosen by those who have the right to do so, or because they are elected. This is an old perspective of leadership. We live in the knowledge era, where power is from the official figures of authority were the power to convey the right ideas to develop and promote new thoughts, better ways to do things like new products can be done. This is impermanent; it keeps on changing from person to person, where there is rapid modernization. In the words of Bass (1990), "there are numerous definitions of leadership and the scholars have tried to define." Like many previous researchers have dedicated their study on leadership revision and have published many theories about leadership.
The evaluation of leadership literature shows a growing number of thoughts as of the "Great Man" and "trait theories" to "Transformational leadership". While early on theories incline to focus on the distinctiveness and actions of successful leaders, the later theories started focusing on conceptual character of leadership. Each one of those theories is based on individual perspective of a leader, even if school of thought increasingly recognized this "distributed leadership". This method with its basic fundamentals of sociology, psychology and political science instead of time management defines it 1as a process which is implemented throughout the company and not owned exclusively by the officially nominated leader. The stress is thus transferred from growth of "leaders" to build up "leaderful" organizations, with mutual responsibility for the leadership (Blake and Mouton, 1964).
Trait theory: The Trait theory is derived on or after the theory of "Great Man" which defines it as a method to identify the key features of good leaders. It is supposed that through this critical approach qualities could be isolated and that people with distinct qualities could be employed, chosen and put into leadership positions. The problem with this theory was that it was difficult to define the distinct qualities and if once they were defined it was difficult to match the people with these qualities. But this does not determined that a person cannot be a leader. The reliability in the results was less but there were some traits which were common. They were: friendliness, social skill, emotional skill, group task, motivational level, intelligence. On the basis of these traits the person could be evaluated. (Stogdill, 1974)
Behavior theory: The result of Trait theory was no sufficient. It was not possible to measure the characteristics like honesty, loyalty, faithfulness, or diligence. So another approach was to be developed. The theory which was developed to overcome this problem was behavior theory developed by "Douglas McGregor (1960). His theory stressed on the overall performance and output of the persons.
Theory X managers believes that: The normal human being has a natural detest of effort and tries to stay away from it. Due to this many people get punishments, threatening or are controlled 19to do the work in order to achieve the company objectives. Moreover the common human being wishes evade from accountability, has less aspiration, and desires safety (McGregor, 1960).
Theory Y managers believe that: The physical and mental attempt in job is as normal as engage in recreation or break, and the normal individual, in appropriate circumstances, discovers not only to admit but to look for accountability. People will implement self-direction and self-control to attain goal to which they are dedicated. The capability to use a comparatively high stage of thoughts, originality, and creativeness in the explanation of managerial troubles is extensively, barely, disseminated in the people, and the intellectual level of the normal person is partially used under the circumstances of up to date industrial life. (McGregor, 1960)
Contingency theory: Even as behavioral theory may assist administrator to build up an exact leadership behavior yet they provide slight direction as to what comprises efficient leadership in diverse circumstances.
Fiedler's Model of Contingency: Fiedler's contingency approach proposes that there is no single best way for managers to lead. Conditions will create unlike leadership style necessities for an administrator. The answer to an administrative condition is conditional on the factors that impose on the state of affairs. For example, in a perfectly normal when 1repetitive tasks are the norm, the directive leadership style may lead to better performance, but 1in a dynamic environment more flexible style of participation may be necessary.
Fiedler looked at three situations that could define the condition of a managerial task:
Leader member relations: How well do the manager and the employees get along? Task structure: Is the job highly structured, fairly unstructured, or somewhere in between? Position power: How much authority does the manager possess?
Managers have been evaluated for their relationship, and checked whether they are directed or task-oriented. Manager on the labor market tends to focus 1better in situations that have good relations with leading members. They perform well when the project is not structured, but the place of power is strong.
Task oriented style is clearly defined extremes on the basis of "favorable" and "unfavorable" environments, but relationship direction outshine in the center. Managers might effort to redesign the surrounding variables to match their style.
Positioning power checks the quantity of power or authority the manager recognizes the association has agreed to give them for the reason of shortest, gratifying, and grueling subordinate. The task-motivated style leader experience pride and satisfaction in the task achievement for the firm, while the relationship-motivated style try to construct interpersonal relations and widen additional help for the team expansion in the organization. (Fiedler, 1967)
In the end, it can be concluded that relationship-oriented managers work better than all the other. Thus, this situation requires a leader with a different style or manager who could obtain a different style for different situations. In a favorable relations manager can have high challenges and opportunities for promotion and can punish workers without any problem. Thus it can be said that all the theories of leadership determine the traits and characteristics of managers and their decision making process. It also determines that the success of leaders depends on how efficiently they adopt the leadership styles and this further helps in making the leaders successful.
- Bass, B. M. (1990), Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research & management applications, 3rd Ed., Free Press, New York.
- Blake, R.R. and Mouton, J.S. (1964), The managerial grid, Gulf, Houston TX.
- Fiedler, (1967), A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, McGraw-Hill, New York.
- McGregor, D. (1960), The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw Hill, New York. Stogdill, R. (1974), Handbook of Leadership, 1st Ed., Free Press, New York.
This study is all about the transformational leadership theory meaning and its critical review based on various aspects. In this study it is critically analyzed with respect to theory and practice.
MEANING OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Followers beyond their personal interests and are likely to an insightful and amazing effect on According to Robbins (2003) Transformational leaders are the individuals who motivate followers. Leadership styles, in which the leaders recognize essential changes, produce a vision for modify through motivation and execute the change with the dedication of the members of the group.
Organizational success is the outcome of a mixture of aspects: the fiscal, substance and technical assets, logistics and human resources. These reasons are brought together for the objectives in line with the organizational goal. In this framework, the companies are always choosing best people who lead and implement this path to success. These people are born with special features that have applied to support their actions into optimistic results for the company. These persons are extraordinary leaders.
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Transformational leadership has been demonstrated that an efficient mode to develop company presentation in a diversity of contexts. As Ozaralli (2003) used Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire for the establishment of an affirmative relation between behavior of transformational leadership and team empowerment. He shows all the way through this literature and experience, empowerment has a positive correlation to the effectiveness of a team. Further Jolson, et al. (1993) explained through the analysis of case studies, how transformational leadership can develop the ability of the sales force.
Transformational leaders are habitually charismatic, but not as selfish as pure Charismatic leader, which have a belief in itself rather than the belief in the success of others. One of the pitfalls of transformational leadership is obsession and trusts which are simply confused with accuracy and reality. It is true that big things have been attained through passionate leadership; it is also true that numerous obsessive people have led the blame directly on the top and into a bottomless abyss. Just since somebody believes they are correct, it does not denote they are correct.
According to House & Antonakis (2002) the notion of charm and the five behaviors of the charming leaders were used by theorists of transformational leadership in the notion of idealized persuade as an indicator of leadership efficiency. His charm and visualization are ordinary essentials in theories of charismatic and transformational leadership at a time, though, the different roles of the integration of company environment is deficient in the transformational hypothesis, and the charming representation. As Bass (1985) originate the innovative notion of transformational leadership through the Burns theory. As Bass and Avolio (1998) has produced a series of five classes on bass (1985) on the characterization of a transformational leader: (a) idealized persuade or charisma credited to the influence (b) idealized behavior or charm, (c) a source of inspiration, (d) scholarly stimulus, and (e) individual examination according to Antonakis & House (2002).
The most insensitive critics to this leadership approach narrate to the restricted enthusiasm it has in innovative supporters. Although predestined goal assists supporters to continue focused on the implementation, it may deter further efforts, as those are not pleased as mentioned by Bryant (2003). In these cases a transformational leadership approach that admires creativeness and exceptional presentation is extra appropriate to strengthen the presentation of these inspired persons as stated by Spinelli (2005). Transformational leadership is a leadership style that will promote individual inventiveness. Creativeness, innovation and self-motivation are individuality of skilled employees, which make them extremely hard to treat. According to Bryant (2003) Transformational leaders are the ideal solution for such cases. If the leaders are moreover intellectuals and practitioners working in their field, they are able to recognize these individual wants. According to Kerr and Jermier (1978) Leadership substitute's theory, which is unique in its design, conventional wisdom describes two types of variables (deputy and neutralizing) that reduce the importance of formal managers in enterprises. Replacements make formal leader needless and disused, and neutralizers stop a leader from performing in a specified way or abolish the effects of the leader's proceedings.
Leadership style persuades the usefulness of the small organizations studied. This persuades is optimistic in the case of the transformational leadership and unconstructive in the cases of the transactional and the laissez faire leadership. Even as the Transformational Leader looks for obviously to transform the organization, there is furthermore an implicit guarantee to followers that they too will be transformed in another way, possibly to be more similar to this astonishing leader. In some compliments, then, the followers are the merchandise of the transformation.
In support to leadership it is recommended that leadership is a vital changeable contribution to the traditions and environment of the organization and insight of assistance for inventiveness and modernism according to Amabile & Gryskiewicz (1989), Cummings & Oldham (1997), Mumford, Whetzel & Reiter-Palmon (1997), and Mumford et al (2002). Thus, there should be a vibrant communication amid leadership and ingenuity in a mode of supporting, cheering and revitalizing the observations and behaviors of workers that persuade the artistic work surroundings.
In contrast to the transformational leadership model which assume that it is the leader's behavioral characteristics that influences the assistants, the substitutes for leadership theory discards the thought that a leader's behavior is forever vital to subordinate results as stated by Kerr and Jermier (1978). According to this theory, leadership may come from resources other than the leader, and these resources may decline the authority of official leadership activities from upsetting employee behavior.
Paradoxically, the liveliness that gets public going can also reason them to give up. Transformational Leaders regularly have great amounts of eagerness which, if persistently applied, can carry out their supporters. Transformational Leaders also lean to observe the large picture, but not the particulars, where the evil spirit regularly prowls. If they do not have populace to take care of this level of information, then they are typically damned to be unsuccessful.
Lastly, Transformational Leaders, by meaning, look for transform. When the business does not need transforming and public are happy as they are, at that time this kind of leader will be frustrated. Akin to wartime leaders, nevertheless, given the exact status they arrive into their own and can be individually accountable for saving whole companies.
Through this study we can easily say that transformational leadership having a tendency to shift to show their skill and ability for the organizational benefits. Also they have little influence of supporters.
- Amabile, T. M. & Gryskiewicz, N. D.(1989) "The creative environment scales: Work environment inventory", Creativity Research Journals, Vol 2, pp231-254.
- Antonakis, J. & House, R. (2002), The Full-Range Leadership Theory: The way forward. Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead, New York: Elsevier.
- Bass, B. M. (1998), Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (Eds.) (1994), Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York. Harper & Row.
- Bryant, S. (2003), The role of transformational and transactional leadership in creating, sharing and exploiting organizational knowledge, The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9 (4). Retrieved April 15, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
- Cummings, A. & Oldham, G. R. (1997) "Enhancing creativity: Managing work contexts for the high potential employee", California Management Review, Vol 40, pp22-39.
- Jolson, Marvin A., Alan J. Dubinsky, Francis J Yammarino, and Lucette B. Comer, "Transforming the Salesforce with Leadership," Sloan Management Review, Vol. 34, Iss. 3 (Spring 1993), pp. 95 - 106
- Kerr, S., and J.M. Jermier, (1978), "Substitutes for leadership: The meaning and measurement," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22(3), pp375-403.
- Laissez-Fair Leadership in the Hospital Administrative Environment. Hospital Topics. Retrieved April 13, 2007 from EBSCOhost database.
- Mumford, M. D. Scott, G. M. Gaddis, B. & Strange, J. M. (2002) "Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships", The Leadership Quarterly, Vol 13, pp705-750.
- Mumford, M. D. Whetzel, D. L. & Reiter-Palmon, R. (1997) "Thinking creatively at work: Organisational influence on creative problem solving", Journal of Creative Behaviour, Vol 31, pp7-17.
- Ozaralli, Nurdan, "Effects of transformational leadership on empowerment and team effectiveness," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 24, Iss. 5/6 (2003), pp. 335 - 344.
- Robbins, S. P. (2003) Organisational behaviour, 10th ed., Prentice Hall, Inc.
- Spinelli, R. (2005). The Applicability of Bass's Model of Transformational, Transactional, and