Managing People in Hospitality

BTEC HND in International Hotel Management

Task 1 – the external environment (PM P2)

The external environment (the boxes will expand as you enter text

Environment

Situation

Impact on employment

Political

There is an immigrant policy

Some of the employees might have a visa restriction as well as the renewal of the visa

Economic

Recession

When the UK was still in recession, people lost their jobs, and businesses were not employing.

[1]“1.3million people lost their jobs”

Social

There are different cultures and religions

Some of them might say that races or discriminating them , as well in the workplace with different cultures/religions, there might be rivals and fights with colleagues

Technological

New technology that communication

With the new technology you can do thing yourself, so it basically replaces people. But with these new equipments, you can employ people to maintain them/even IT's

Legal

Not allowed to discriminate

When employing people its against the law, to employ based on their colour rather on their skills/experience.

Ecological

Global warming

Taking time to train the employees to be more green, but some wont care, and some might come to work late as they cycling, using environmental friendly equipment

Competitive

Other hotels in the location

That the employees can go to any hotel in the area as there are many hotels

State if you completed the above task as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work, also state the date when the work was done in class;

o if group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Individual work 29 January 2010

Task 2 - outsourcing staff (PM P8)

Q1: calculate the staff turnover rate for 2008 (individual activity)

1200/200=6*100=600%

Q2: Describe the possible causes of turnover

· relocating overseas or area

· study, continuing with studies

· visas, expired or restrictions

· bad management, no motivation

· working conditions aren't up to standards

· broaden on the skills and experience

State if you completed this task as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work, also state the date when the work was done in class

o if group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Individual work 28 January 2010

Q3: Describe the possible effects of high staff turnover

· could be poor customer service

· not selling as much, business not doing well

· low salary, so employees leave for better pay

· training new staff

· theft and no security within the hotel

· staff that are leaving voluntary or getting fired

State if you completed this task as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work, also state the date when the work was done in class

o if group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Individual work 28 January 2010

Q4: Identify the advantages and disadvantages to the hotel of outsourcing the housekeeping department

Advantages

Disadvantages

· it can be flexible

· the staff are trained

· help is at hand

· no need to recruit or advertise

· cost efficient

* less control

* staff don't work for you

* might take awhile to get staff

* can be expensive depending of the turnover

* loyal staff may have to leave

State if you completed this task as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work also state the date when the work was done in class

o If group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Individual

1 February 2010

Q5: Using your answers to questions 1–4 above, analyse whether you agree or disagree with the hotel management's decision to outsource housekeeping. Make sure that you fully justify you answer and support your thinking with theory, (individual activity, approximately 500 words

I do not think that the hotel should outsource the housekeeping because, like most things there are pros and cons and the main thing is you want to lower the turn over and make a profit and not to make a loss. The outsourcing can also be to a certain extent helpful, and you don't need to waste money on advertising and no need to recruit. I think that it could be the management; it could be that he/she is not doing a proper job or just doesn't care. The reason why the turnover is at 600% it could be that some of the housekeeping staff are relocating or even their visa restrictions/renewal. The manager needs to try and bring the 600% turnover to a much lower percentage, because with a high turnover percentage – could lower your reputation.

Hotels have the highest turnover percentage compared to other industries, as in July 2009 Rankin N

the turnover percentage was at 16.8% which I think is extremely good compared to 600%. –(RANKIN, N. (2009) Labour turnover rates and costs in the UK in 2008. IRS Employment Review. No 920, 4 May. 10pp.). The 600% turnover for housekeeping will not only affected, I think it will affect other departments as well as staff members may have left voluntary or fired, or other personal reasons, it all adds up. Another reason why I will disagree is because, the staff are not yours, and if you get outsource staff they will be trained but not the way that you wanted them.

Conclusion/recommendation: after I completed this task I still think that outsourcing in my preference that is still not a good idea to outsource, because the staff isn't yours, but in the long run it is cheaper.

Task 3 – job analysis and design (PM P1)

For this task you need to use the information that you found out about the hotel in Activity 2.

Q1: job analysis for a food server

Actual work activities

Setting up tables/clearing of table, taking orders and serving guest, as well moving table to change layout if it is required, cleaning of the restaurant,

Tools and equipment used

Handheld palm device for taking orders and printing the bill, cashier

Job context

Working in the front of house in the restaurant/dining room

Personal characteristics required

Friendly, smiley, confidence

Behavior requirements

Smart, look decent, good manners

Performance standards

To alert and efficient, carrying two plates

Productivity standards

To at least be serving five table, average

Q2a: job description

Job title

Food Server

Department

Dining room

Date analyzed

28 January 2010

Pay rate

£5.80

Pay frequency & method

£5.80 per hour x 5 hours – depending on the shift (18:00 – 22:00) =£29

Reports to

The supervisor

Subordinate staff

Waiters

Liaises with

Restaurant manager

Job location

Restaurant

Job purpose

To serve the guests

Duties and responsibilities

Shinning glasses, preparing for the service; breakfast, lunch or dinner

Q2b: person specification

Essential or desirable

How assessed

Knowledge required

Know wines

Desirable

ask questions

Know how to solve problems

Desirable

Make him/her solve a scenario

Knowing a menu well

Essential

Make him/her study the whole menu, then ask them question

Knowing what is in the food

essential

Let him/her taste food sample and ask what in the dish

Understand English

Essential

Him/her will know if you English is good just by listening when him/her is answering the questions

Skills required

Organization skills

Essential

Give him/her a small task to do, that must be completed in a pacific time

Work under pressure

Essential

Let him/her work a trail on a busy day

Good customer service

Essential

Ask him/her questions

Know how to up sell

Desirable

Test him/her

Communication skills

Essential

Him/her will know if their communication skills are good just by listening when him/her is answering the questions

Carry plates properly

Essential

Test him/her

Listen well

Essential

Give him/her a listening test, then ask questions

Qualifications

At least two years experience

Desirable

phone the references

HND

Essential

Ask for a copy of certificate

State if you completed this task as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work also state the date when the work was done in class

o If group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Individual work 3 February 2010

Task 4 – staff scheduling (PM P1)

For this task you need to use the information that you found out about the hotel in Activity 2.

Q1: productivity standards

Job title

Productivity standard

Restaurant manager

To be on lookout, and try to solve any problems, that the supervisor or servers could not solve. Keeping the admin work update

Supervisor

To make sure that everything is running smoothly, and to speak to guest, to see if the food is great, and to report to the manager

Barman

know what you doing in term of making cocktails, work fast but be professional

Servers

To be able to cope with 5 tables on average, and to serve tables that may have 10 guest at one table

Cashier

If guests are paying by cash, the cashiers should at least three of the bills, in less than two minutes

Q2: staffing guide

Total covers in restaurant

125

Volume of business

%

5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Job title

No of covers

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

125

Restaurant manager

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Supervisor

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

Barman

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

Servers

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

Cashier

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

3

State if you completed this task as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work also state the date when the work was done in class

o If group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Individual work 3 February 2010

Activity 4 – recruitment interviews

This activity provides evidence for PM P3, HS P4 & HS P7

The criteria for an effective interviewer

Write your criteria here:

The criteria for an effective candidate

Write your criteria here:

Your evaluation of your performance as a candidate.

Consider what went well, what needs to be improved, and how would you improve your preparation if you were to carry out this activity again.

Support your conclusions with theory.

Write your evaluation here:

Your evaluation of your performance as an interviewer

Consider what went well, what needs to be improved, and how would you improve your preparation if you were to carry out this activity again.

Support your conclusions with theory.

Write your evaluation here:

Activity 5 – training and development

This activity provides evidence for PM P10, PM P11 & HS P2 Task 3: general property induction

Topic

Specific objectives.

By the end of this training the trainee will:

Training methods

Resources required

Day and time

Eg day 1

0800 - 1000

Who will carry out the training

How will achievement of the objectives be measured

Health and safety

* Chemicals

* Fire hazard

* equipment

The trainee will be able to better understand the rules and the system of health and safety in the industry concerning the position he/she is in

Provide the trainee with the health and safety booklet and guide them through, provide visual explanations and the location where everything is found for E.g.

for the fire hazard show all the exits and where the alarms are found.

The sponsor will also show and introduce the chemicals that are used in with the equipment

The health and safety booklet, PPE personal protective equipment and a sponsor who will be showing the new employee everything

Day 1 10:00am to 14:00pm

The training will be provided by the sponsor which is provided by the HR

Usually they are carefully chosen depending on their experience and their knowledge about all the aspects concerning health and safety in a work place

Have a short questionnaire ready for the new employee after the induction to be filled up to see how much he/she benefited from it

The company history

The trainee will be introduce to the history of the organisation also the guest that are served with in e.g. when was the company established and how much it has achieved and provided back to society

Just welcome the new employee and over a coffee or tea present him/her with the history

A short hand out and a brochure

Day 1

8:30 am to 9:00am

The sponsor that has been provided to the new employee will guide him/her through the history of the organisation

The best way is while explaining just with short questions to the employee to see if he/she have interest in the presentation

Floor plan

The trainee will be provided with the floor plan indicating where every department is found and what does it stand for

The trainee will be shown around each department and with a brief explanation what does it stand for

Handing out the floor plan with explanation book

Day 1 9:00am to 9:40am

The sponsor that is provided by the HR will take care of this mainly a person that has been a while in the organisation because they know every where about the environment

After a good explanation ask the employee to check the documents if he/she understood the plan

Organisation chart

The trainee will be given an organisation chart so he/she can understand where every position is and who for fills it

Most of the time during the visit of the floor plan the trainee will also be shown the organisation chart indicating the position of the employees

Proving the trainee with the organisation chart

Day 1 9:00am to 10:00am

The same sponsor that is helping and showing the trainee around is usually providing this details to the trainee

By asking the trainee if he/she have any questions or is there anything they didn't understand

Dress code and appearances

The trainee will understand the importance of the dress code in the industry

While the trainee is shown around he/she will also be shown the staff uniforms and the appearances they have

Day 1 during the floor plan introduction and the organisation chart

The same sponsor that is helping and showing the trainee

Ask the trainee to check the box indicating staff uniforms

General rules and tour

The trainee will have a brief understanding of the overall run and work place

The trainee will have a handout or a booklet showing him/her all the necessary information regarding the information the job .e.g. the employee dining area, restroom entrance for the employee only emergency situations where to report to personal

Helping the trainee understand all the aspects of the work place and giving him/her any paper work needed to help understand everything

Day 1 10:00am to 15:00pm

The staff member or the sponsor that has been helping him out will provided this information to the trainee

A short questionnaire or even a checklist can help both the sponsor and trainee to learn if the information has been passed on Task 4: job specific induction

Topic

Specific objectives.

By the end of this training the trainee will:

Training methods

Resources required

Day and time

Eg day 1

0800 - 1000

Who will carry out the training

How will achievement of the objectives be measured

Front office

Reception: the trainee will be provided the right manual and he will be provided with a trainer to help him/her with the front office position, this will cover the reservation and the check in and check out

The sponsor will show the trainee how thing run at the front office by indicating everything and covering most details, how to use the software and how to speak to guest

The handout if there is one, and the front office area with the sponsor

Day 2 8:00am to 17:00pm

The sponsor provided by the human resource

The trainee will be asked questions and see how well would they react and check list to be covered

Back office

Switch board: the trainee will be shown to the back of house, where he/she will see how the phones and fax system work and the administrative

The sponsor provided will take the trainees into a step-by-step system and will also cover all the necessary details concerning the administrative work.

The sponsor will take the trainee to the back of house and show him/her all the equipment used and areas covered by the back house

Day 3 8:00am to 17:00pm

The sponsor provided by the human resource and the staff members at the back of house

To ask the trainee questions about the position and seek answers, and a checklist if needed just to see how well the trainee understands the positions

Concierge

The trainee will be shown around the position that the concierge covers, from the door men to the porters and to the concierge desk

The concierge assistant will usually guide the trainee through the areas that it covers, he/she will be shown how the door men and the porters go on with the work and then he/she will also see how things go on the concierge desk from phone operations to other resource gathering for the guest

The concierge assistant will show the trainee around

Day 4 9:00am to 13:00pm

In most cases the best and most suitable person to handle this job is the concierge manager or his assistant because they know everything about that position

From the experience the concierge have with a couple of questions they would find out if the trainee understood the job

Housekeeping

The trainee will be provided with a manual and a hand outs regarding the job, the trainee will cover all the department by the housekeeping the hotel rooms all the lobbies and any area that is covered by the housekeeping

The house keeping will provide a valuable staff member to guide the trainee through all the areas,

EG: the trainee will be shown where all the housekeeping materials are from their carts. to the inventory teaching him/her how to handle every equipment and chemicals carefully, going over the manual and explaining how important is health and safety in the house keeping department, the trainee will also be shown how to clean the rooms how to react in case of emergencies, what needs to be done. And the communication between them and the front office.

The trainee will be provided will all the manuals and the booklets about housekeeping and the internal rules manual

Day 4

8:00 am to 17:00 pm

Usually the house keeping will provide one of its long time house keeper because of the appearance they have in the industry so it becomes easy and very helpful to the trainee

Going over the manuals and handouts by filling in the questions, this way the trainee will be tested if he/she understood the part.

Food and beverages

The trainee will better understand how the F&B runs in the hotel covering the restaurant and the bar areas,

The trainee will also be provided with the information needed to how the F&B goes on with their menus and inventories covering all the aspects in the F&B

The human recourses will provide a sponsor who will show the trainee everything needed, the trainee will be shown how the restaurant functions, EG: the reservations system and the till, all the technologies used to order and communicate between the dining room and the kitchen, the same with the bar.

If there is any booklet or handouts he/she will be provided with it and just to be shown the equipment they use and try to better explain it to them.

Day 5

11:00 am to 18:00 pm

Usually it's a supervisor from the F&B that will provide the induction to the trainee.

At the end of the shift the trainee will be asked question about the department and will be marked on how much he/she understand the position.

State if you completed this tasks 3 & 4 as individual work, class-work or group work.

Important:

o if class-work also state the date when the work was done in class

o If group-work, state who were the other members of the group.

Group work- chavier, boudy, enku and

jon Task 5: justification of training methods

· must be individual work

· hint – use theory to support your ideas

Topic

Specific objectives.

By the end of this training the trainee will:

Training methods

Justification

Health and safety

Will understand the rules and the system of health and safety in the industry

Providing a booklet as well a visual explanations

The reason I think it's better to provide a booklet and a visual aid, is because as theory says (Polovina, 2006)Were remember 10% of what we read and 50% of what we hear and see

The company history

Will know when the company established, as well as the employees that work there

Just welcoming the new employees and present them with the history

The training methods for the history of the company will just be in general, the new employees will just be spoken to, because it may become rather boring, even with pictures or sounds, as it's not an important topic.

Floor plan

knowing where every department is found and what they do.

The trainee will be shown around each department and with a brief explanation

I think in my experience, to be shown around you can have a better standing and knowledge of where every department are located

Organisation chart

They will understand where every position is and who is in that role

Will be shown the organisation chart indicating the position of the employees and were they are located

I think it will be good as the chart could be made in a way that it could be more clear and easy to read, and you are seeing were they are located.

Dress code and appearances

Will understand the importance of the dress code in the hotel

Will also be shown the staff uniforms and the appearances they have as they are been shown around the hotel

By seeing other staff member you can see how it is done, so you can learn from others.

General rules and tour

They will understand the rules of the work place and seeing were everything is, after the tour

will be given a handout or a booklet showing him/her all the necessary information regarding the information the job and the rules

The new employees can read important information about the job as well as the rule, I think in this sense it is a good training methods as if there is something in the booklet they do not understand they can just ask for an explanation.

Front office

Will know how the front office works and will know how to do reservation and the check in and check out

To show the new employees how to use the software, and how to speak properly

With this method, the new employee will be demonstrated how to use the software, and how to speak, then once that is done, you can let him/her give it a try, which I think it is a good way to be trained.

Back office

Will see how the phone and fax system works and the administrative work

Doing a step-by-step to show how the system works, and the administrative work

I think by doing a step-by-step method, is easier to train an employee as it is broken down in different steps, and with each step you can answer any questions, though I think this method is time consuming.

Concierge

Will be shown around the position of the concierge, and should understand what he/she does

Will see how the concierge desks works, from the phone operations and how to gather info for the guest

With this method, the new employee will an idea how the operation works, making sure you are meeting the guest expectations, how to use the phone if you need to book a cab, concert even a reservation at a fine dining restaurant.

Housekeeping

Be shown the areas that need to be cleaned, and were to get cleaning chemicals

The new employees will be guided by a housekeeper staff member, to show were all the materials are, how to clean the rooms and going through the health and safety.

With this method the new employees should remember where the cleaning equipments and the materials are, which can be a problem. But to see how to clean the room and going through the health & safety, I think will be good to see if they understand well.

Food and beverages

The employees will understand how the F&B runs in the hotel covering the restaurant and the bar areas, and menus

The new employee will be shown around to see how the restaurant functions, how to use the systems.

This training method is an important one, because. The employee will need to know how the restaurant works, and understanding how the ordering/billing system functions Task 6: explanation of benefits of induction programme

· must be individual work

· hint - use theory to support your ideas

Induction programme

Benefits to team

Benefits to supervisor

Contribution to F & B business objectives

Benefit to guests

General property

The team will have a better understanding, being more confidence. To understand the rules, know the floor plan of the hotel, which highly important as they need to know the nearest fire exits are.

The supervisor will start to gain trust and confidence, as the trainee/ new employee will have learnt as to how important the induction for the general property is. The supervision can also who is interested, as he/she only wants the best.

That is important to meet with the objective, appropriate appearance. Making sure you are meeting the expectations of the guests.

The guests can feel more welcomed. The guest can ask a question and the trainee/employee can answer with confidence, regards with health & safety, and knowing were all the nearest fire exits are.

Job specific

The team will benefits form know how each of the main operations work.

The supervision will be confidence as the trainees will know the different operations and how important each role is, he/she can ask question to see if they understood. The supervisor could be stress-free.

Making sure they know how the bar runs, and how many covers the restaurant has, and to see they can serve properly.

Whichever operation the guest goes to, he/she will be in high spirits, as the employee know how to make guest happy in any department.

Activity 6 – the seven components of management

This activity provides evidence for PM P1, HS P9

The seven components of management (individual activity)

Task/duty/responsibility

Management component

Maintain health & safety

Demonstrating

help out with training

Demonstrating

Attend to complaints

Demonstrating

make sure there is customer satisfaction

Keeping list of inventories/stock

Demonstrating

Making sure that the uniforms are up to standards

Supporting the team

Activity 7 – leadership styles

This activity provides evidence for HS P9

Leadership styles (individual activity)

Leadership style

Definition

[2]Advantages

[3]Disadvantages

Examples of appropriate use

[4]Laissez faire

[5]The manager gives tasks to his staff and gives them free will. But the manager doesn't get drawn in, he is there to instruct and respond to questions

* people are independent

* they have choice and free will

* obtain trust

* no motivation

* there is no responsibility

* no teamwork

* [6]Enterprise rent a car, the employees are left alone, and they make their own decisions

* Motor dealers

* Mobile stores

[7]democratic

[8]The manager gives responsibility for a task, giving them authority

* staff are motivated

* there is different ideas

* staff have their opinion

* [9]there are a lot of discussions

* and it takes time

* [10]if a car is been a a accident, managers will help the customer

* Customer wanting a car for a weekend, finding the best vehicle

* A estate agent, finding t he right house for the specific need

[11]Consultative

[12]They listen to their staffs views, but makes the final decision

* the staff are involved

* [13]good communication

* Great team work

* [14]The staff may disagree

* Its time consuming

* A manager speaking to his staff, how to increase guest satisfaction

* A bad situation in the dining room, getting help of how to handle it

* Banqueting deciding on the layout

[15]Autocratic

[16]Tells people what to do, them makes the final decision

* [17]Good, quick results

* Good leadership

* Increase teamwork

* Staff can get the wrong idea

* [18]Staff that aren't participating

* There might not be any communication

* Making a difference like reducing carbon footprint,

* [19]In a workplace only the leader can decide who to fire.

* [20]A Major in a army, will make the decision to shot, that to vote

Conclusion

During my research I came across other various different types of leadership styles, but there is no right or wrong leadership styles that you can have it just depends on the situation

Activity 8 – team work component

This activity provides evidence for PM P4, PM P7

Team quality standards

Team members

Jhon, chavier, eun kyu, boudy, nigel and basith

Characteristics of effective teams

Quality standards for your team

e.g. good communication

e.g. Team members always listen to the views of other members of the team.

Team members always ensure that other members of the team are kept up to date with work progress.

etc

Focus

The team must have a good idea about the subject they are working on, they need to be focused.

TEAM

Together everybody accomplishes more

Self motivation

“motivation fades away, its just like bathing, recommended daily”

Team leader must be ready to see not just the bad of his team members but even the good, so he/she can motivate the team

Understanding

This team must be able to accept, each others point of view, even if they disagree they should try to understand and help

Humour

Humour is essential in a team to keep the team spirits up

Work division

The work must be divided fairly, so the team can function better, try to provide the right part to the right the team member

Perception

Different cultures and different people and a very wide perception, everyone can translate the same thing into what they think is right

Good balance

Different skills mixed with different experiences, used wisely provides a great team

Respect

Team members must have respect to one another and to the team leader, this helps with communication and as well all know what is a team without communication

Commitment

When a task is provided to a team member he/she must be committed to see it through, even when it is boring or hard just keeping committed and communicate for help

Support

Team members must support each other all the time to achieve best quality of work, this will lead back to motivation

Organised

Its ok not to be organised as long as a team members are there to help with that. This will lead to team organisation one of the most important aspects of a team

Team performance evaluation

Team members

Quality standards for your team

To what extent did your team achieve the standard?

What is your evidence for this?

Team members always listen to the views of other members of the team.

Team members always ensure that other members of the team are kept up to date with work progress. etc

How could this team improve its team processes (be specific – what and how)?

Enter your response here

Activity 10 – managing change

This activity provides evidence for HS P11

This must be an individual activity

Set out below your responses to this activity – no templates have been provided. It is up to you to decide how to set out your work in a logical and coherent way, that meets the requirements of the activity.

The Goals

Justifying the order of priority

Reduce the wage bill by £100000.

I think that by reducing the wages can save a lot of money the total wages are sitting at £641000 and by reducing it by £100000, will be £541000. Wanting to be profitable, with the £100000 that we can save, we could use that money were it is mostly needed.

Introduce a new, more popular and more profitable menu.

By introducing a new menu, which I think could way more money making, I think it will be better to have a set menu, as in the long term its cheaper, and have different set menus depending on the occasion for .e.g. Valentine's day.

introduce an electronic point of sale and billing system

The reason why I think to introduce a new POS system last priority is because, to upgrade to a new system is that it will cost money, and it does not matter what system you may have, you can still generate money, though some POS may be slower than others, and as well as the time to train myself as well as the staff.

Highest priority

Reduce the wage bill by £100000.

I think that we should reduce the amount of assistant chefs to five, as £144000 - £90000( the total amount for six p.a)=£54000. To reduce the kitchen porters to four, £72000-£60000= £12000, then to reduce the supervisors from four to two, which will save me £32000. So at the end I can save £98,000. I choose to reduce to staff, because if I reduce their pay they will leave or go on strike.

The sequence and time scale of those changes

I think the best way to do the change is by taking it slowly month by month.

The difficulties you may face and how you are going to deal with them

My main concern is telling my staff that I'm going to be reducing, I will try and deal with it by paying them for three months, and to tell them it is only temporary and will reconsider to reemploy if you are still unemployed.

The measurements you will use to evaluate if your changes have been successful.

A check list and to tick once I have completed it.

Conclusions and recommendations

[1] http://money.uk.msn.com/news/articles.aspx?cp-documentid=151871976

[2] http://www.youthwork-practice.com/youthworker-training/leadership-styles.html

[3] http://www.youthwork-practice.com/youthworker-training/leadership-styles.html

[4] http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm

[5] http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm

[6] http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study--using-range-management-styles-to-lead-business--96-299-5.php

[7] The One Minute Manager, Kenneth Blanchard PH.D, Spencer Johnson M.D, 1982, Page 15

[8] http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm

[9] http://www.youthwork-practice.com/youthworker-training/leadership-styles.html

[10] http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study--using-range-management-styles-to-lead-business--96-299-4.php

[11] http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm

[12] http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm

[13] http://www.aircadets-wbw.org/assets/pdf_files/training/JNCO%20Handouts_leadership_styles.pdf

[14] http://it.toolbox.com/blogs/enterprise-solutions/effective-group-decision-making-techniques-11156

[15] The One Minute Manager, Kenneth Blanchard PH.D, Spencer Johnson M.D, 1982, Page 15

[16] http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm

[17] http://www.scribd.com/doc/4049981/Managerial-quality-and-leadership

[18] http://www.scribd.com/doc/4049981/Managerial-quality-and-leadership

[19] http://businessmanagement.suite101.com/article.cfm/what_is_autocratic_leadership

[20] http://www.communication-skills-4confidence.com/leadership-styles.html

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