In any organization across all the industries more than 95% of staff involved in day 2 day operation. So, the employees are the biggest assets of any organization. Employees of any organization need something to keep them working with their organization. Most of the time employee's salary is the biggest attraction for them to keep working for their organization. However, sometimes salary is not sufficient for employees to stay in their organizations. An employee needs some motivation towards their work. It is the organization responsibility to provide motivation to the employees on the right time. If the employees will not get the motivation on time then the employee's quality of work will deteriorate.

The term motivation derived from the Latin word movere, meaning to move. Motivation is what that derives to behave in a certain way or to take a particular action. Motivation is the activation of goal oriented behavior. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself and other people. These two sources are well known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.

There are numerous theories on motivation but we will focus on Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory:-

It states that there are at least five sets of goals which can be referred to as basic needs such as: Physiological, Safety, Love, Esteem and Self - Actualization. Maslow's also stated that people including employees are motivated by the desire to achieve. The implications of this theory provided useful insights for any organization leaders or managers. As per Maslow's theory managers can find ways to motivate their employees by devising program or practices aimed at satisfying emerging or unmet needs. Another implication is for any organization is to support programs for employees which help them to deal with stress, especially during more challenging times. Managers have the responsibilities to provide a proper climate or atmosphere for employees in which they can develop their full potential. Because in the absence of the proper atmosphere and environment employees could feel frustrated, could result in poor performance and increased withdrawal from the organization.

Feederick Herzberg's Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factor-motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

Literature Review

J. Barney

Barney has contributed drastically in the field of sustainable competitive advantage rather than any other authors. Barney (1991) defines a firm to have a competitive advantage.

He has introduced 'The Resource based view'. In his resource based theory he said that firms can achieve sustained competitive advantage by designing their strategy based on exploitation of their own resources. He has further divided these resources into three parts; physical capital, human capital and organizational capital. These three attributes of a firm allow the firm to conceive and implement the strategies which can increase their effectiveness and efficiencies. These strategies examine the resources capabilities and efficiencies of the firm that facilitate them to generate above normal return and a sustainable competitive advantage. He believes that the strategy of utilizing firm's own resources can result in achieving sustained competitive advantage.

'A firm is said to have a sustained competitive advantage when it is implementing a value creating strategy not simultaneously being implemented by any current or potential competitors and when these other firms are unable to duplicate the benefits of this strategy'. (Barney 1991)

Further scenarios determine how it is impossible to achieve sustained competitive advantage with resource homogeneity in the market. As per Barney, a planning system may possibly generate advantages for a firm, but only if a firm enable to recognize its own resources, and probably out of these resources some of the sources are for sustained competitive advantage'. Firm resources can be a source of competitive advantage only if they are valuable in nature and sources will be valuable when they allow its firm to conceive of or implement the strategies for the sake of their own effectiveness and efficiencies. The traditional model of firm performance is 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that suggests the firm to improve its performance only when their strategies utilize the opportunities or neutralize threats. Any firm attributes should have some different characteristics that could qualify then as sources for competitive advantage such as: rareness, inimitability. However, these attributes only become resources when they exploit opportunities in a firm's environment.

I want to link my topic Employee motivation with the Barney's resource based theory. As we all know that any organization employees come under the company resources. So, any organization employees can help to their organization in order to achieve sustained competitive advantage. Employees are the biggest assets of any organization. Employee's motivation is deadly required for the firm in order to keep them within the organization.


The following are the objectives of my research study

  1. To make a study of the factors that leads to motivation among the employees of the organization.
  2. To suggest measures and practices to increase the motivation among the employees.


Research Methodology

A Research Methodology defines the purpose of the research, how it can be carry on, how to measure progress and what represent the success with respect to the objectives determined for carrying out the research study. The appropriate research design formulated is detailed below:

For my Employee Motivation research, I would like to take the Social Constructionism philosophy. I am choosing this philosophy as I believe that the data which we got directly from the sources is the actual and reliable data. Social Constructionism is typically based on reality, knowledge, and learning. I believe that every individual has different views about different situations. The data which we got directly from the sources are more reliable rather than the secondary sources data. A major focus of social constructionism is to discover the ways in which individuals and groups participate in the creation of their perceived social reality. It is looking the ways which creates social phenomena, institutionalized and made into tradition by humans. A socially constructed reality is seen as a continuing process that is reproduced by people interpretations, perceptions and their knowledge of it.

Though social constructionism contains a various range of beliefs and they can be divided into two camps: Weak social constructionism and Strong social constructionism. The weak social constructionists tend to see some underlying objective factual elements to reality, and strong social constructionists see everything as, in some way, a social construction. It doesn't mean that strong social constructionists see the world as ontologically 'unreal'. Rather, they propose that the notions of "real" and "unreal" are themselves social constructs, so the question about "real" is just a matter of social convention.

According to Burr (1995), Social Construction Research draws the attention to the fact that human experience including perception historically, linguistically and culturally. Under social construction research design, the human dimension is important and the researcher aims to explain the problem by using Inductive Method.

Inductive Method approach:-

After choosing the social constructionist philosophy, I will choose the inductive method for collecting the qualitative data. The inductive method is a process of using observations to develop general principles about a specific subject. The purposes of using an inductive approach are to establish clear links between the research objectives and the summary resulted from the raw data. To develop a clear structure of experiences or processes those are evident in the raw data. This approach provides an easily used and systematic set of procedures for analyzing qualitative data that can produce reliable and valid findings.

Qualitative Data: It is used to primarily as a synonym for any data collection technique (such as interview) or data analysis procedure (such as categorizing data) that generates or uses non-numerical data.

Defining Nature of Data

Primary Data: Data which is collected through direct interviews from the employees of any organization and by raising questionnaires.

Secondary Data: Secondary data is that data which is already available and published in the market. It could be internal and external source of data. Internal sources are those data which originates from the specific field or area where research is carried out e.g. publish broachers, official reports etc. External sources are those data that originates from outside the field of study like books, periodicals, journals, newspapers and the Internet.

Data Collection

Primary Data:

It will be collected through structured questionnaires, personal interviews/ discussions with the employees of any organization.

Sample Design

Sampling unit:

  1. Executives
  2. Managersi n the tea industry

Sample size: If the population will of the organization will be 100 so, the 5% of the sample size will be 79 (as per the table sample size table)

Research Location: India

Sampling Procedure

Interviewee will be chosen through random sampling.

Method of collecting data: Questionnaire (Schedule) & Interview method

SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data will be collected through the following sources:-

  • Articles,
  • Reports,
  • Journals,
  • Magazines,
  • Newspapers and
  • Internet


The following might be the limitations of the study:

  • The sample size which I have selected may not be sufficient enough for the research work and hence the results can have a degree of variation.
  • The response of the officials in giving information was lukewarm.
  • Organization's resistance to share the internal information may become as a obstacle
  • Questionnaire might be subjected to minor statistical errors.
  • Busy Schedule of the Respondents

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