Project management articles

Abstract:

Project management is a promising new managerial technique to improve advertising agency productivity and performance. Although PERT/CPM is the most widely accepted project management approach. the Critical Chain technique developed by Elivahu Goldratt overcomes the widely reported deficiencies of PERT/CPM. Using a hypothetical but realistic set of time estimates for tasks involved in creating an advertising campaign, Critical Chain was tested against PERT/CPM and was shown to reduce project duration by 20%. The authors present the rationale behind the Critical Chain approach and provide an overview of how to schedule and manage a project using this new methodology. This article also discusses the benefits that an advertising agency can derive from using Critical Chain.

Citation:

Budd, C., & Cooper, M. (2004). A Project Management Approach to Increasing Agency Margins. Journal of Promotion Management, 11(1), 29-49. doi:10.1300/J057v11n01_03.

Abstract:

Managing projects is a difficult undertaking-a large number of projects fail to be completed on time, on budget, or to specifications. In traditional project management literature, researchers criticise project manager skills and leadership, user involvement, top management commitment, organisation, etc. More recently, research has identified underlying problems with project concepts. We briefly describe the types of failures (late delivery, over budget, less than full specs) of projects. Second, we examine some causes of project lateness. Third, we illustrate the calculations for project completion using traditional and critical chain project methodologies. We then conduct three small simulations of the network using uniform, triangular, and exponential distributions to determine the impact of using the critical chain methodology on project completion dates. Last, we provide some references discussing critical chain project management.

Citation:

Blackstone, J., Cox, J., & Schleier, J. (2009). A tutorial on project management from a theory of constraints perspective. International Journal of Production Research, 47(24), 7029-7046. doi:10.1080/00207540802392551.

Abstract:

The results of an exploratory study of UK organizations into methods for meeting project key performance indicators (KPIs) are presented. The paper explores: influences on the use of methods to manage project KPIs; the need for and existence of methods; the factors that facilitate the meeting of the KPIs. It is concluded that the use of methods varies depending upon the perceived importance of the project, the type of project, the client-team relationship and whether an organization performance management system exists. With project management capability often decreasing, in part due to a failure to meet psychosocial project KPIs, a need for methods linked to the KPIs was identified. However, the study found relatively low levels of adoption of such methods. Where psychosocial project KPIs were being met the following facilitating factors emerged: top-level policies, organization-wide training, integration with existing management processes, building into project management system. Situations were found where decision-makers did not consider the psychosocial KPIs of programme and project managers. This was seen to contribute to a failure by organizations to manage necessary increases in their project management capability and to be acting as a possible barrier to long-term, sustainable improvements in performance.

Citation:

Bryde, D. (2005). Methods for Managing Different Perspectives of Project Success. British Journal of Management, 16(2), 119-131. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00438.x.

Abstract:

This paper provides avenues for a broader engagement with the conceptual considerations of projects and project management with the aim of creating new possibilities for thinking about, researching, and developing our understanding of the field as practiced. Attention is drawn to the legacy of conventional but deeply rooted mainstream approaches to studying projects and project management, and implications of the specific underpinning intellectual tradition for recommendations proposed to organisational members as best practice project management. The identified concerns and limitations are discussed in the context of project management evolution where taken-for-granted advantages of project management as a disciplined effective methodology and its popularity are reexamined. The paper sheds light on a variety of voices from both scholarly and practitioner communities that have attempted to respond to this paradox and move the field forward. Taking issue with conventional Labels of project success or failure, and drawing attention to alternative theoretical and methodological propositions, the argument turns toward critical management studies, outlining the implications of this intellectual tradition for studies of projects, project management, project performance, and individual skills and competencies to cope with social arrangements labelled 'projects.'

Citation:

Cicmil, S., & Hodgson, D. (2006). NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT THEORY: A CRITICAL ENGAGEMENT. Project Management Journal, 37(3), 111-122. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Abstract:

Purpose ? To examine project management assets and to explore the link between these and the achievement of competitive advantage from the project management process through it being valuable, rare, inimitable, and having organizational support. Design/methodology/approach ? An online survey with North American Project Management Institute members was conducted. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify tangible and intangible elements of project management and the achievement of competitive characteristics of the project management process. Findings ? Six factors were extracted that comprised project management assets and three factors that comprised the competitive characteristics of the project management process. Research limitations/implications ? This was an exploratory study. It is expected to further develop the instrument, refine the model and constructs, and test it with a larger sample. Practical implications ? This study highlights the importance of developing intangible project management assets to achieve competitive advantage from the process. Originality/value ? Few papers have used the resource based view lens and applied it to project management. This paper contributes to the literature on the resource based view of the firm and to an improved understanding of project management as a source of competitive advantage.

Citation:

am, J., & Gita, M. (2006). Project management elements as strategic assets: preliminary findings. Management Research News, 29(10), 604-617. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Abstract:

Abstract: This paper focuses on the theory and application of diagnostic concepts to assess the health of large projects or programs at any point in their life relative to the desired targets. The author presents a comprehensive project health check methodology. Project diagnostics is not to be confused with project progress measurement and control or project management maturity models as the objective is to see if the project team applies a systemic approach to the planning and management of the project. Its purpose is not to assess the project progress achieved at a given time and compare that to plans. Nor does it aim to assess the maturity of the application of a particular project management methodology/standard. The health of a project/program at a given time is found by evaluating the actual practices applied to manage a raft of variables which collectively characterise the management practice on that project. The technique - referred to as project health check or 'PH-Check' - has been computerised for ease of application. It provides a graphical picture of the heath of a project at the time of assessment. The results of the project health check can then be correlated with the results obtained from traditional project progress measurement tools. This correlation will yield greater understanding of the management of the enabling factors and their influence on project behaviour and results. This paper presents the PH-Check methodology and its underpinning concepts.

Citation:

Jaafari, A. (2007). Project and program diagnostics: A systemic approach. International Journal of Project Management, 25(8), 781-790. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.05.008.

Abstract:

The concept of project management methodology can be leveraged to add value to an institution `s strategic initiatives. This article provides an overview of project management methodology, when it should be used, and how it can add value to human resources management. The authors also explore project management's role in HR strategy, provide pointers on how to get started with project management in your organization, and recount how Dartmouth College utilized this methodology in its 2004 open enrollment process.

Citation:

Josler, C., & Burger, J. (2005). Project Management Methodology in Human Resource Management. CUPA-HR Journal, 56(2), 25-30. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Abstract:

The article focuses on the project management, which involves the implementation as solutions to the problems to the project development project failures, either information technology (IT) or non-IT. These approaches include project risk management, project audit and reviews, and project advisory services. Several examples of questions are presented which can be applied when doing an assessment for risk management. It is asserted that project teams should be knowledgeable in the methodologies to be used before an assessment is conducted. Conducting of software testing review involves the establishment of consistent patterns and trends. Results of the review are considered to trigger developments in all phases of project management. A graph depicting an outcome from a software testing review and a deliverable example of project process assessment are shown.

Citation:

Yetman, L. (2006). Project Management: Careful Planning or Crystal Ball?. Journal of the Quality Assurance Institute, 20(3), 40-42. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Abstract:

Uncertainty is an important but difficult to quantify challenge for project managers. Despite this, some project characteristics associated with uncertainty are quantifiable and can provide project managers with clues to the amount of uncertainty in a project. This article shows how the following project characteristics can be quantified: (1) interdependencies among activities, (2) limited information about activity durations, and (3) unfamiliarity and variety in project work. Data from two example projects are used to demonstrate the calculation and interpretation of the resulting three uncertainty descriptors.

Citation:

McLain, D. (2009). Quantifying project characteristics related to uncertainty. Project Management Journal, 40(4), 60-73. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Abstract:

The article outlines the project management process employed by Touche Ross & Co. The methodology for project management divides the sequence structure into planning phase and doing phase. What has been operative thus far in this methodology of systems management is a kind of commitment by the user and his management. It invites increasing user involvement, increasing advocacy of the project to which he feels more and more committed. Even after the system is launched, problems are bound to arise. While the new system is launched, it is never finished. As it operates, it evolves. It feeds back into itself improvements, and improvements upon improvements, to make it ever more efficient and dynamic and useful to the user.

Citation:

Ditri, A., & Wood, D. (1970). The Project Management Process. Journal of Accountancy, 129(4), 84-86. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

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