Strategies and marketing orientation

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

There are many companies which lead in the oil production, import / export of products and services in UAE. In this large view one forgets about the small sector companies or organizations which also play a crucial role in maintaining the internal stability of the system, mainly the organization managed by local women. According to a research conducted before there are healthy amount of the UAE women involved in these types of small scale sectors which are generally home based. Women based small scale organization help other women also who tries to enter into this arena.

According to the research, the women entrepreneurs who currently owe their own enterprise are well educated and relatively young. Many of them had received business and management skills training from leading institutes across nation. Prime sector in which they were involved are:

  • Small scale manufacturing and production
  • Tour travels and services.

These sectors are the mainly the prime initiators 'coz they have less initial investment and were tend to have moderate sales in the market. Now government is also trying to promote women entrepreneurs as it helps in booming the economy with more job opportunities. UAE government had launched various schemes for higher education and placements of women. As a result of these, women from across the country apply for jobs in different professions. Many of the TV reporters, radio jockeys and online managers are the result of these initiatives taken by the government. In other words we can say that UAE women are now moving forward in all directions.

Some of the examples of working women in UAE:

  1. Amna Mazam who is designated as a student counselor for women. She teaches working women about the negotiating skills which comes handy in getting a job placement. She agrees that still there are difficulties in UAE regarding women working in an organization but also says that people and their mentality are changing now and hopes to improve further.
  2. Fahad Qahtani, she is an IT student. She said that time is changing in UAE and there is hope available for future aspiring women. (UAE lady achievement)

Support from government has increased over the time for women. One responsible factor could be globalization. Many multinational companies have set up their stations in UAE. These MNC's have open culture which leads to improvement of the local mind. Bank's now have a much liberal structure towards working women. So as a whole, women in UAE now can apply for any job placement as she sees fit.

Statement of the Problem

The urban women in United Arab Emirates have begun working in various corporate sectors especially in small business, hence their arises a strong need to study the strategies and marketing orientation of small business run by urban women in Arab countries.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of the study

The problem stated above focuses on urban women in UAE who run small business. There are two sets of practices in which women are involved - one is the traditional practice which involves simple manufacturing mainly done by modestly educated women while other is the modern practices in which women are qualified and possess knowledge of the new technologies and are aware of the environment they live in.

These two sets of business in which the women are involved require a strategic plan to incorporate their vision and to market their product. Marketing orientation or in other words laying focus on customer is a term needs to be considered for a business to prosper in any scenario. The identification of your prospective customers and planning to provide them with your services is market orientation and strategy. (Market Orientation)

Objectives

To study the attitude of the consumer towards the companies driven by the urban women in UAE. To study the various strategic plans employed by women to attract prospective customers to help dwell the traditional and modern business in UAE.

Scope of the Project

To try and make the urban women in UAE understand the various strategic and marketing oriented approaches required for a business to run prosperously and profitably. To make them understand the various reforms government has laid out which could help them. And help them learn about the impact their decisions have on the consumers.

Focus of the Study

The study primarily focuses on the strategic decisions made by the urban women in UAE to run their small business. The study focuses on

  • Attitude of customers towards the business run by urban women
  • The understanding of women in UAE to run a business and what policies do they adopt in doing so.
  • The attempts made by the government to facilitate women and how much are the women in UAE are aware of it.

Significance of the Study

The women in UAE have been working mainly at home and hence their development is a grave concern for the government of UAE. Since the beginning of modern era women have started coming to the main frame and by some of the government policies have gained decent education to start their own business. Since this practice is new thus it needs considerable monitoring. The need of the hour is to make these women understand the various strategies and marketing policies employed to attract customers into their business. Thus this study is very important as it endeavors to make the women driven business in UAE more profitable and prosperous. (Funding and Support for females).

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

What Is Literature Review?

A literature review is a survey or sum-up of the past researches done on the topic. It is of serious importance to a person who wants to do further research on the topic. It is basically the revaluation and recollection of the topic from various sources such as references, newspapers, thesis etc from the past. Its sole purpose is to develop an understanding of the subject, to not miss any aspect of the study which could have an impact on the research undertaken. It helps the person undertaking the study to evaluate his area of work and recognize the various associations and segments which could affect the study. The review highlights the current status of the work in the area which helps in acknowledging the right start of the study. The sole purpose of the literature review is to identify the changing behavior in the condition of the topic of the study.

The resources which are mainly used to get the available resources are books, reference material, internet, conference papers, theses, electronic papers etc. It also makes the user aware of the weaknesses and strengths about the topic to be covered. Also, provides with the various alternative ideologies and perspectives of different people about the same aspects. Such a diverse approach broadens the outlook of the study and fulfils each and every requirement of the study. (How to do a Literature review?)

Consumer Attitude

The attitude of the consumer towards the product produced by the companies opened by the urban women in the UAE is very important for their sustenance. Critical marketing strategy or in other words Social Media Marketing is a great way of attracting prospective customers to buy the product of a company. The fundamental of the strategy is to use multimedia and internet to club the online people with the product required to be sold. Since, the women in UAE do not avail the facility of current developments in technology they are falling behind other companies, thus it is the prime requirement of these women to bring a change in their strategy to attract large number of people.

The behavior of the customer towards the product being sold by a company reveals whether the product is appreciated by people or not because if it is not then a series of steps need to be taken to ensure desired changes in the product to make it of some use to the people, or if the product is liked then to ensure that its likeability is maintained, new measures are to be thought of and implemented. The social media marketing strategy mentioned earlier is very important as it pushes the product in the market and ensures that everyone in the society is aware of the product which provides with a strong market hold, bigger community and motivation to the buyers.

Managerial Implications of Attitude Formation And Change

The study of consumer attitude and behavior has various managerial deductions (Women Driving Dubai's Economy)

Positioning and Differentiation

It is very important for the women in UAE to distinguish their product in the market in order to attract prospective customers. The consumer attitude and behaviour about a product changes very quickly if the product no longer gives them the desired results thus it is of impeccable concern to the women doing small business their product represents the needs of the consumers. Thus, if it is distinct from other products, it will be able to place itself in the market ahead of all other products. For example, since the women in Arab countries do small business, they provide better services to their customers at reduced costs, thus it attracts local people towards their product increasing their hold on the market. Positioning refers to the way in which the consumers perceive the company in the market.

Environmental Scanning

It refers to the process of accumulating, interpreting resources in order to formulate strategies which are in support of the environmental factors. It not only focuses on the consumer behavior but also on the development of a new product. Taking into consideration the literal meaning of environment it is very important for women in Arab countries to stick to the traditional customs followed by the society because crossing the line would lead to deficiency of the customers who do not identify the significance of the action and may discourage it. It also lays concern on the ecological balance of the place as the productivity may be hampered if it is not considered.

Research

Market research is of vital importance to the producer of any organisation. It highlights the various aspects of society - their demands, needs and beliefs. Thus, identifying whether the product facilitates the present requirements of the society, whether it has a market to sell are the some of the various reasons need to be taken care of before furnishing the product. It helps in identifying the problem and provides an alternative solution to the problem associated. For example in case of business of urban women mainly lay priority to tour travel and services, and small scale manufacturing because it feels the need to fill the gap in technology and service sector incurred in the years passed.

Marketing Mix

The prime elements of the above are product; price, place and promotion (could be by advertising, increase in sale etc.). Such a model helps in making the producer understand the needs of the customers or consumer. The product should be clear reflection of the demand of the customers. The price should be affordable and the place should provide with a good market to sell the product produced. The promotion of the product is an important factor. Since many products lack at promotion they fail to succeed only because they are not known by the society. Thus every product being launched should come in the lime light of the society; otherwise it might lose its ground. Thus the women in Arab countries should look forward in exploring ways to put the 4p's right in order to drive the market effectively by their product.

Segmentation

It refers to the division of the market into submarkets which are homogenous in their needs. A large market may have a number of needs thus it is advisable to divide the market into a number of markets with similar needs and provide similar products to the markets with similar needs and different to the ones with different needs. One of the benefits of segmentation is that it facilitates in retaining the prospective customers or majority customers. It also provides flexibility in changing the prices of the commodity in different markets.

Governmental Policies and advantages

The UAE government with its policy of emiratisation has helped a lot of women to come up and move with men. However, bleak aspects of the traditional culture will take time to fade, a number of women have joined the major force with men and are aware of the technological reforms and changes in the day to day life. The major concern lies with the fact that women contribute less to business and whatever they add to business of the country mainly comes from women oriented jobs. The government is helping and promoting the women by rewarding the deserving by Emirates Business Women Award. The formation of groups like ABU Dhabi Business Women group has helped women as they provide training to the rising female entrepreneurs. (Social Development)

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Any research starts with a crude idea which is further refined to develop in a theory and then into in proven fact. To find the various methods and data collection techniques related to our research, a series of steps were taken. Above all, one has to be clear about the reason behind the research. One must have a goal and that must be definitive and lucid not random. Second is to collect more and more of productive and useful data. Data sometimes can be misleading, so the authenticity of data is a major issue to be kept in mind. Thirdly after the results have been found out and research done, one must know about their limitations and shortcomings. Knowing them gives us the motivation and the objective to work further on our research. This is the basic steps we took in our research methodology and collection of data.

Motivation behind the research

First and foremost step in any research is to identify the basic goal of the project, in this case the proper definition and identification of the problem set given. The simple meaning of a problem need not be taken as some error or fault with the system itself which needs rectification, but it may also mean finding the better method to a certain approach. In a way it could lead to the betterment of the situation.

Total Consumer satisfaction is the primary goal of any business. SRPC needs to focus on this issue too by using its integrated multi channel digital platform to its best and reach its consumer base through proper adapted communications, so that it could adhere to consumer needs.

For this, proper and thorough research is needed which determines the consumers' attitude towards it. The psychology of the consumer needs to be analyzed and understood totally. The phase through which Digital Marketing studies are going is still very raw and young. It is a certain area which has not been touched extensively.

We are today living in the age of digital technology. Everything we see around us touches the virtual world in some way or the other. This is what is the most intriguing and exciting thing about the digital era, we are living in. Thus we have seen a huge shift in the marketing policies of various companies which have moved from the age old methods of advertising to the new age , digital ones employing flashy gadgets, flying banners, unrealistic yet breathtaking endeavors.

The whole new Digital Experience has taken the advertisement industry to new heights. As it is very clear any company which takes these tasks hands on would prove to be a huge success. Marketing companies are supposed to profit tremendously from this new boom by employing a policy which could lead to set up of such new enterprises. Enterprises which are wholly focused on accumulating, accessing, and then allocating the available digital content which can be further used by various advertisement campaigns or by a particular organization. Such ventures can prove to be the next Google or Microsoft as the coming age is the digital one only.

The Digital Marketing is a very good method by which one individual or an organization can focus on its main areas of interest and can collaborate with similar interest groups. This could lead to growth of the business as well as new ventures which could lead to a booming and plush economy. Also it would lead to a defined and result-oriented approach to administer the broad range of marketing and advertising activities which are very much needed in order to have an effective digital world surrounding us.

Sampling

One of the most important steps in data analysis is the way sampling is done. This involves choosing the right sampling technique for the procedure. The sample must be such that it covers all aspects of the population on which the research is being conducted. The sample was chosen in such a way that the acquired sample is fair to people belonging to all nationalities encountered. The population of each race in the sample must be proportional to the populations of that race in general masses.

In order to attain a clear interpretation of SRPC's study population, the procedure of stratified random sampling was used. If stratified random sampling is considered as the selection criteria, the factors admissible for stratifying the population are often encountered. A variable that can boast a large variance is used as the stratifying variable. The advantage of doing this was that this lead to the representation of all categories. The entire study population was appropriately represented in this manner.

First a list of UAE consumers was generated and then the Stratified Random Sampling Procedure was used. Now the population was divided on the basis of nationality and employment category. After this a sample of required sample size was generated. The procedure was that every nth element of the population was selected. The starting point was a randomly chosen number ranging from one to n. Before doing this population was set in a specific manner in order to reduce the variance factor.

Suppose the sample interval was chosen to be five, so the first sample obviously consists of a number arbitrarily chosen from a range of one to five. Suppose four is selected, then the sample list would be:

4, 9, 14, 19, 24............................

Information gathering

The data for this research was collected using the following resources:-

  1. The primary data was assimilated by personal interviews of the consumers. An interview schedule was designed and the process of interviewing was greatly assisted by it.
  2. The source of secondary data was smart choice of reading material that was analyzed. For this purpose a large quantity of books and publications were studied. Extensive research was done on the internet too. The conference proceedings related to the research topic were also analyzed. Even a large volume of newspapers ranging over a considerable timeline was analyzed.
  3. The management staff from a wide variety of departments was also consulted. This acted as a very valuable source of data as a lot of information was revealed by this exercise.

Limitations

Even though a lot of planning and effort went into carrying out this study, there were certain drawbacks and limitations that were reported. Some of the important considerable limitations were as follows:-

  1. A small percentage (only five) of the respondent population formed a part of the sample population. This means that that data offered by the study is subject to certain amount of error. This instability must be reduced to as small an amount as possible. Otherwise the study cannot be termed reliable.
  2. The study comprised of a large quantity of variables. The detailed comprehensive analysis of each type of variable should be achieved in an ideal case. Here the case is different as the number of variables is large. So it is almost impossible to conduct a detailed study of each variable due to time and resource constraints. So here the condition of analyzing each variable comprehensively could not be met.
  3. Another constraint that was encountered was that there was a difficulty in recollection of previous problems as a long time had passed since these problems were last encountered.

CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The interpretation of the data is an important aspect of a research study. The data collection is of no value if it is not used or analysed for future endeavours. The aim of the research is to study the strategic and marketing orientation of the small business run by urban women in UAE. It further aimed at exploring the consumer attitude towards the firm in business. The study is significant as it underlines the beginning of a modern era in which women have a major part to play.

The data has been gathered mainly from reading materials such as books and publications. A questionnaire has also been taken to facilitate the views of women in UAE. According to the survey taken up by the National Human Resource Development Authority, the percentage of women in the public and private sector is quite less, close to 11% and 8% respectively. According to the findings, the population has nearly doubled to 4,104,695 from last time in 1995 but the percentage of nationals i.e., the people contributing to the economy of the nation is low to 20% which shows the number of expatriates is high which accounts to 99% in the private sector. The statistics by the Centre for Labour Market Research and Information in Tanmia has revealed that women are part of the 50% citizens' unemployed; however the literacy level for women and graduation is quite high. It is thus a serious concern as to why the women are unable to find jobs, the reason being the still prevailing restrictions on the women community. The government has taken up the responsibility to incorporate women in the working class by nationalizing female friendly work areas. (UAE : More women in college)

Education and Employment

The stats show a good picture in terms of graduates. The female participation is exemplary and has been increasing. This shows the growing awareness among the female population in UAE. This also reflects on the success of the government program incorporated to uplift the women education.

Let us now see the employed nationals on the basis of their education. The table below gives precise information on the women employment in comparison to the men.

(Nelson, 2004)

The above stats reveal the dearth of jobs for women in the country. The above two tables briefly examine that in spite of the higher enrolment the employment prevails for women in UAE.

The main reason for the small business driven by women in UAE is because of the restrictions imposed on them which are as follows:

  • Size - the companies indulged in work specifications such as jewellery, nursery etc are not allowed to have many employees working for them i.e., they are limited to a certain number adding to their small sizes.
  • Regulations - the restrictions imposed to control market serve women population negatively such as constraints binding to advertisements etc.
  • Socio cultural obligations - the restrictions faced by the women forces them to operate mainly from their homes, limiting contacts to strangers and hence limited number of social contacts. This greatly affects their growth and is limited by boundaries.

Thus about 50% of the women are involved in trade sector such as trade of jewellery, clothing and many more small businesses. They are preferred as they require lesser exposure from outside world. Apart from trading most women are engaged in manufacturing. These manufacturing industries comprises of small cottage industries, adding to the independence of negotiation from sellers.

Conventional Marketing Strategy

In a survey conducted consisting of a sample size of 47, all women, the marketing strategy to attract prospective customers was adjudged.

This shows that the women in UAE are not gaining exposure from the outside world. They are restricted within the home boundaries selling their products to their relatives and friends and friend's friend. It is important for women to explore newer dimensions by crossing the boundaries to grow the business and add widely to the economy of the country. (Haan, 2004)

Questionnaire

The questions are rated on the scale from 1 to 5 i.e. from (strongly disagree to strongly agree). At the end of the questionnaire the bar graph represents the graphical representation in which the question number is on y axis and the answer to the question as calculated from stratified sampling is on x axis.

  1. The marketing strategies followed by Women in UAE are traditional and lack modern technological reforms?
  2. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  3. Are the government policies supporting the growth of Women as entrepreneur?
  4. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  5. Small businesses run by women are restricted to local markets and have limited or no global contacts?
  6. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  7. The higher enrolment of women in universities does not reflect on their economic participation?
  8. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  9. Women population plays a dominant role in the domestic economy of the nation?
  10. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  11. It would be beneficial if women are made part of the decision making process?
  12. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  13. There is no need to open special institutions to train women in UAE to start and run business?
  14. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

  15. The most common economic activity for women in UAE is trading?
  16. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Here the result of each question interviewed is an average answer of the sample size of 50 people surveyed. None of the answers holds a total majority in terms of their answer and neither minority.

Women Market Share

There is a surge in the share of women in the job market at domestic front. The percent of job occupancy rose from a minor 5% in 1980's to 14% in 2009. This increase clearly reveals that the women population has begun to join the labour market. There are a majority of reasons contributing to the fact - stable governing reforms and policies, more freedom on the social spectrum. The government policies such as loan schemes, training courses, availability of modern equipments, reservation in public sector jobs and business networking are the prime features to the special edition of success of women in UAE. However, the number is still small but it has been progressive over the past years and is picking momentum.

Thus, it is easy to interpret that the Emirati women are more traditional mainly because of the social and cultural restrictions employed upon them. The relaxations regarding global contacts are required to run a sound business. The government policies have had a minimal impact on the condition of women in the nation. Still, about 99% of the business is run by expatriates in private sector. The indulgence of women in the private sector is growing with the government support. The recent surge in the women employment is considered as the sole responsible factor for the increasing unemployment among the male population in the nation. There are a wide variety of job opportunities available to women but somehow the small business entrepreneurship is best suited for them presently. This is because of lesser global contacts and traditional obligations. It is also quite certain from the statistics that the domestic front is still not up with ample women contribution. The numbers of success are small and growth is mandatory. (UAE women strengthen role)

References

CHAPTER 5

OBSERVATION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Introduction

In this chapter, we arrive at the conclusion which is based on the observation and information which is collected from the different sources and the surveys. The observation is made on the strategies and the marketing orientation of the small sector business which is run by the urban women of the Unites Arab Emirates. This chapter also deals with the suggestion for the improvement and recommendation for the future research. It also deals with the problem faced by the urban women while running the small sector organization.

Observation

Most of the companies in UAE basically deal with the production and import/export of oil, due to which we forget the role performed by the small sector organization basically managed by the local women. Sector in which the women are basically interested are - Small scale manufacturing and production and Tours travel and services.

The government is also helping the women in establishing the small sector organization which help them in living the good life. As the urban women start working in the small sector organization, this increases the demand of education among the women.

Basic marketing strategy while running the organization is to attract the customer. This can be done by giving the advertisements in newspaper, electronic media such TV, radio, internet, etc which helps the urban women to deals with the costumer easily and customer can able to known about the new products.

The costumer attitude towards the product changes very quickly if the product is not able to give desire result. Due to which the women of the UAE sell those product which give best result and at reduce rate which help in attracting the people.

Basically a business start with a crude idea which is further refined and then it leads to the proper functioning of the organization. A research is done for converting the crude idea into the process which can be done by collecting the information the about the product and display them across the costumer in the best manner so that it will attract them. The primary goal for running any organization successfully is the total customer satisfaction.

The important aspect of the research study is the interpretation of the data. The data which is collected from different sources have no value until they are not arranged in the proper manner. The aim of the research study is to exploring the consumer attitude towards the organization. The research study plays an important role as it underlines the beginning of the modern era.

Conclusion

In UAE the many companies deals with the oil production but small sector business which is basically run by the urban women also plays an important role in the internal development of the countries. As they are running an organization which needs a proper strategies and management helps in promoting the education among the women. Practices in which the women are engaged are traditional practice which is done by modestly educated women and modern practices. The aim of the research study is try to make understand the women the marketing strategies and how to attract the people.

For the sustenance of the organization the attitude of the customer towards the product is very important. The basic of the strategy is to attract the customers through multimedia and internet. By giving the advertisement on the internet in the best way it will attract the customers and distinguish your product by other. The government policies help women a lot to come up and move forward with men.

For starting any organization, a research is conducted which result in the crude idea. The data which is collected through research should be properly arranged so that we get best output. Customer satisfaction is the basic goal of any business. One can focus on their areas of interest through digital marketing. It also deals with the problem related to the business run by the urban women.

Suggestion

As the women start working in the small organizations but they do not have much knowledge about the strategies and the marketing orientation of the business. The solution for this problem is that the government will try to promote entrepreneur knowledge among the urban women. Another major problem the urban women faced is the strategic decision made women while running the small organization. The suggestion for this problem is that the women should try to understand how to run a business by adopting good policies. The government should also facilitate the urban women by spreading the awareness about the various policies among them. Basically the business run by the women is done at the home. Due to which they cannot be able interact with the customers properly. This problem can be solved by the government policies.

The basic marketing strategy for a business is the proper advertisement of the product so that it can able to attract the customer. But the urban women of UAE are not facilities with new technology due to which they cannot be able to attract more customers. The solution for this problem is that the government should take the initiative to educate the women about the new technologies.

REFERENCES

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  9. Haan, H. C. (2004). Small enterprises: Women entrepreneurs in the UAE. Labour Market Study. Retrieved on May 3, 2010, from http://web.dcci.ae/LibNewsLetter/EN/EN_August08/SmallEnterpriseReport.pdf (Haan, 2004)
  10. Nelson, C. (2004). UAE National Women at Work in the Private Sector, Conditions and Constraints. Retrieved on May 3, 2010, from http://www.zu.ac.ae/infoasis/modules/mod8/business/documents/uaenationalwomenatworkintheprivatesector.pdf (Nelson, 2004)
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