The Internet is a world wide system of computer networks, from which a network from one computer to another can get information if they have permission to do so. It's been used world wide and became a basic necessity to every house hold from young generations to old. Everyone is dependent on this; today the Internet is a public Corporative and self sustaining facility just by one click we can have access to whole world of any information we need on anything that may concern us.
Well coming to the history of Internet, it's the modern research which changed the life style of the people all over the world in aspects of field right from leering to entertainment everything has made a big prospect because of this. It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANET. The original aim was to create network that would allow users of research of one university to share the research of another university. Today internet is a self sustaining facility which is accessible to all the public and used in everyday situations and places such as shops, offices, universities, and all other purposes. Technically the Internet is a use of protocols called Tcp/ip.
TCP stands for Transmission control protocol ,
IP stands for Internet protocol
This are the basic communication layers of the direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP. By the early 1980s, when the internet officially started operation, it was already beginning to face problems created by its own success. First, there were more computer 'hosts' linked to the net than there had originally been envisaged (in 1984 the number of hosts topped 1000 for the first time) and second, the volume of traffic per host was much larger (mainly because of the phenomenal success of e-mail). Increasingly predictions were voiced that the entire system would eventually grind to a halt. In 1989 the no of hosts connected were increased to 100,000 and then it was increased to 300,000
In 1990 internet took a further step as the first internet network for finding the internet files was developed in Mc Gill University. And in 1991 World Wide Web was introduced to the public, and on another note, Richard T. Griffiths (famous for his phrase 'a user friendly interface is a secretary') got kicked into Word Perfect and was launched into cyber-space.
The World Wide Web is a network of sites that can be searched by a special protocol Hyper text transfer Protocol (Http)which is used presently .which can search automatically the internet addresses all over the internet and automatically called up the document for viewing.
This figure is copied from the site http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/ivh/chap2.htm just for the information as how the web pages used to look in 1994 when first it was introduced.In the past there used to be only text but it slowly started to put images and now we can add many links to it.In present we have many site like ebay ,ebooks and google from this we can just sit at home and do any thing we want . to replace the current IPv4 technology. IPv4 allows for fewer than 4.3 billion directly connected Internet devices, problematic because the world population (as of 2009) is well over 6.5 billion (theoretically, if ever human had a computer and mobile phone, we'd need 13 billion addresses, which is something IPv6 can easily accomplish).
Social Impact Of Environment:
In regards to the social world the internet plays a large role, and impacts on many different people in many different ways. It has blended into every day life as it is commonly used in places of work, schools, universities and hospitals; all of which use it for a large variety of different reasons and topics. It brings to us knowledge of other people who share the same interests and the provisions of group venues where others sharing the same values and interests can be met. The internet is expected to influence a person in the means of communication, how they work, and how they spend their leisure time. Broadband communication facilities are the very fast exchange of copious amounts of data, these being: instant messaging, feedback, attached text, picture, voice etc. There is a socio-economic gap between those who do use the internet and those of us who do not, though this gap is currently shrinking in the western world. This may mean that there will be an increase is such things as small world phenomenon, with a potential connection to the entire web; either directly or through short chains of not so direct ties.
Impact of Internet On Environment:
Environmentally the internet can prevent pollution to the air by carbon dioxide. Reading the news wirelessly, instead of reading it on paper requires up to 140 times less carbon dioxide, several magnitudes of green house gases and the consumption of 26 - 27 times less water. The environmental effects of reading the news paper from the production of a news paper to it being delivered was compared to the factors of the energy being used to manufacture a PDA, the electricity required by a wireless internet service providers to deliver the news content to that device. The results identified that if only a quarter of newspaper readers around the country changed over to reading the news on their PDA, they'd generate only 2 to 3 % of the carbon dioxide that would have been produced from the 14 million print newspapers they don't really need. On a more negative note, the internet is used on computers, computers draw a huge energy source and throw off huge amounts of heat; this causes the world to have to build power plants and install power hungry air conditioning systems. Google and yahoo's second largest operating expense is electricity. If three million people were to join the internet a week and each of them gets a dell PC that consumes 200watts, that's 10 - 20 GIGAwatts of new power draw and a massive impact on the planet. Maybe not as massive as it would be if three million new people were buying and reading the news paper every week though, and this should be kept in mind also.
Impact Of Internet Ecnomically
Economically, it all comes down to which way is the cheapest way of running such things like the internet. Advertising and up selling of a product or brand name is widely displayed by companies using internet. A recent TNS study reported the leading activities of Internet users as: used a search engine to find information (81 percent); looked up the news (76 percent); used online banking (74 percent); looked up the weather (65 percent); researched a product or service before buying it (63 percent); visited a brand or product Website (61 percent); paid bills (56 percent); watched a video clip (51 percent); used a price comparison site (50 percent); listened to an audio clip (44 percent ). All of these took place as advertising, traditional advertising, banking, purchasing and information search. The idea of access to information and entertainment in a big deal to consumers, and they also increase productivity in a larger economy.
employment value. The Internet employs 1.2 million people directly to do advertising and commerce, build and maintain the infrastructure, and facilitate its use. Every Internet job supports about 1.54 other jobs elsewhere in the economy, for a total of 3.05 million, or around 2 %, of employed Americans. The dollar value of their wages is around $300 billion of U.S. GDP.
Payments value. The economic value the Internet provides to the rest of the U.S. economy is estimated at $175 billion. It is made up of $20 billion of advertising services, $85 billion of retail transactions (net of cost of goods), and $70 billion of payments to Internet service providers. In addition, the Internet indirectly generates economic activity that takes place elsewhere in the economy. Using the same multiplier as for employment, 1.54, then the advertising-supported Internet creates an annual value of $444 billion.
Time value. At work and at leisure, around 190 million people in the U.S. averagely spend, 68 hours a month on the Internet. A conservative valuation of this time is an estimated $680 billion.
Role of Internet technology in work place and its use :
Now a days Internet has become a major bone to run many of the business in the world. So many companies rely on the Internet to perform their regular day to day business with clients/customers.
The Internet and Web browsers have become an essential tool for business. For example, on a daily basis I use Outlook Web Access to remotely access my e-mail and calendar. When I am at home, I use a browser-based Web console to remotely manage anti-spyware and anti-virus protection on my networked PCs. Then, I may fire up Groove Virtual Office or access a SharePoint server for some remote collaboration. For live, interactive meetings I may use hosted Web conferencing such as Live Meeting. As an IT Pro, I can use Windows XP's Remote Desktop or NetMeeting to access other PCs in the office without having to run from floor to floor.
It was only natural that as the Internet became more widespread, and businesses became more dependent upon it, that a need would arise for road warriors to find new ways to stay in touch. So started the era of the PDA then the Smart Phone. Internet Cafs began to appear as well as wireless hotspots.
Even our software products are designed to be used on internet i.e., web applications. These applications are deployed on the web/app servers and usually are maintained in another place. Hence the use of the virtual Private network comes into the picture.
Internet technolgy also helps us in getting Information on any subject using multiple search engines available. This primarily helps for the developers to get tips and tricks and logics for any tricky problems they have.
Along with this, We also maintain some web application which run on live web. for example: a live web site where huge amount of data gets inserted from many places into the web server and we need to make sure the data is correctly stored into the respective DB tables. Which inturn helps the user (user of the website) to retrive his information. The most important use of internet here will be in fixing the live errors that our customers report. For this we need to verify this on live when the server is up.
During testing of the application, we usually check the site on a good load of traffic and its behaviour on-live. This requires live testing with live data entry and transfer.
Also use of tools to test the load and stress of the web site and guaging the performance of the site is another important task for us to accomplish.
There are three main strategies for handling the load:
- The site can invest in a single huge machine with lots of processing power, memory, disk space and redundancy.
- The site can distribute the load across a number of machines.
- The site can use some combination of the first two options.
When you visit a site that has a different URL every time you visit (for example www1.xyz.com, www2.xyz.com, www3.xyz.com, etc.), then you know that the site is using the second approach at the front end. Typically the site will have an array of stand-alone machines that are each running Web server software. They all have access to an identical copy of the pages for the site. The incoming requests for pages are spread across all of the machines in one of two ways:
- The Domain Name Server (DNS) for the site can distribute the load. DNS is an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Each time a request is made for the Web server, DNS rotates through the available IP addresses in a circular way to share the load. The individual servers would have common access to the same set of Web pages for the site.
- Load balancing switches can distribute the load. All requests for the Web site arrive at a machine that then passes the request to one of the available servers. The switch can find out from the servers which one is least loaded, so all of them are doing an equal amount of work. This is the approach that HowStuffWorks uses with its servers. The load balancer spreads the load among three different Web servers. One of the three can fail with no effect on the site.
The advantage of this redundant approach is that the failure of any one machine does not cause a problem -- the other machines pick up the load. It is also easy to add capacity in an incremental way. The disadvantage is that these machines will still have to talk to some sort of centralized database if there is any transaction processing going on.
Microsoft's TerraServer takes the "single large machine" approach. Terraserver stores several terabytes of satellite imagery data and handles millions of requests for this information. The site uses huge enterprise-class machines to handle the load. For example, a single Digital AlphaServer 8400 used at TerraServer has eight 440 MHz 64-bit processors and 10 GB of error checked and corrected RAM. See the technology description for some truly impressive specifications!
In our software development process here, we even work on the bug tracking tools which are again maintained on web with individual logins provided to users.
The other important benefit the company gets from the internet is when the products and other utilizing software needs the upgradation to work along with the latest versions of the world as and when released. For this a regular update and download of the versions are required for installations.
Also for a network administrator, there are many chances that he has installed the entire software and the software doesnot work because of a compatibility problem with platform or IE version etc. The use of internet can search and find him the needed files (usually .dlls) to solve these problems.
- Sometimes it is required to get/send huge amount of data from/to clients and it needs a very good internet bandwidth and most importantly the continuity of the service. As this takes lot of time for the transfer and any break or delay will make a big issue.
- VOIP - Another use of internet at my workplace is the Voice over internet protocol. Voice over Internet Protocol is another way for small and medium-sized businesses to increase efficiency and cut costs. A well-planned and implemented VoIP system can provide call quality and reliability that rivals mobile phone or landline calls.
- video conferencing using webex meeting and webex messgenger service. With a good
- sharepoint services to store and manage the data/code/infrmation.
It's important that employees have access to the data and applications they need over a wide area network as if they were on the local area network. Using application acceleration, wide area file services (WAFS), and WAN optimization, businesses can increase productivity and save money by reducing server and storage sprawl and the number of necessary software licenses.
Connections across the Internet are flexible. When you use your computer to contact another machine on the Internet, the data could cross one of millions of pathways. Whenever you download a file, the file comes to your machine in electronic data packets that travel across the Internet. The packets don't all take the same path -- the traffic routes are dynamic. If a particular connection is damaged or unresponsive, the data can follow a different path to reach your machine.
This makes the Internet a reliable communications resource. Even if an entire section of the Internet were to go offline in the wake of a natural disaster or a nuclear attack, other sections could remain functional. While any data stored on machines that were hit by the disaster might be lost, the Internet itself would remain.
Future Of the Technology and How it changes The Future:
In Future everything will be virtual faces I mean no more face to face communications everything will be changed in to video conferencing.It has started now it slef .Every work is done through emails,we already got many tools in different languages to make it possible .Every Universities will be having virtual class rooms to be precise no more lecturers in class rooms everything is done through online.Some people may start working through there mobiles ,we need internet for all these things .IF we go to to the shopping malls there wont be any cupons and other kind of stufff everything will be changed online .No more hard copies of news papers evrything will be send online to your emails everyday.wide range of communication opportunities increases.We even find many changes in the hospitals ,it means once the patient get loged into the hospital they will get each and every record of the patient ,its like where were his past appointments what was his helth issues.Even the pharmacist doesn't need any precriptions we just need to say the code of the patients he will get every details of the medicine prescribed to him.
- http://searchwindevelopment.techtarget.com/ for introduction and history
- http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/ivh/chap2.htm history of internet